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Full text of "The Indian tribes of the upper Mississippi Valley and region of the Great Lakes : as described by Nicolas Perrot, French commandant in the Northwest; Bacquevile de la Potherie, French royal commissioner to Canada; Morrell Marston, American Army officer; and Thomas Forsyth, United States agent at Fort Armstrong ; translated, edited, annotated, and with bibliography and index"

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as  described  by  Nicolas  Perrot,  French  comman- 
dant in  the  Northwest;   Bacqueville  de  la  Poth- 
erie,  French  royal  commissioner  to  Canada; 
Morrell  Marston,  American  army  officer; 
and  Thomas  Forsyth,  United  States 
agent  at  Fort  Armstrong 

Translated,  edited,  annotated,  and  with  bibliography 
and  index  by 

With  portraits,  map,  facsimiles,  and  vitws 








QUEVILLE  DE  LA  POTHERIE    (continued)         .  .  .13 


Letter  of  Major  Marston  to  Reverend  Doctor  Morse        .     139 
An  account  of  the  Manners  and  Customs  of  the  Sauk  and 

Fox  Nations  of  Indians  Tradition;  by  Thomas  Forsyth  .     183 

APPENDIX  A  -  Biographical  sketch  of  Nicolas  Perrot;  condensed 

from  the  notes  of  Father  Tailhan    ....     249 

APPENDIX  B  —  Notes  on  Indian  social  organization,  mental  and 

moral  traits,  religious  beliefs,  etc.  .  .  .  .257 

APPENDIX  C  —  Various  letters,  etc.,  describing  the  character  and 
present  condition  of  the  Sioux,  Potawatomi,  and  Winnebago 
tribes  .......  284 

BIBLIOGRAPHY  ......    301 


Location   of  tribes   .  .  .  .  .  «     355 

Addition  to  annotations       /._>  .  .  .     356 

Additions   to   bibliography   .  .  .  ,  .     357 

INDEX  .  .  .  .  .   •         .  .  .    359 

-i    K 


VIEW  OF  FORT  ARMSTRONG      .  .  .  .    Frontispiece 

WAA-PA-LAA  (Fox)     .  .  .  .  .  .143 

KEOKUCK    (Sauk)       .  .  .  .  .  .     159 

SHAWNEE  PROPHET     ......     275 

PECHECHO   (Potawattomi)       .....     289 

O-CHEK-KA   (Winnebago)        .....     295 


ples  who  are  allies  of  New  France.  By 
Claude  Charles  Le  Roy,  Bacqueville 
de  la  Potherie  [from  his  Histoire 
de  I'Amerique  septentrionale  (Paris, 
I753)>  tome  ii  and  iv]. 

Continued  and  Completed  from  volume  I 

Chapter  XVI 

Some  time  afterward,  three  men  were  seen,  running 
in  great  haste,  and  uttering  the  cries  for  the  dead.  As 
they  approached  the  fort,  they  were  heard  to  say  that  all 
the  Miamis  were  dead;  that  the  Iroquois  had  defeated 
them  at  Chigagon,  to  which  place  they  had  been  sum- 
moned [by]  some  Frenchmen;  and  that  those  who  were 
left  intended  to  take  revenge  on  the  latter.  They  were 
brought  into  the  fort,  and  pipes  were  given  them  to 
smoke ;  and  gradually  they  regained  their  senses.  After 
they  had  eaten  a  good  meal,  and  had  painted  themselves 
with  vermilion,  they  were  questioned  in  regard  to  all 
the  details  of  this  news;  now  see  in  what  manner  the 
youngest  of  them  spoke  in  addressing  Perrot. 

"When  thou  didst  make  a  present  this  autumn  to 
Apichagan,  the  chief  of  the  Miamis,  he  himself  set  out 
the  next  day  to  notify  all  the  Miamis  and  our  people  of 
what  thou  hadst  told  him ;  and  he  made  them  consent  to 
follow  thee,  after  he  had  secured  the  promise  of  all  the 
men.  Two  Frenchmen  had  sent  presents  to  the  Miamis, 
to  tell  them  that  Onontio  wished  them  to  settle  at  Che- 
kagou.  Apichagan  opposed  this,  and  said  that  his  peo- 
ple had  already  been  slain  at  the  river  of  Saint  Joseph, 
when  Monsieur  de  la  Salle  made  them  settle  there. 
The  Frenchmen  have  been  the  cause  of  the  death  of 
those  whom  thou  lovest  as  thy  own  children;  whom 
thou  didst  not  induce  to  come  to  thy  house,  and  whom 
thou  didst  warn  only  not  to  trouble  themselves  carrying 


arms  against  those  among  whom  thou  wast  going;  and 
whom  thou  didst  tell  that  if  they  went  to  Chigagon  they 
would  be  eaten  by  the  Iroquois.  At  that  time  he  pre- 
vented his  people  from  believing  the  Frenchmen,  to 
whom  he  sent  deputies  a  second  time,  to  tell  them  not  to 
look  for  the  Miamis.  The  Frenchmen  again  sent  some 
of  their  men,  who  declared  to  Apichagan  on  the  part  of 
Onontio  that  he  would  be  abandoned  if  he  did  not  obey 
Onontio's  voice,  which  of  course  disquieted  the  chief. 
He  said,  nevertheless,  'Follow  Metaminens ;  if  my  peo- 
ple do  not  put  their  trust  in  him,  they  will  seek  death. 
Follow  him;  it  is  he  who  gives  us  life  and  who  has  pre- 
vented our  families  from  being  involved  in  the  same 
ruin  with  those  who  have  been  at  Chigagon.'  When  the 
Miamis  reached  that  place  the  Frenchmen  told  them  to 
go  hunting  there;  and  our  people  began  to  regret  that 
they  had  not  followed  Metaminens.  They  dispersed  in 
all  directions  to  carry  on  their  hunting,  and  [then]  re- 
turned to  the  fort  which  the  Frenchmen  had  built,  to 
ascertain  what  they  required.  Some  families  who  could 
not  reach  the  fort  as  the  others  did  were  surprised  by  an 
army  of  Iroquois;  and  in  this  encounter  a  chief  of  the 
Miamis  was  captured  who,  in  his  death-song,  asked  his 
enemies  to  spare  his  life,  assuring  them  that  if  they 
would  grant  it,  he  would  deliver  up  his  own  village  to 
them ;  so  they  released  him. 

"Some  hunters,  belonging  to  those  families  who  had 
not  gone  to  Chigagon,  on  their  way  back  to  their  cabins 
saw  from  afar  a  large  encampment;  they  concluded  that 
their  people  had  been  defeated,  and  fled  to  the  fort  to 
carry  the  news  of  this.  The  Miamis  who  were  there  con- 
sulted together  whether  they  should  resist  an  assault  or 
take  to  flight.  A  Sokoki  who  was  among  them  told  them 
not  to  trust  the  French,  who  were  friends  of  the  Iro- 


quois.  The  Miamis  believed  him,  and  fled  in  all  direc- 
tions. The  Iroquois  came  to  that  place,  under  the  guid- 
ance of  that  Miami  chief  who  had  promised  to  betray 
his  village  to  them.  They  found  there  only  four  French- 
men who  came  from  the  Islinois,  whom  they  did  not 
molest,  the  Miamis  having  deserted -and  even  the  com- 
mander of  the  French,  who  had  been  afraid  to  remain 
there.  The  Iroquois  followed  at  the  heels  of  the  people 
of  the  village,  and  captured  in  general  all  the  women 
and  children,  except  one  woman,  and  some  men  who 
abandoned  their  families." 

The  Ayoes  came  to  the  fort  of  the  French  [i.e.,  Per- 
rot's],  on  their  return  from  hunting  beaver,  and,  not 
finding  the  commandant,  who  had  gone  to  the  Nadoiiais- 
sioux,  they  sent  a  chief  to  entreat  him  to  go  to  the  fort. 
Four  Islinois  met  him  on  the  way,  who  (although  they 
were  enemies  of  the  Ayoes)  came  to  ask  him  to  send  back 
four  of  their  children,  whom  some  Frenchmen  held  cap- 
tive. The  Ayoes  had  the  peculiar  trait  that,  far  from 
doing  ill  to  their  enemies,  they  entertained  them,  and, 
weeping  over  them,  entreated  the  Islinois  to  let  them 
enjoy  the  advantages  which  they  could  look  for  from  the 
French,  without  being  molested  by  their  tribesmen ;  and 
these  Islinois  were  sent  back  to  the  Frenchmen,  who 
were  expecting  the  Nadouaissioux.  When  the  latter, 
who  also  were  at  war  with  the  Islinois,  perceived  these 
envoys,  they  tried  to  fling  themselves  on  the  Islinois  ca- 
noes in  order  to  seize  them;  but  the  Frenchmen  who 
were  conducting  them  kept  at  a  distance  from  the  shore 
of  the  river,  so  as  to  avoid  such  a  blunder.  The  other 
Frenchmen  who  were  there  for  trade  hastened  toward 
their  comrades;  the  affair  was,  however,  settled,  and 
four  Nadouaissioux  took  the  Islinois  upon  their  shoul- 
ders and  carried  them  to  the  land,  informing  them  that 

16  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

they  spared  them  out  of  consideration  for  the  French- 
men, to  whom  they  were  indebted  for  life.  The  defeat 
of  the  Miamis  at  Chigagon  was  an  event  to  be  keenly 
felt  by  all  the  peoples  of  those  quarters ;  and  messengers 
were  sent  to  the  bay  to  ascertain  the  particulars  of  it, 
and  to  get  some  news  of  the  colony.  The  Freshmen  re- 
ported that  what  had  been  said  about  it  was  true,  and 
that  a  hundred  savages -Miamis,  Maskoutechs,  Pou- 
teoiiatemis,  and  Outagamis-had  pursued  the  Iroquois, 
hatchet  in  hand,  with  so  much  fury  that  they  had  slain  a 
hundred  of  the  enemy,  recaptured  half  of  their  own 
people,  and  put  to  rout  the  Iroquois,  who  even  would 
have  been  destroyed  if  the  victors  had  continued  to  pur- 
sue them.  The  messengers  said  that  the  Miamis  were 
at  the  bay,  and  that  they  had  very  badly  treated  Father 
Alloiiet,  a  Jesuit,  who  had  prompted  their  going  to  Chi- 
gagon, as  they  imputed  to  him  the  loss  of  their  people. 

Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Denonville,  who  was  at  that 
time  the  governor-general,  desired  to  avenge  these  peo- 
ple, in  order  to  remove  the  opinion  that  they  entertained 
that  we  had  the  design  of  sacrificing  them  to  the  Iro- 
quois. He  sent  orders  to  the  French  commandant  who 
was  among  the  Outaoiiaks  to  call  all  the  tribes  together 
and  get  them  to  join  his  army  which  was  at  Niagara,  to 
the  end  that  all  might  go  against  the  Tsonnontouans. 

The  commandant  of  the  west  was  also  ordered  to  en- 
list the  tribes  who  were  in  his  district,  mainly  the 
Miamis.  That  officer,  having  put  his  affairs  in  order, 
made  known  to  some  Frenchmen  whom  he  left  to  guard 
his  fort  the  conduct  that  they  were  to  observe  during  his 
absence,  and  proceeded  to  the  [Miami]  village  that  was 
down  the  Missisipi,  in  order  to  induce  them  to  take  up 
arms  against  the  Iroquois;  he  traveled  sixty  leagues  on 
the  plains,  without  other  guide  than  the  fires  and  the 


clouds  of  smoke  that  he  saw.  When  he  arrived  among 
the  Miamis  he  offered  to  them  the  club  in  behalf  of 
Onontio,  with  several  presents,  and  said  to  them:  "The 
cries  of  your  dead  have  been  heard  by  your  father  On- 
ontio, who,  desiring  to  take  pity  on  you,  has  resolved  to 
sacrifice  his  young  men  in  order  to  destroy  the  man-eater 
who  has  devoured  you.  He  sends  you  his  club,  and  tells 
you  to  smite  unweariedly  him  who  has  snatched  away 
your  children.  They  pitch  their  tents  outside  of  his  ket- 
tle, crying  to  you,  *  Avenge  us!  avenge  us!'  He  must 
disgorge  and  vomit  by  force  your  flesh  which  is  in  his 
stomach,  which  he  will  not  be  able  to  digest -Onontio 
will  not  allow  him  leisure  for  that.  If  your  children  have 
been  his  dogs  and  slaves,  his  women  must  in  their  turn 
become  ours."  All  the  Miamis  accepted  the  club,1 
and  assured  him  that,  since  their  father  intended  to  as- 
sist them,  they  all  would  die  for  his  interests. 

This  Frenchman,  returning  to  his  fort,  perceived  on 
the  way  so  much  smoke  that  he  believed  it  was  [made 
by]  an  army  of  our  allies  who  were  marching  against 
the  Nadoiiaissioux,  who  might  while  passing  carry  away 
his  men;  and  that  constrained  him  to  travel  by  longer 
stages.  Fortunately  he  met  a  Maskoutech  chief,  who, 
not  having  found  him  at  the  fort,  had  come  to  meet  him, 
in  order  to  inform  him  that  the  Outagamis,  the  Kika- 

1  "Every  tribe  in  America  used  clubs,  but  after  the  adoption  of  more  effec- 
tual weapons,  as  the  bow  and  lance,  clubs  became  in  many  cases  merely  a  part 
of  the  costume,  or  were  relegated  to  ceremonial,  domestic,  and  special  functions. 
There  was  great  variety  in  the  forms  of  this  weapon  or  instrument.  Most 
clubs  were  designed  for  warfare."  The  Siouan  tribes,  and  some  of  the  Plains 
tribes,  used  the  club  with  a  fixed  stone  head ;  the  northern  Sioux,  the  Sauk,  Fox, 
and  some  other  Algonquian  tribes,  a  musket-shaped  club ;  while  a  flat,  curved 
club  with  a  knobbed  head  (French,  casse-tete)  was  used  by  some  Sioux,  and 
by  the  Chippewa,  Menominee,  and  other  timber  Algonquians.  "Clubs  of  this 
type  are  often  set  with  spikes,  lance-heads,  knife-blades,  or  the  like,  and  the 
elk-horn  with  sharpened  prongs  belongs  to  this  class."  —  WALTER  HOUGH,  in 
Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

i8  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

bous,  the  Maskoutechs,  and  all  the  peoples  of  the  bay 
were  to  meet  together  in  order  to  come  and  plunder  his 
warehouses,  in  order  to  obtain  [fire]  arms  and  munitions 
for  destroying  the  Nadoiiaissioux;  and  that  they  had 
resolved  to  break  into  the  fort  and  kill  all  the  French- 
men, if  the  latter  made  the  least  objection  to  this.  This 
news  obliged  him  to  go  thither  immediately.  Three 
spies  had  left  the  place  on  the  very  day  of  his  arrival, 
who  had  used  the  pretext  of  trading  some  beaver-skins; 
they  reported  at  their  camp  that  they  had  seen  only  six 
Frenchmen,  and,  the  commandant  not  being  there,  that 
would  be  enough  to  persuade  them  to  undertake  the 
execution  of  their  scheme.  On  the  next  day,  two  others 
of  them  came,  who  played  the  same  part.  The  French 
had  taken  the  precaution  to  place  guns,  all  loaded,  at 
the  doors  of  the  cabins.  When  the  savages  tried  to  enter 
any  cabin,  our  men  discovered  the  secret  of  making  them 
find  there  men  who  had  changed  their  garments  to  dif- 
ferent ones.  The  savages  asked,  while  speaking  of  one 
thing  or  another,  how  many  Frenchmen  were  in  the 
fort;  and  the  reply  was,  that  they  numbered  forty,  and 
that  we  were  expecting  every  moment  those  of  our  men 
who  were  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  hunting  buffalo. 
All  those  loaded  guns  gave  them  something  to  think 
about,  and  they  were  told  that  all  these  weapons  were 
always  ready  in  case  people  came  to  molest  the  French ; 
and  likewise  that,  as  the  latter  were  on  a  highway,  they 
always  kept  vigilant  watch,  knowing  that  the  savages 
were  very  reckless.  They  were  told  to  bring  to  the  fort 
a  chief  from  each  tribe,  because  the  French  had  some- 
thing to  communicate  to  them;  and  that  if  any  greater 
number  of  them  came  near  the  fort,  the  guns  would  be 
fired  at  them.  Six  chiefs  of  those  tribes  came,  whose 
bows  and  arrows  were  taken  away  from  them  at  the 


gate.  They  were  taken  into  the  cabin  of  the  command- 
ant, who  gave  them  [tobacco]  to  smoke,  and  regaled 
them.  When  they  saw  all  those  loaded  guns,  they  asked 
him  if  he  were  afraid  of  his  children ;  he  answered  them 
that  he  did  not  trouble  himself  much  at  such  things,  and 
that  he  was  a  man  who  could  kill  others.  They  replied 
to  him,  "It  seems  that  thou  art  angry  at  us."  The  com- 
mandant answered:  "I  am  not  angry,  although  I  have 
reason  to  be.  The  Spirit  has  informed  me  of  your  in- 
tention; you  intend  to  plunder  my  goods  and  put  me 
into  the  kettle,  in  order  to  advance  against  the  Nadoii- 
aissioux.  He  has  told  me  to  keep  on  my  guard,  and  that 
he  will  assist  me  if  you  affront  me."  Then  they  stood 
stock-still  and  acknowledged  to  him  that  it  was  true; 
but  they  said  that  he  was  a  very  indulgent  father  to 
them,  and  that  they  were  going  to  break  up  all  the  plans 
of  their  young  men.  Perrot  had  them  sleep  in  the  fort 
that  night.  The  next  day,  early  in  the  morning,  their 
army  was  seen,  part  of  whom  came  to  cry  out  that  they 
wished  to  trade.  The  commandant,  who  had  only  fif- 
teen men,  seized  these  chiefs,  and  told  them  that  he  was 
going  to  have  their  heads  broken  if  they  did  not  make 
their  warriors  retire;  and  at  the  same  time  the  bastions 
were  manned.  One  of  those  chiefs  climbed  above  the  gate 
of  the  fort,  and  cried,  "Go  no  farther,  young  men;  you 
are  dead;  the  spirits  have  warned  Metaminens  of  your 
resolution."  Some  of  them  tried  to  advance,  and  he  said 
to  them,  "If  I  go  to  you,  I  will  break  your  heads;"  and 
they  all  retreated.  The  lack  of  provisions  harassed 
them,  and  the  French  took  pity  on  them ;  they  had  at  the 
time  only  provisions  which  were  beginning  to  smell,  but 
gave  these  to  the  savages,  who  divided  the  food  among 
themselves.  The  commandant  made  them  a  present  of 
two  guns,  two  kettles,  and  some  tobacco,  in  order  to 

20 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

close  to  them,  he  said,  the  gate  by  which  they  were  going 
to  enter  the  Nadouaissioux  country,  contending  that  they 
should  thereafter  turn  their  weapons  against  the  Iro- 
quois,  and  that  they  should  avail  themselves  of  Onontio's 
bow  to  shoot  at  his  enemy,  and  of  his  club  to  lay  violent 
hands  on  the  Iroquois  families.  They  represented  to 
him  that  they  would  suffer  greatly  before  they  could 
reach  the  Iroquois  country,  as  they  had  no  gunpowder 
for  hunting;  and  they  entreated  him  to  give  them  some 
in  exchange  for  the  few  beaver-skins  that  were  left  in 
their  hands.  For  this  purpose  the  chiefs  of  each  tribe 
were  permitted  to  enter  the  fort,  one  after  another.  All 
being  quite  pacified,  the  French  undertook  to  call  to- 
gether as  many  of  the  tribes  as  they  could,  to  join  the 
French  army  which  was  going  against  the  Iroquois.  The 
Pouteouatemis,  the  Malhominis,  and  the  Puans  willing- 
ly offered  their  aid.  The  Outagamis,  the  Kikabous,  and 
the  Maskoutechs,  who  were  not  accustomed  to  travel  in 
canoes,  united  with  the  Miamis,  who  were  to  proceed  to 
the  strait  which  separates  Lake  Herier  [i.e.,  Erie]  from 
the  Lake  of  the  Hurons,  where  there  was  a  French  fort, 
in  which  they  were  to  find  supplies  for  going  to  Niagara. 
The  Outagamis  and  the  Maskoutechs,  having  held 
their  war-feast,  went  in  quest  of  another  small  village 
of  the  same  tribe  which  was  on  their  route;  they  wished 
to  invite  its  warriors  to  join  their  party.  At  the  time 
some  Loups  and  Sokokis  were  there,  intimate  friends  of 
the  Iroquois;  they  dissuaded  the  people  from  this  enter- 
prise. They  said  that  Onontio  intended  to  put  them  into 
the  kettle  of  the  Iroquois,  under  pretext  of  avenging  the 
deaths  of  the  Miamis;  that  three  thousand  Frenchmen 
would  indeed  be  at  Niagara,  but  that  there  was  reason 
to  fear  that  all  of  them  would  unite  together  with  the 
Iroquois,  and  that,  having  unanimously  sworn  the  ruin 


of  the  allies,  they  would  unquestionably  come  to  carry 
away  the  wives  and  children  of  the  latter  in  all  their  vil- 
lages. Those  peoples  blindly  believed  all  that  was  said 
to  them,  and  refused  to  expose  themselves  in  a  situation 
which  seemed  to  them  very  dubious.  The  French 
pressed  forward  in  their  journey,  and  arrived  at  Michili- 
makinak,  where  they  found  the  Outaouaks,  who  had  been 
unwilling  to  follow  those  who  inhabited  that  quarter 
[i.e.,  the  Sauteurs]  ;  and  of  our  men  only  a  small  num- 
ber remained  there,  for  the  guard  of  the  entrances  [to 
the  fort]. 

The  Outaoiiaks  received  the  Pouteouatemis  in  mili- 
tary fashion ;  they  assembled  together  behind  a  slope  on 
which  they  made  a  camp.  The  fleet  of  the  Pouteouate- 
mis making  its  appearance  at  an  eighth  of  a  league  from 
land,  the  Outaoiiaks -naked,  and  having  no  other  orna- 
ments than  their  bows  and  arrows -marched  abreast, 
and  formed  a  sort  of  battalion.  At  a  certain  distance 
from  the  water  they  suddenly  began  to  defile,  uttering 
cries  from  time  to  time.  The  Pouteouatemis,  on  their 
part,  set  themselves  in  battle  array,  in  order  to  make 
their  landing.  When  the  rear  of  the  Outaouaks  was 
opposite  the  Pouteouatemis,  whose  ranks  were  close  to 
one  another,  they  paddled  more  slowly.  When  they 
were  at  a  gunshot  from  the  land,  the  Frenchmen  who 
were  joined  with  the  Outaouaks  first  fired  a  volley  at 
them,  without  balls ;  the  Outaouaks  followed  them  with 
loud  shouts  of  "Sassakoue!"  and  the  Pouteouatemis 
uttered  theirs.  Then  on  both  sides  they  reloaded  their 
arms,  and  a  second  volley  was  fired.  Finally,  when  the 
landing  must  be  made,  the  Outaouaks  rushed  into  the 
water,  clubs  in  their  hands;  the  Pouteouatemis  at  once 
darted  ahead  in  their  canoes,  and  came  rushing  on  the 
others,  carrying  their  clubs.  Then  no  further  order  was 

22  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

maintained ;  all  was  pell-mell,  and  the  Outaouaks  lifted 
up  their  canoes,  which  they  bore  to  the  land.  Such  was 
this  reception,  which  on  a  very  serious  occasion  would 
have  cost  much  bloodshed.  The  Outaouaks  conducted 
the  chiefs  into  their  cabins,  where  the  guests  were  re- 

Although  they  gave  them  a  friendly  welcome,  the 
Outaouaks  did  not  at  first  know  what  measures  to  take 
in  order  to  turn  aside  these  newcomers  from  their  enter- 
prise, to  the  end  of  excusing  themselves  from  joining 
the  latter.  They  entreated  the  guests  to  wait  a  few  days, 
so  that  all  might  embark  together.  Meanwhile  a  canoe 
arrived,  which  brought  instructions  from  Monsieur  de 
Denonville  for  the  march,  and  for  the  junction  of  the 
French  army  with  that  of  the  allies.  This  canoe  had 
descried  some  Englishmen,  who  were  coming  to  Mi- 
chilimakinak  in  order  to  get  possession  of  the  com- 
merce ;  they  had  imagined  that  the  French  were  indis- 
crete enough  to  abandon  during  this  time  the  most 
advantageous  post  of  the  entire  trade. 

Three  hundred  Frenchmen,  commanded  by  an  officer, 
went  out  to  meet  them.  The  Hurons,  when  informed 
of  this  proceeding,  without  seeming  to  take  notice  of  it, 
went  to  join  the  English,  with  the  intention  of  aiding 
them;  the  Outaouaks  remained  neutral.  The  Chief 
Nansouakoiiet  alone  took  sides  with  the  French,  with 
thirty  of  his  men.  The  Hurons,  fearing  that  the  Outa- 
ouaks, who  were  much  more  numerous  than  they  in  the 
village,  would  lay  violent  hands  on  their  families,  did 
not  dare  to  fight  as  they  had  resolved ;  so  that  the  French 
seized  the  English  and  their  goods,  and  brought  them  to 
Michilimakinak.  They  had  brought  a  large  quantity  of 
brandy,  persuaded  that  this  was  the  strongest  attraction 
for  gaining  the  regard  of  the  savages -who  drank  a 


great  deal  of  it,  with  which  the  greater  number  became 
intoxicated  so  deeply,  that  several  of  them  died.  There 
was  reason  to  fear  that  the  rest  of  the  brandy  would  be 
distributed  to  the  Pouteouatemis ;  [in  that  case]  there 
would  have  been  a  disorderly  scene,  which  would  have 
prevented  the  departure  of  all  those  savages,  who 
longed  for  nothing  more  than  to  signalize  themselves 
against  the  Iroquois.  One  of  the  Frenchmen  who  had 
brought  them  then  said  to  them :  "This  is  the  time  when 
you  must  show  that  you  are  courageous;  you  have  lis- 
tened implicitly  to  the  voice  of  your  father  Onontio, 
who  exhorts  you  to  the  war  with  the  Iroquois,  who  wish 
to  destroy  you.  Thus  far  you  have  not  distinguished 
yourselves  from  the  other  tribes,  who  have  made  you 
believe  whatever  they  have  wished,  and  who  have  re- 
garded you  as  much  inferior  to  themselves.  Now  it  is 
necessary  that  you  make  yourselves  known,  and  the  oc- 
casion is  favorable  for  that.  The  Outaouaks  are  only 
seeking  to  delay  matters,  which  will  prevent  them  from 
seeing  the  destruction  of  the  Iroquois.  We  are  taking 
part  in  your  glory,  and  we  would  be  sorry  if  you  were 
not  witnesses  of  the  battle  which  will  be  fought  against 
the  Tsonnontouans.  You  are  fighting  men;  you  can 
give  the  lie  to  your  allies  who  are  not  so  courageous  as 
you ;  and  be  sure  that  Onontio  will  know  very  well  how 
to  recognize  your  valor.  It  is  partly  us  Frenchmen, 
partly  men  of  the  Pouteouatemis  and  from  the  bay,  and 
others  of  your  own  number,  who  urge  you  not  to  drink 
brandy;  it  fetters  the  strength  of  the  man,  and  renders 
him  spiritless  and  incapable  of  action.  The  English- 
man is  the  father  of  the  Iroquois.  This  liquor  is  per- 
haps poisoned;  moreover,  you  have  just  seen  how  many 
Outaouaks  are  dead  from  [drinking]  it." 
The  chiefs  were  well  pleased  with  this  discourse,  and 

24 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

inspired  among  their  young  men  great  aversion  for  the 
brandy.  The  Outaouaks,  however,  deferred  their  de- 
parture, and  imperceptibly  beguiled  those  peoples.  They 
assembled  them  together  without  the  knowledge  of  the 
Jesuit  fathers  and  the  French  commandant.  They  pre- 
sented to  them  a  keg  of  brandy  holding  twenty-five 
quarts  [pots],  and  said  to  them:  "We  all  are  brothers, 
who  ought  to  form  only  one  body,  and  possess  but  one 
and  the  same  spirit.  The  French  invite  us  to  go  to  war 
against  the  Iroquois;  they  wish  to  use  us  in  order  to 
make  us  their  slaves.  After  we  have  aided  in  destroying 
the  enemy,  the  French  will  do  with  us  what  they  do 
with  their  cattle,  which  they  put  to  the  plow  and  make 
them  cultivate  the  land.  Let  us  leave  them  to  act  alone ; 
they  will  not  succeed  in  defeating  the  Iroquois;  this  is 
the  means  for  being  always  our  own  masters.  Here  is 
a  keg  of  brandy,  to  persuade  you  regarding  these  propo- 
sitions, which  we  hope  that  you  will  carry  out." 

The  warriors  rose,  with  great  composure,  without 
replying,  having  left  to  the  Outaouaks  the  keg  of  bran- 
dy; and  they  went  to  find  two  others  of  the  principal 
Frenchmen  who  had  accompanied  them,  whom  they 
informed  of  all  that  had  occurred.  The  latter  went  to 
address  them  the  next  morning  before  light,  and  en- 
couraged them  to  persist  in  their  good  sentiments.  The 
Outaouaks  continually  returned  to  the  charge;  they 
again  sent  the  keg  of  brandy  to  the  Pouteouatemis,  who 
were  longing  to  drink  from  it -for  one  can  say  that  it  is 
the  most  delicious  beverage  with  which  they  can  be 
regaled -nevertheless,  they  did  not  dare  to  taste  it.  They 
went  to  find  those  Frenchmen,  and  related  to  them  this 
new  occurrence.  The  Frenchmen,  annoyed  at  all  these 
solicitations  by  the  Outaouaks,  entered  the  Pouteou- 
atenii  cabin  in  which  the  brandy  was ;  and  the  savage 


therein  asked  them  what  they  wished  the  savages  to  do 
with  it.  The  Frenchmen  answered,  while  breaking 
open  the  keg  with  a  hatchet,  "Look  here;  this  is  what 
you  ought  to  do  with  it.  You  must  do  the  same  with  the 
Iroquois  when  you  are  in  the  fight;  you  must  beat  them 
with  your  clubs,  you  must  slay  them  without  sparing 
[even]  the  infants  in  the  cradle.  Put  pitch  on  your  ca- 
noes this  morning;  we  are  embarking,  and  we  wait  for 
no  one."  The  Outaouaks,  seeing  that  the  canoes  were 
ready,  asked  for  a  day's  time  in  order  to  join  the  expe- 
dition; but  our  people  took  no  notice  of  them.  The 
fleet  of  the  Pouteouatemis  therefore  set  out,  in  good 
order,  always  having  scouts  out,  who  protected  the  ad- 
vance. [From  this  point  (top  of  page  205)  to  the  top  of 
page  209,  is  briefly  told  the  campaign  against  the  Iro- 
quois, which  is  more  fully  related  by  Perrot  in  the 
Memoir e.  -  ED.] 

The  French  voyageurs  who  had  been  among  the  allies 
came  to  Montreal  in  order  to  purchase  there  new  mer- 
chandise; and  at  the  same  time  the  news  came  that  the 
church  of  the  [Jesuit]  missionaries  at  the  bay,  and  a  part 
of  their  buildings,  had  been  burned.  There  were  some 
Frenchmen  who  met  great  losses  in  this  fire ;  Sieur  Per- 
rot lost  in  it  more  than  forty  thousand  francs'  worth  of 

The  auxiliary  troops,  returning  to  their  own  country, 
made  the  report  of  their  campaign;  and  they  imparted 
a  great  idea  of  the  valor  of  Onontio,  who  had  forced  the 
Iroquois  themselves  to  set  fire  to  their  villages  at  the  first 
news  of  his  arrival.  The  Loups  and  Sokokis,  who  had 
given  so  bad  an  impression  about  the  French  to  certain 
peoples,  adroitly  retreated  from  these  warriors,  in  order 
not  to  be  themselves  treated  like  the  Iroquois ;  they  went 
by  way  of  a  small  river  which  empties  into  the  Missi- 

26  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

sipi,  and  [thus]  reached  their  native  country.  All  those 
who  had  taken  sides  with  them  repented  of  having  done 
so.  One  hundred  Miamis  set  out  with  the  deliberate 
intention  of  making  amends  for  the  fault  that  they  had 
committed  in  not  having  taken  part  in  the  general 
march ;  they  were  sure  that  they  would  at  least  find,  in 
a  certain  hunting-ground,  some  party  of  Iroquois  weak- 
ened with  hunger  and  misfortunes.  They  proceeded  to 
the  road  going  to  Niagara,  where  they  found  the  French 
garrison  dead  from  hunger,  except  seven  or  eight  per- 
sons ;  this  mischance  hindered  them  from  going  farther. 
They  guarded  this  fort  during  the  winter,  until  the  sur- 
viving Frenchmen  had  been  withdrawn  from  it. 

Thirteen  Maskoutechs,  impatient  to  find  out  whether 
what  the  Loups  and  Sokokis  had  said  to  them  also 
against  the  French  were  true,  set  out  during  the  general 
march  in  order  to  obtain  information  as  to  the  truth  of 
that  report;  and  they  met  three  Miami  slaves  who,  in 
the  rout  of  the  Iroquois,  had  made  their  escape.  The 
Maskoutechs,  returning  with  these  women,  found  two 
Frenchmen  who  were  coming  from  the  Islinois,  laden 
with  beaver-skins ;  they  slew  these  men,  and  burned  their 
bodies,  in  order  to  hide  their  murder;  they  also  killed 
the  Miamis  and  burned  them  and  carried  away  their 
scalps.2  When  they  arrived  at  their  own  village,  they 

2  The  practice  of  scalping  was  not  common  to  all  the  American  tribes. 
"The  custom  was  not  general,  and  in  most  regions  where  found  was  not  even 
ancient.  The  trophy  did  not  include  any  part  of  the  skull  or  even  the  whole 
scalp.  The  operation  was  not  fatal.  The  scalp  was  not  always  evidence  of  the 
killing  of  an  enemy,  but  was  sometimes  taken  from  a  victim  who  was  allowed 
to  live.  It  was  not  always  taken  by  the  same  warrior  who  had  killed  or 
wounded  the  victim.  It  was  not  always  preserved  by  the  victor.  The  war- 
rior's honors  were  not  measured  by  the  number  of  his  scalps.  The  scalp  dance 
was  performed,  and  the  scalps  carried  therein,  not  by  the  men,  but  by  the 
women."  In  earlier  times,  throughout  most  of  America  the  trophy  was  the 
head  itself.  "The  spread  of  the  scalping  practice  over  a  great  part  of  central 
and  western  United  States  was  a  direct  result  of  the  encouragement  in  the 


uttered  three  cries  for  the  dead,  such  as  are  usually 
made  when  they  carry  back  [news  of]  some  advantage 
gained  over  the  enemy.  They  gave  to  their  chiefs  these 
three  scalps,  which  they  said  were  those  of  Iroquois, 
and  two  guns,  which  they  did  not  acknowledge  to  be 
those  of  the  Frenchmen.  Those  chiefs  sent  these  things 
to  the  Miamis,  who,  in  acknowledgment,  gave  them  sev- 
eral presents.  Other  Frenchmen  who  came  back  from 
the  Islinois  recognized  the  guns  of  their  comrades,  and 
not  having  any  news  of  the  latter,  accused  the  Miamis 
of  having  murdered  them.  The  latter  defended  them- 
selves, saying  that  the  Maskoutechs  had  made  them  a 
present  of  the  guns,  with  three  Iroquois  scalps.  Then 
the  Frenchmen  made  them  profuse  apologies  for  the 
suspicion  that  they  had  felt  that  the  Miamis  had  caused 
the  deaths  of  those  two  Frenchmen ;  and  they  supposed 
that  their  friends  had  fallen  into  the  power  of  the  Iro- 
quois, whom  the  Maskoutechs  had  met  on  their  way. 

Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Denonville,  who  had  hu- 
miliated the  most  haughty  and  redoubtable  tribe  in  all 
America,  had  no  thought  save  to  render  happy  the  peo- 
ple whose  government  the  king  had  entrusted  to  him; 
he  was  certain  that  the  [Indian]  trade  could  not  be  bet- 
ter maintained  than  by  sending  back  to  the  Outaouaks 
all  the  voyageurs  who  had  left  [there]  their  property  in 
order  to  go  to  Tsonnontouan.  He  also  despatched  forty 
Frenchmen  to  the  Nadoiiaissioux,  the  most  remote  .tribe, 
who  could  not  carry  on  trade  with  us  as  easily  as  could 
the  other  tribes ;  the  Outagamis  had  boasted  of  excluding 
them  from  access  to  us.  These  last-mentioned  French- 
men, on  their  arrival  at  Michillimakinak,  learned  that 

shape  of  scalp  bounties  offered  by  the  colonial  and  more  recent  governments, 
even  down  to  within  the  last  fifty  years,  the  scalp  itself  being  superior  to  the 
head  as  a  trophy  by  reason  of  its  lighter  weight  and  greater  adaptability  to 
display  and  ornamentation."  —  JAMES  MOONEY,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

28  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

the  Hurons  had  defeated  a  party  of  forty  Iroquois,  the 
greater  number  of  whom  they  had  captured,  but  had 
spared  their  lives.  All  the  peoples  of  that  region  were 
greatly  alarmed  at  an  attack  which  the  Outagamis  had 
made  on  the  Sauteurs.  The  former  people,  having 
learned  that  the  French  were  at  the  Bay  of  Puans,  sent 
three  deputies  to  Monsieur  du  Luth,3  a  captain  of  the 
troops,  to  entreat  him  to  come  among  them.  He  an- 
swered them  that  he  would  not  concern  himself  about 
them,  or  settle  their  quarrels  with  the  Sauteurs;  that  the 
French  were  going  to  pass  through  their  river,  and  that 
they  had  three  hundred  loaded  guns  to  fire  at  them  if 
they  tried  to  place  the  least  obstacle  in  his  way.  They 
tried  to  justify  themselves,  by  saying  that  their  allies, 
jealous  of  them,  had  mdde  every  effort  to  render  them 
odious  to  the  French  nation.  They  said  that  it  was  true 
that  some  war-party  of  their  young  men,  going  to  fight 
against  the  Nadoiiaissioux,  had  encountered  on  the 
enemy's  territory  some  Sauteurs,  from  whom  they  had 
taken  three  girls  and  a  young  man ;  that  when  the  people 
of  the  bay  asked  them  for  these  captives  they  had  not 
been  able  to  refuse  them,  because  the  chiefs  were  wait- 
ing for  the  Frenchman  in  order  to  send  back  the  captives 
to  him.  That  commandant  told  them  that  he  would  not 
make  known  his  opinions  to  them,  since  they  had  so  often 
deceived  him;  and  he  continued  his  journey  toward  the 
Nadoiiaissioux.  A  little  while  afterward  he  saw  a  ca- 
noe with  five  men,  who  came  paddling  as  hard  as  they 
could.  They  were  the  chiefs  of  the  Outagamis,  who 

3  Daniel  Greysolon  du  Luth  (Lhut)  was  especially  prominent  among  North- 
western explorers.  An  officer  in  the  army  of  France,  he  came  to  Canada  about 
1676;  two  years  later,  he  conducted  a  French  expedition  into  the  Sioux  country. 
He  spent  nearly  ten  years  in  explorations  (mainly  beyond  Lake  Superior)  and 
fur-trading;  he  was  for  a  time  commandant  of  the  Northwest.  In  1689,  he 
had  returned  to  the  St.  Lawrence;  he  died  in  1710.  The  city  of  Duluth,  Minn., 
was  named  for  him.  -  ED. 


came  alongside  of  his  boat  with  expressions  so  full  of 
grief  that  he  could  not  forbear  from  going  to  their  vil- 
lage ;  the  reply  that  he  had  made  to  the  three  deputies 
had  caused  so  great  consternation  that  they  were  incon- 
solable at  it.  It  was  to  their  interest  to  stand  well  in  the 
opinion  of  the  French,  from  whom  they  were  receiving 
all  possible  assistance ;  and  because  they  could  only  ex- 
pect, as  soon  as  the  [French]  trade  with  them  had 
ceased,  to  become  the  objects  of  opprobrium  and  the  vic- 
tims of  their  neighbors.  The  commandant  entered  the 
cabin  of  the  chief,  who  had  a  deer  placed  in  the  kettle; 
when  it  boiled,  the  kettle  and  some  of  the  raw  meat  were 
placed  before  him,  to  regale  all  the  Frenchmen.  The 
commandant  disdained  to  taste  it,  because  this  meat,  he 
said,  did  not  suit  him,  and  when  the  Outagamis  became 
reasonable  he  would  have  some  of  it.  They  understood 
very  well  the  meaning  of  this  compliment.  They  im- 
mediately brought  in  the  three  girls  and  the  young  Sau- 
teur.  The  chief  began  to  speak,  saying:  "See  how  the 
Outagami  can  be  reasonable,  and  be  minded  as  he  is 
therein.  He  spits  out  the  meat  which  he  had  intended 
to  eat,  for  he  has  remembered  that  thou  hadst  forbidden 
it  to  him ;  and  while  it  is  between  his  teeth  he  spits  it 
out,  and  entreats  thee  to  send  it  back  to  the  place  where 
he  seized  it."  The  Frenchman  told  him  that  they  had 
done  well  in  preserving  the  captives;  that  he  remem- 
bered the  club  that  had  been  given  to  them  in  behalf  of 
their  father  Onontio,  and  that  in  giving  it  he  had  told 
them  that  hereafter  they  should  use  it  only  against  the 
Iroquois.  He  told  them  that  they  themselves  had  as- 
sured him  that  they  would  join  the  Frenchmen  at  De- 
troit; but  that  now  they  were  using  the  club  on  his  own 
body,  and  maltreating  the  families  of  the  Sauteurs  who 
had  gone  with  the  French  to  war.  He  warned  them 

30 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

to  be  no  longer  foolish  and  wild ;  and  said  that  he  would 
once  more  settle  this  business.  He  told  them  to  remain 
quiet,  and  said  that  the  Sauteurs  would  obey  him,  since 
they  had  not  killed  any  one,  and  were  restoring  the 
people  of  the  Outagamis.  He  directed  the  latter  to  hunt 
beavers,  and  told  them  that,  if  they  wished  to  be  pro- 
tected by  Onontio,  they  must  apply  themselves  to  mak- 
ing war  against  the  Iroquois  only.  Some  Frenchmen 
were  left  with  them  to  maintain  the  trade,  and  the  rest 

The  Pouteouatemis  cut  across  the  country,  to  reach 
more  quickly  a  portage  *  which  lies  between  a  river 
that  goes  down  to  the  bay,  and  that  of  Ouiskonch,  which 
falls  into  the  Missisipi  (about  the  forty-third  degree  of 
latitude),  in  order  to  receive  there  these  Frenchmen. 
When  the  latter  were  twelve  leagues  from  the  portage, 
they  were  stopped  by  the  ice-floes.  The  Pouteouatemis, 
impatient  to  find  out  what  had  happened  to  them,  came 
to  meet  them,  and  found  them  in  a  series  of  ice-floes 
from  which  they  had  great  difficulty  in  extricating  them- 
selves ;  and  immediately  those  savages  sent  to  their  vil- 
lage to  call  out  two  hundred  men,  for  the  purpose  of 
carrying  all  the  merchandise  over  to  the  shore  of  the 
Ouiskonch  River,  which  was  no  longer  covered  with  ice. 
The  French  then  went  to  the  Nadoiiaissioux  country, 
ascending  the  Missisipi.  The  Sauteurs  were  notified 
that  the  French  had  taken  away  their  daughters  from 
the  hands  of  the  Outagamis;  and  four  of  them  came  to 
the  bay,  where  the  girls  were,  to  get  them,  and  displayed 
to  the  Frenchmen  all  possible  gratitude;  they  had  reason 

4  Alluding  to  the  noted  Fox-Wisconsin  portage,  long  famous  in  the  early 
history  of  exploration  and  trade  in  the  Northwest;  there,  in  the  rainy  season,  the 
waters  of  those  two  great  rivers  flowed  into  each  other,  and  the  comparatively 
easy  "carry"  between  them  made  those  streams  the  natural  (and  the  only  prac- 
ticable) route  of  travel  between  Green  Bay  and  the  Mississippi.  At  that 
point  of  transfer  has  arisen  the  modem  city  of  Portage.  —  ED. 


to  be  highly  pleased.  But  a  very  sad  misfortune  again 
befell  them ;  this  was,  that  when  they  had  almost  reached 
home  some  Outagamis  who  were  prowling  about  at- 
tacked them,  without  knowing  who  they  were.  Terror 
overcame  them,  and  caused  them  to  abandon  the  three 
girls.  The  Outagamis  did  not  dare  to  conduct  the  girls 
to  the  Sauteurs,  for  fear  of  being  devoured;  and,  un- 
willing to  expose  them,  alone,  to  losing  their  way  in  the 
woods,  they  carried  the  girls  home  with  them,  consider- 
ing them  as  free. 

As  soon  as  the  Nadoiiaissioux  saw  that  the  rivers  were 
navigable  they  went  down  to  the  post  of  the  Frenchmen, 
and  carried  back  the  commandant  to  their  village,  where 
he  was  received  with  pomp,  after  their  fashion.  He  was 
carried  on  a  robe  of  beaver-skins,  accompanied  by  a  great 
retinue  of  people  who  carried  each  a  calumet,  singing 
the  songs  of  alliance  and  of  the  calumet.  He  was  carried 
about  the  village,  and  led  into  the  cabin  of  the  chief. 
As  those  peoples  have  the  knack  of  weeping  and  of 
laughing  when  they  choose,  several  of  them  immediate- 
ly came  to  weep  over  his  head,  with  the  same  tenderness 
which  the  Ayoes  showed  to  him  at  the  first  time  when  he 
went  among  them.5  However,  these  tears  do  not  ener- 
vate their  spirits,  and  they  are  very  good  warriors;  they 
even  have  the  reputation  of  being  the  bravest  in  all  those 
regions.  They  are  at  war  with  all  the  tribes,  excepting 

5  Note  Cadillac's  remarks  concerning  the  Sioux,  in  his  "Relation  of  Mis- 
silimakinak,"  section  v:  "Indeed,  it  seldom  happens  that  a  Sioux  is  taken  alive; 
because,  as  soon  as  they  see  that  they  can  no  longer  resist,  they  kill  themselves, 
considering  that  they  are  not  worthy  to  live  when  once  bound,  vanquished,  and 
made  slaves.  It  is  rather  surprising  that  people  so  brave  and  warlike  as  these 
should  nevertheless  be  able  to  shed  tears  at  will,  and  so  abundantly  that  it 
can  hardly  be  imagined.  I  think  that  it  could  not  be  believed  without  being 
seen;  for  they  are  sometimes  observed  to  laugh,  sing,  and  amuse  themselves, 
when,  at  the  same  time,  one  would  say  that  their  eyes  are  like  gutters  filled  by 
a  heavy  shower;  and,  as  soon  as  they  have  wept,  they  again  become  as  joyful 
as  before,  whether  their  joy  be  real  or  false."  —  ED. 

32  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

the  Sauteurs  and  the  Ayoes;  and  even  these  last  named 
very  often  have  disputes  with  them.  Hardly  does  the 
day  begin  when  the  Nadouaissioux  bathe  in  their  river, 
and  they  even  do  the  same  with  their  children  in  swad- 
dling-clothes;  their  reason  is,  that  thus  they  gradually 
accustom  themselves  to  be  in  readiness  at  the  least  alarm. 
They  are  of  tall  stature,  and  their  women  are  extremely 
ugly;  they  regard  the  latter  as  slaves.  The  men  are, 
moreover,  jealous  and  very  susceptible  to  suspicions; 
from  this  arise  many  quarrels,  and  the  greater  part  of 
the  time  they  get  into  general  fights  among  themselves, 
which  are  not  quieted  until  after  much  bloodshed.  They 
are  very  adroit  in  [managing]  their  canoes;  they  fight 
even  to  the  death  when  they  are  surrounded  by  their 
enemies,  and  when  they  have  an  opportunity  to  make 
their  escape  they  are  very  agile.  Their  country  is  a 
labyrinth  of  marshes,  which  in  summer  protects  them 
from  molestation  by  their  enemies;  if  one  [journeying] 
by  canoe  is  entangled  in  it,  he  cannot  find  his  way;  to  go 
to  their  village,  one  must  be  a  Nadouaissioux,  or  have 
long  experience  in  that  country,  in  order  to  reach  his 
destination.  The  Hurons  have  reason  to  remember  an 
exceedingly  pleasant  adventure  which  befell  a  hundred 
of  their  warriors,  who  had  gone  to  wage  war  on  those 
people.  These  Hurons,  being  embarrassed  in  a  marsh, 
were  discovered;  they  saw  the  Nadouaissioux,  who  sur- 
rounded them,  and  hid  themselves  as  best  they  could  in 
the  rushes,  leaving  only  their  heads  above  the  water,  so 
that  they  could  breathe.  The  Nadouaissioux,  not  know- 
ing what  had  become  of  them,  stretched  beaver-nets  on 
the  strips  of  land  which  separated  their  marshes,  and  to 
these  attached  little  bells.  The  Hurons,  imagining  that 
the  night-time  would  be  very  favorable  for  extricating 
themselves  from  this  situation,  found  themselves  en- 


tangled  among  all  these  nets.  The  Nadoiiaissioux,  who 
were  in  ambush,  heard  the  sound  of  the  bells  and  at- 
tacked the  Hurons,  of  whom  none  could  save  himself 
except  one,  whom  they  sent  back  to  his  own  country  to 
carry  the  news  of  the  affair.  They  are  very  lustful. 
They  live  on  wild  oats,  which  is  very  abundant  in  their 
marshes.  Their  country  has  also  the  utmost  abundance 
of  beavers.  The  Kristinaux,  who  also  are  accustomed 
to  navigation,  and  their  other  enemies  often  compel 
them  to  take  refuge  in  places  where  they  have  no  other 
food  than  acorns,  roots,  and  the  bark  of  trees. 

One  of  their  chiefs,  seeing  that  very  few  French  were 
left  in  the  fort  (which  is  near  them)  when  all  the  tribes 
marched  against  the  Iroquois,  raised  a  party  of  one  hun- 
dred warriors  in  order  to  plunder  the  fort.  This  French- 
man displayed,  on  his  return,  the  anger  that  he  felt  be- 
cause they  had  acted  so  badly  during  his  absence.  The 
[other]  chiefs  had  not  been  concerned  in  that  plan,  and 
came  very  near  killing  that  chief;  he  was  regarded,  at 
least  after  that,  with  great  contempt.  When  the  renewal 
of  the  alliance  was  made  the  Frenchmen  went  back  to 
their  fort.  There  was  one  of  them  who  complained,  on 
going  away,  that  a  box  of  merchandise  had  been  stolen 
from  him;  it  was  quite  difficult  to  ascertain  who  had 
committed  this  theft,  and  recourse  was  had  to  a  very  odd 
stratagem.  The  commandant  told  one  of  his  men  to 
pretend  to  get  some  water  in  a  cup  in  which  he  had  put 
some  brandy.  As  it  was  evident  that  there  was  no 
[other]  means  of  recovering  the  box,  they  were  threat- 
ened with  the  burning  and  drying  up  the  waters  in  their 
marshes ;  and  to  strengthen  the  effect  of  these  menaces, 
that  brandy  was  set  on  fire.  They  were  so  terrified  that 
they  imagined  that  everything  was  going  to  destruction ; 
the  merchandise  was  recovered,  and  then  the  French 

34  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

returned  to  their  fort.  The  Outagamis  who  had  changed 
their  village  [site]  established  themselves  on  the  Mis- 
sisipi  after  they  separated  (at  the  portages  of  the  River 
Ouiskonch)  from  the  Frenchmen,  who  had  taken  the 
route  to  the  Nadoiiaissioux. 

The  chief  came  to  find  the  French  commandant,  in 
order  to  ask  him  to  negotiate  a  peace  with  the  Nadoiiais- 
sioux. Some  of  the  latter  tribe  came  to  trade  their 
peltries  at  the  French  fort,  where  they  saw  this  chief, 
whom  they  recognized  as  an  Outagami.  The  Nadoii- 
aissioux seemed  surprised  at  this  encounter;  and  at  the 
same  time  they  formed  the  idea  (but  without  showing 
it)  that  the  French  were  forming  some  evil  plot  against 
their  tribe.  The  commandant  reassured  them,  and,  pre- 
senting to  them  the  calumet,  said  that  this  was  the  chief 
of  the  Outagamis,  whom  the  French  regarded  as  their 
brother  ever  since  his  tribe  had  been  discovered;  and 
that  this  chief  ought  not  to  be  an  object  of  suspicion, 
since  he  had  even  come  to  propose  peace  with  them 
through  the  mediation  of  the  French.  "Smoke,"  said 
this  Frenchman,  "my  calumet ;  it  is  the  breast  with  which 
Onontio  suckles  his  children."  The  Nadoiiaissioux 
asked  him  to  have  this  chief  smoke,  and  he  did  so ;  but, 
although  the  calumet  is  the  symbol  of  union  and  recon- 
ciliation, the  Outagami  did  not  fail  to  experience  em- 
barrassment in  this  situation.  He  afterward  declared 
that  he  did  not  feel  very  safe  at  that  time.  When  he  had 
smoked,  the  Nadoiiaissioux  did  the  same ;  but  they  would 
not  come  to  any  decision,  because,  as  they  were  not 
chiefs,  they  must  notify  their  captains  of  this  matter. 
They  nevertheless  expressed  to  him  their  regret  that  his 
tribe  had  been  so  easily  influenced  by  the  solicitations  of 
the  Sauteurs,  who  had  corrupted  them  with  presents, 
and  who  had  caused  the  rupture  of  the  peace  which  they 


had  concluded.  This  negotiation  could  not  be  finished 
on  account  of  the  speedy  departure  of  the  French,  who 
had  orders  to  return  to  the  colony.  Just  as  they  set  out, 
the  chiefs  of  the  Nadoiiaissioux  arrived,  and  brought 
the  calumet  of  peace- which  would  have  been  concluded 
if  our  Frenchmen  at  their  departure  had  dared  to  en- 
trust to  them  the  chief  of  the  Outagamis.  The  Outa- 
gamis  had  always  kept  the  three  Sauteur  girls  of  whom 
I  have  already  spoken.  Their  dread  of  losing  entirely 
the  good  graces  of  the  French -who  were  greatly  dis- 
pleased at  the  hostilities  which  that  tribe  had  committed 
against  the  Sauteurs- obliged  them  to  forestall  the  lat- 
ter by  the  relation  which  they  made  of  all  the  circum- 
stances attending  the  sojourn  [among  them]  of  the  Sau- 
teurs' daughters.  It  was  evident  that  they  were  not  to 
blame,  and  they  were  charged  to  convey  the  girls  back 
to  their  own  people. 

The  Iroquois,  having  been  extremely  harassed  at 
Tsonnontouan  by  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Denonville, 
entreated  the  English  to  negotiate  peace  for  them  with 
him ;  and  it  was  for  the  interest  of  that  nation  that  no  one 
should  disturb  the  tranquillity  of  their  neighbors.  As 
peace  still  prevailed  throughout  Europe,  the  English 
did  not  dare  to  declare  themselves  in  favor  of  the  Iro- 
quois; they  felt,  however,  very  deeply  the  manner  in 
which  the  French  treated  those  savages,  without  daring 
to  take  their  part  or  support  them.  The  French  com- 
mander, who  had  in  view  only  the  tranquillity  of  his 
allies  and  of  the  peoples  under  his  government,  informed 
the  English  that  he  would  willingly  grant  peace  to  the 
Iroquois  on  condition  that  his  allies  [also]  should  be 
included  in  it.  He  despatched  his  orders  in  every  di- 
rection to  the  end  that  the  club  should  be  hung  up,  and 
that  all  the  war-parties  that  might  be  raised  against  the 


Iroquois  should  be  halted.  Besides  this,  presents  were 
sent  to  all  the  tribes,  as  a  pledge  of  the  good-will  which 
the  French  displayed  toward  them  in  a  condition  of 
affairs  which  so  greatly  concerned  their  interests.  The 
Outaouaks  were  so  incensed  against  the  Iroquois  that 
they  took  no  notice  of  these  orders,  and  carried  on  war 
against  them  more  than  ever.  The  Islinois  were  more 
discreet,  for  as  soon  as  they  received  the  orders  of  Onon- 
tio  they  tied  up  the  hatchet;  and  as  they  were  not  will- 
ing to  remain  thus  in  inaction  they  marched,  to  the  num- 
ber of  twelve  hundred  warriors,  against  the  Ozages  and 
the  Accances15  (who  are  in  the  lower  Missisipi  coun- 
try) ,  and  carried  away  captive  the  people  of  a  village 
there.  The  neighboring  peoples,  having  been  apprised 
of  this  raid,  united  together  and  attacked  the  Islinois 
with  such  spirit  that  the  latter  were  compelled  to  retreat 
with  loss.  This  repulse  was  very  detrimental  to  them  in 
the  course  of  time.  The  Outaouaks,  who  had  followed 
their  own  caprice  without  consulting  the  French  com- 
mandants who  were  at  Michilimakinak,  brought  back 
some  captives  ;  and  at  night  the  cries  for  the  dead  were 
heard  abroad.  The  next  day  the  smoke  in  their  camp 
was  seen  at  the  island  of  Michilimakinak;  and  they  sent 
a  canoe  to  inform  the  village  of  the  blow  that  they  had 
just  struck.  The  Jesuit  fathers  hastened  thither,  in 

16  The  Osage  are  a  Siouan  tribe,  one  of  the  Dhegiha  group,  and  are  very 
closely  related  to  the  Kansa.  According  to  their  traditions,  these  tribes  in 
their  migration  westward,  "divided  at  the  mouth  of  Osage  River,  the  Osage 
moving  up  that  stream  and  the  Omaha  and  Ponca  crossing  Missouri  River  and 
proceeding  northward,  while  the  Kansa  ascended  the  Missouri  on  the  south 
side  to  Kansas  River."  —  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

Dorsey  in  his  "Migrations  of  the  Siouan  Tribes"  (Amer.  Naturalist,  vol.  xx, 
211-222)  says  that  the  entire  Dhegiha  group  lived  together  (before  their 
separation  above  noted),  near  the  Ohio  River,  and  were  called  "Arkansa"  by 
the  Illinois  tribes.  "Accances"  of  our  text  is  the  same  as  Akansa,  Akansea, 
Kanza,  etc.,  of  the  early  writers,  especially  Marquette  ;  but  these  refer  to  the 
Quapaw,  another  tribe  of  the  above  group.  They,  with  the  Osage  and  Kansa, 
are  now  on  reservations  in  (the  former)  Indian  Territory.  —  ED. 


order  to  try  to  secure  for  the  slaves  exemption  from  the 
volley  of  blows  with  clubs  to  which  the  captives  were 
usually  treated  on  their  arrival;  but  all  their  solicita- 
tions could  not  move  the  Outaouaks,  and  even  served 
only  to  exasperate  them.  The  canoes,  which  were  close 
together,  made  their  appearance;  there  was  only  one 
man  paddling  in  each,  while  all  the  warriors  responded 
to  the  songs  of  the  slaves, 1<J  who  stood  upright,  each  hav- 

16  "It  may  be  doubted  whether  slavery,  though  so  widespread  as  to  have 
been  almost  universal,  existed  anywhere  among  very  primitive  peoples,  since 
society  must  reach  a  certain  state  of  organization  before  it  can  find  lodgment. 
It  appears,  however,  among  peoples  whose  status  is  far  below  that  of  civili- 
zation." The  region  of  the  northwest  coast  "formed  the  stronghold  of  the 
institution.  As  we  pass  to  the  eastward  the  practice  of  slavery  becomes  modi- 
fied, and  finally  its  place  is  taken  by  a  very  different  custom.  .  .  Investi- 
gation of  slavery  among  the  tribes  of  the  great  plains  and  the  Atlantic  slope 
is  difficult  Scattered  through  early  histories  are  references  to  the  subject,  but 
such  accounts  are  usually  devoid  of  details,  and  the  context  often  proves  them 
to  be  based  on  erroneous  conceptions.  .  .  The  early  French  and  Spanish 
histories,  it  is  true,  abound  in  allusions  to  Indian  slaves,  even  specifying  the 
tribes  from  which  they  were  taken;  but  the  terms  'slave'  and  'prisoner*  were 
used  interchangeably  in  almost  every  such  instance.  .  .  With  the  exception  of 
the  area  above  mentioned  [the  N.W.  coast],  traces  of  true  slavery  are  wanting 
throughout  the  region  north  of  Mexico.  In  its  place  is  found  another  institu- 
tion that  has  been  often  mistaken  for  it.  Among  the  North  American  Indians 
a  state  of  periodic  intertribal  warfare  seems  to  have  existed.  .  .  In  con- 
sequence of  such  warfare  tribes  dwindled  through  the  loss  of  men,  women,  and 
children  killed  or  taken  captive.  Natural  increase  was  not  sufficient  to  make 
good  such  losses;  for,  while  Indian  women  were  prolific,  the  loss  of  children 
by  disease,  especially  in  early  infancy,  was  very  great.  Hence  arose  the 
institution  of  adoption.  Men,  women,  and  children,  especially  the  two  latter 
classes,  were  everywhere  considered  the  chief  spoils  of  war.  When  men 
enough  had  been  tortured  and  killed  to  glut  the  savage  passions  of  the  con- 
querors, the  rest  of  the  captives  were  adopted,  after  certain  preliminaries,  into 
the  several  gentes,  each  newly  adopted  member  taking  the  place  of  a  lost 
husband,  wife,  son,  or  daughter,  and  being  invested  with  the  latter's  rights, 
privileges,  and  duties.  It  was  indeed  a  common  practice,  too,  for  small  parties 
to  go  out  for  the  avowed  purpose  of  taking  a  captive  to  be  adopted  in  the  place 
of  a  deceased  member  of  the  family.  John  Tanner,  a  white  boy  thus  captured 
and  adopted  by  the  Chippewa,  wrote  a  narrative  of  his  Indian  life  that  is  a 
mine  of  valuable  and  interesting  information.  Adoption  also  occasionally 
took  place  on  a  large  scale,  as  when  the  Tuscarora  were  formally  adopted  as 
kindred  by  the  Seneca,  and  thus  secured  a  place  in  the  Iroquois  League;  or 
when,  after  the  Pequot  War,  part  of  the  surviving  Pequot  were  incorporated 
into  the  Narraganset  tribe  by  some  form  of  adoption,  and  part  into  the  Mo- 

38  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

ing  a  wand  in  his  hand.  There  were  special  marks  on 
each,  to  indicate  those  who  had  captured  him.  Grad- 
ually they  approached  the  shore,  with  measured  ad- 
vance. When  they  were  near  the  land  the  chief  of  the 
party  rose  in  his  canoe  and  harangued  all  the  old  men, 
who  were  waiting  for  the  warriors  at  the  edge  of  the 
water  in  order  to  receive  them ;  and  having  made  a  re- 
cital to  them  of  his  campaign  he  told  them  that  he  placed 
in  their  hands  the  captives  whom  he  had  taken.  An  old 
man  on  the  shore  responded,  and  congratulated  them  in 

began."  Under  certain  conditions,  the  practice  of  adopting  prisoners  of  war 
might  gradually  be  transformed  into  slavery,  and  it  is  possible  that  slave- 
holding  tribes  may  have  substituted  adoption ;  the  latter  seems  to  have  pre- 
vailed wherever  slavery  did  not  exist.  Those  who  were  actually  slaves  had 
no  social  status  in  the  tribe,  whether  they  had  been  captured  in  war  or  pur- 
chased; but  "the  adopted  person  was  in  every  respect  the  peer  of  his  fellow- 
tribesmen,"  and  had  the  same  opportunity  for  advancement  or  office  that  would 
have  belonged  to  the  person  in  whose  place  he  was  adopted  —  unless  he  were  a 
poor  hunter  or  a  coward,  in  which  case  he  was  despised  and  ill-treated.  "It 
was  the  usual  custom  to  depose  the  coward  from  man's  estate,  and,  in  native 
metaphor,  to  'make  a  woman'  of  him.  Such  persons  associated  ever  after  with 
the  women,  and  aided  them  in  their  tasks."  Female  captives  might  become  the 
legal  wives  of  men  in  their  captors'  tribe ;  but  such  women  were  probably  often 
the  objects  of  jealousy  in  the  husband's  other  wives.  White  captives  were  often 
adopted  into  Indian  tribes,  but  after  the  beginning  of  the  border  wars  were 
most  often  held  for  ransom,  or  sometimes  sold  in  European  settlements  for  a 
cash  payment.  "The  practice  of  redeeming  captives  was  favored  by  the  mis- 
sionaries and  settlers  with  a  view  to  mitigating  the  hardships  of  Indian  war- 
fare. The  spread  of  Indian  slavery  among  the  tribes  of  the  central  region  was 
in  part  due  to  the  efforts  of  the  French  missionaries  to  induce  their  red  allies 
to  substitute  a  mild  condition  of  servitude  for  their  accustomed  practice  of 
indiscriminate  massacre,  torture,  and  cannibalism  (see  Dunn's  Indiana;  1905)." 
White  captives  were  always  ready  to  escape,  and  were  welcomed  back  by  their 
friends,  "whereas  in  the  case  of  the  Indian,  adoption  severed  all  former 
social  and  tribal  ties.  The  adopted  Indian  warrior  was  forever  debarred  from 
returning  to  his  own  people,  by  whom  he  would  not  have  been  received.  His 
fate  was  thenceforth  inextricably  interwoven  with  that  of  his  new  kinsmen." 
Runaway  negroes  early  came  into  the  possession  of  the  southern  tribes,  and 
thus  were  slaves ;  but  they  often  married  the  Indians  and  were  otherwise  treated 
like  members  of  the  tribe.  Europeans  made  a  practice  of  enslaving  or  selling 
into  slavery  captive  Indians,  many  of  whom  were  shipped  to  the  West  Indies. 
"In  the  early  days  of  the  colonies  the  enslavement  of  Indians  by  settlers  seems 
to  have  been  general."  — H.  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


most  complaisant  terms.  Finally  the  warriors  stepped 
ashore,  all  naked,  abandoning  to  pillage,  according  to 
their  custom,  all  their  booty.  An  old  man  came,  at  the 
head  of  nine  men,  to  conduct  the  captives  to  a  place  at 
one  side ;  there  were  five  old  men  and  four  youths.  The 
women  and  the  children  immediately  ranged  themselves 
in  rows,  very  much  as  is  done  when  some  soldier  is 
flogged  through  the  lines.  The  young  captives,  who 
were  very  agile,  quickly  passed  through;  but  the  old 
men  were  so  hardly  used  that  they  bled  profusely.  The 
former  were  awarded  to  masters,  who  spared  their  lives ; 
but  the  old  men  were  condemned  to  the  flames.  They 
were  placed  on  the  Manilion,  which  is  the  place  where 
the  captives  are  burned,  until  the  chiefs  had  decided 
to  which  tribe  they  should  be  handed  over.  The  Jesuit 
fathers  and  the  commandants  were  greatly  embarrassed, 
in  so  delicate  a  situation ;  for  they  feared  that  the  five 
Iroquois  tribes  would  complain  of  the  little  care  which 
the  French  took  of  their  people  at  the  very  time  when 
there  was  discussion  of  a  general  peace.  They  sent  a 
large  collar  of  porcelain  to  redeem  the  captives;  the 
Outaouaks  insolently  replied  that  they  would  be  masters 
of  their  own  actions,  without  depending  on  any  one 
whatsoever.  Sieur  Perrot,  who  was  at  Michilimakinak 
with  the  three  Sauteur  girls,  had  a  strong  ascendency 
over  the  minds  of  those  peoples ;  and  he  was  called  upon 
to  make  in  person  the  demand  for  the  captives.  He  went 
to  the  cabin  of  their  council  of  war,  with  a  collar,  ac- 
companied by  those  persons  who  had  presented  the  first 
one.  He  passed  in  front  of  the  Manilion,  on  which  the 
prisoners,  who  awaited  their  fate,  were  singing;  he  made 
them  sit  down,  and  told  them  to  cease  their  songs.  Some 
Outaouaks  roughly  ordered  them  to  continue ;  but  Per- 
rot replied  to  these  that  he  intended  that  the  captives 

40  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

should  be  silent,  and  he  actually  silenced  their  guards, 
telling  the  slaves  that  soon  he  would  be  the  master  of 
their  bodies.  He  entered  the  council,  where  he  found 
all  the  old  men,  who  had  already  pronounced  sentence; 
one  was  to  be  burned  at  the  Bay  of  Puans,  the  second  at 
the  Saut,  and  the  three  others  at  Michilimakinak.  Per- 
rot  was  not  disconcerted  by  that;  he  hung  his  porcelain 
collar  to  a  pole  when  he  entered,  and  addressed  them 
nearly  in  this  manner: 

"I  come  to  cut  the  cords  on  the  dogs ;  I  am  not  willing 
that  they  should  be  eaten.  I  have  pity  on  them,  since 
my  father  Onontio  takes  pity  on  them,  and  even  has  com- 
manded me  to  do  so.  You  Outaouaks  are  like  bears  who 
have  been  tamed ;  when  one  gives  them  a  little  freedom, 
they  will  no  longer  recognize  those  who  have  reared 
them.  You  no  longer  remember  the  protection  of  Onon- 
tio, without  which  you  would  not  possess  any  country; 
I  am  maintaining  you  in  it,  and  you  are  living  in  peace. 
When  he  asks  from  you  a  few  tokens  of  obedience,  you 
wish  to  lord  it  over  him,  and  to  eat  the  flesh  of  those 
people,  whom  he  will  not  abandon  to  you.  Take  care 
lest  you  are  unable  to  swallow  them,  and  lest  Onontio 
snatch  them  by  force  from  between  your  teeth.  I  speak 
to  you  as  a  brother;  and  I  think  that  I  am  taking  pity  on 
your  children  when  I  cut  the  bonds  of  your  captives." 

This  discourse  did  not  seem  very  compelling  for  ob- 
taining a  favor  of  this  sort;  nevertheless,  it  had  all  the 
success  that  one  could  desire.  Indeed,  one  of  the  chiefs 
began  to  speak,  and  said:  "See,  it  is  the  master  of  the 
land  who  speaks;  his  canoe  is  always  full  of  captives 
whom  he  sets  free,  and  how  can  we  refuse  him?"  They 
sent  word  immediately  to  bring  the  captives,  to  whom 
they  granted  life  in  open  council. 

The  liberty  which  these  five  old  men  came  to  enjoy 


was  a  result  of  chance,  or  rather  of  caprice.  One  must 
be  very  politic  in  order  to  manage  those  peoples,  who  so 
easily  stray  from  their  duty;  they  should  not  be  flattered 
much,  and  likewise  should  not  be  reduced  to  despair. 
They  are  managed  only  by  solid  and  convincing  argu- 
ments, which  must  be  gently  placed  before  them,  but 
without  sparing  those  people  when  they  are  in  the 
wrong;  but  it  is  necessary  to  keep  them  up  with  hopes, 
making  them  understand  that  they  will  be  rewarded 
when  they  have  deserved  it. 

As  all  the  tribes  were  to  send  deputies  to  Montreal,  to 
be  present  at  the  general  peace,  the  Outaouaks  thought 
it  opportune  to  send  to  Monsieur  de  Denonville  two  of 
those  liberated  captives,  to  the  end  that  so  authentic  an 
example  of  their  generosity  might  shine  in  the  general 
council.  They  desired  that  Perrot  should  let  the  cap- 
tives be  seen  beforehand  in  their  own  country,  in  order 
thus  to  induce  the  Five  Nations  to  commit  no  further 
act  of  hostility  against  them,  but  to  be  very  cautious  to 
use  this  means  without  the  order  of  the  general.  He 
told  them  that  he  did  not  know  of  any  open  door  among 
the  Iroquois  except  that  indicated  by  the  ordinary  road, 
which  was  the  only  one  by  which  he  could  enter;  and 
that  ever  since  he  had  had  access  to  the  cabin  of  Onon- 
tio,  and  had  warmed  himself  at  his  fire,  he  would  go,  if 
Onontio  wished  to  open  the  door  of  the  Iroquois,  to 
carry  his  message  to  all  of  his  villages  if  he  should  com- 
mand him  to  do  so.  The  Outaouaks  were  pleased  with 
these  arguments ;  they  recommended  to  him  the  interests 
of  their  tribe,  and  entreated  him  to  be  their  spokesman 
in  the  general  council.  They  gave  him  Petite  Racine 
[i.e.,  "Little  Root"],  one  of  their  chiefs,  who  had  orders 
only  to  make  a  report  of  all  the  deliberations ;  and  they 
assured  him  that,  if  unfortunately  he  were  killed  on  the 

42  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

journey  through  the  Iroquois  country,  they  would 
avenge  his  death,  and  that  they  would  never  consent  to  a 
peace  until  they  had  first  sacrificed  to  his  spirit  many  of 
the  Iroquois  families.  This  was  in  truth  the  most  con- 
vincing proof  of  the  esteem  which  they  felt  for  him. 
But  the  affairs  of  the  colony  entirely  changed  their  as- 
pect; if  the  most  powerful  states  are  sometimes  subject 
to  revolutions,  we  say  that  distant  countries,  [even]  the 
most  stable,  are  also  exposed  to  cruel  catastrophes.  In- 
deed Canada,  which  had  never  been  so  flourishing,  sud- 
denly found  itself,  so  to  speak,  the  prey  of  its  enemies. 
All  the  tribes  who  heard  the  French  name  mentioned 
wished  only  for  means  of  forming  alliance  with  our  na- 
tion; and  those  who  were  already  known  to  us  found 
that  it  was  very  agreeable  to  be  under  our  protection. 
On  the  other  hand,  its  enemies  found  themselves  hu- 
miliated in  the  sight  of  an  infinite  number  of  peoples. 
Even  the  English,  affected  by  the  disaster  to  their 
friends,  in  some  sort  implored  the  good  graces  of  him 
who  had  chastised  the  latter.  Nothing,  therefore,  was 
more  glorious  for  the  Marquis  de  Denonville,  but  noth- 
ing was  more  touching  than  the  occasion  when  he  beheld 
utter  desolation  in  the  center  of  his  government.  It  was 
then  that  the  Iroquois  came  suddenly  to  the  island  of 
Montreal,  to  the  number  of  fifteen  hundred  warriors; 
they  put  to  the  sword  all  that  they  encountered  in  the 
space  of  seven  leagues.17  They  rendered  themselves 

17  This  refers  to  the  sudden  raid  made  by  the  Iroquois  against  the  island 
of  Montreal  in  1689;  on  Aug.  25  of  that  year  1,500  of  those  savages  surprised 
the  village  of  Lachine,  near  Montreal,  and  slew  or  took  captive  all  its  inhabi- 
tants; and  thence  they  ravaged  the  entire  island  with  fire  and  sword.  This 
fearful  disaster  caused  terror  in  all  the  French  settlements,  and  made  many  of 
the  friendly  tribes  waver  in  their  allegiance  to  France;  but  in  the  same  year 
Count  de  Frontenac  was  sent  to  Canada  for  a  second  term  as  governor,  and 
his  able  rule  soon  restored  peace  and  safety.  This  Iroquois  raid  was  doubtless 
caused  by  resentment  on  the  part  of  the  Five  Nations  at  Denonville's  punitive 
expedition  into  their  country  in  1687,  and  still  more  by  his  treacherous  seizure 


masters  of  the  open  country  by  using  the  cover  of  the 
woods;  and  no  person  could  set  foot  on  the  land  along 
the  river  who  was  not  captured  or  killed.  They  spread 
themselves  on  every  side  with  the  same  rapidity  as  does 
a  torrent.  Nothing  could  resist  the  fury  of  those  bar- 
barians, no  matter  what  action  was  taken  to  furnish  aid 
to  those  whom  our  people  saw  carried  away  [into  cap- 
tivity], or  to  resist  the  various  parties  of  the  enemy.  The 
French  were  compelled  to  shut  themselves  at  once  with- 
in two  wretched  little  forts ;  and  if  the  Flemings  had  not 
warned  them  to  be  very  careful  to  remain  close  to  the 
forts  it  may  be  said  that  the  enemy  would  have  made  an 
end  of  them  with  the  same  facility  that  they  did  of  all 
the  settlements  that  they  ravaged.  The  open  counry  was 
laid  waste;  the  ground  was  everywhere  covered  with 
corpses,  and  the  Iroquois  carried  away  six-score  captives, 
most  of  whom  were  burned ;  but  these  are  misfortunes 
which  ought  not  to  cause  the  least  damage  to  the  glory 
of  a  general.  It  is  not  surprising  that  the  savages  came 
to  make  incursions  and  raids  into  so  vast  a  region.  The 
skill  of  these  peoples  is,  to  avoid  combats  in  open  coun- 
try, because  they  do  not  know  how  to  offer  battle  or  make 
evolutions  therein;  their  manner  of  conducting  battles 
is  altogether  different  from  that  of  Europe.  The  for- 
ests are  the  most  secure  retreats,  in  which  they  fight  ad- 
vantageously; for  it  is  agreed  that  these  fifteen  hundred 
warriors  would  have  cut  to  pieces  more  than  six  thousand 
men,  if  the  latter  should  advance  into  the  mountainous 
country  where  the  savages  were.  There  are  no  troops 
of  the  sort  that  are  in  Europe  who  could  succeed  in  such 
an  enterprise,  not  only  in  equal  but  even  in  far  superior 

of  a  number  of  their  chiefs,  whom  he  sent  to  work  on  the  galleys  in  France  —  an 
act  which  violated  the  law  of  nations  even  the  most  primitive,  and  was  both 
dastardly  and  cruel.  —  ED. 

44 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

Chapter  XVII 

La  Petite  Racine  ["Little  Root"],  who  had  come  [to 
Montreal]  on  behalf  of  his  tribe  to  be  a  witness  of  all 
that  should  take  place  in  the  general  peace  council, 
found  an  altogether  extraordinary  change  in  the  con- 
dition of  affairs;  he  traded  the  peltries  that  he  had 
brought  down,  and  promptly  returned  home.  Monsieur 
Denonville  despatched  with  him  a  canoe,  by  which  he 
sent  his  orders  to  Monsieur  de  la  Durantaye,  comman- 
dant at  Michilimakinak.  This  chief,  on  his  return, 
caused  universal  alarm.  The  Outaouaks  informed  all 
the  tribes  of  the  devastation  that  had  been  inflicted  upon 
the  French,  and  entreated  all  the  chiefs  to  come  to 
Michilimakinak,  that  they  might  consult  together  upon 
the  measures  that  ought  to  be  taken  regarding  the 
wretched  condition  into  which  they  were  going  to  be 
plunged.  They  resolved  in  their  general  council  to 
send  to  Tsonnontouan  some  deputies,  with  two  of  those 
Iroquois  old  men  whom  they  had  set  free,  in  order  to 
assure  the  Iroquois  that  they  would  have  no  further  con- 
nection with  the  French,  and  that  they  desired  to  main- 
tain with  the  Iroquois  a  close  alliance. 

The  Hurons  feigned  not  to  join  in  the  revolt  of  the 
Outaouaks;  the  policy  of  those  peoples  is  so  shrewd 
that  it  is  difficult  to  penetrate  its  secrets.  When  they 
undertake  any  enterprise  of  importance  against  a  nation 
whom  they  fear,  especially  against  the  French,  they  seem 
to  form  two  parties -one  conspiring  for  and  the  other 
opposing  it;  if  the  former  succeed  in  their  projects,  the 
latter  approve  and  sustain  what  has  been  done;  if  their 
designs  are  thwarted,  they  retire  to  the  other  side.  Ac- 
cordingly, they  always  attain  their  objects.  But  such 
was  not  the  case  in  this  emergency;  they  were  so  terrified 


by  La  Petite  Racine's  report  that  neither  the  Jesuits  nor 
the  commandant  could  pacify  those  people  -  who  re- 
proached them,  with  the  most  atrocious  insults,  saying 
that  the  French  had  abused  them.  Matters  reached  so 
pitiable  a  condition  that  Monsieur  de  la  Durantaye  had 
need  of  all  his  experience  and  good  management  to  keep 
his  fort  and  maintain  the  interests  of  the  colony -an 
undertaking  that  any  other  man  would  have  abandoned ; 
for  the  savages  are  fickle,  take  umbrage  at  everything, 
are  time-serving,  and  are  seldom  friends  except  as  ca- 
price and  self-interest  induce  them  to  act  as  such;  it  is 
necessary  to  take  them  on  their  weak  side,  and  to  profit 
by  certain  moments  when  one  can  penetrate  their  de- 

Soon  afterward,  Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  Dcnon- 
ville  was  recalled  to  court,  his  majesty  having  appointed 
him  sub-governor  to  Monsieur  the  Duke  of  Bourgogne 
[i.e.,  Burgundy].  Monsieur  the  Count  de  Frontenac 
succeeded  him,  and  arrived  in  Canada  at  the  end  of 
October,  1689.  Monsieur  de  la  Durantaye,  who  had 
remained  at  Michilimakinak,  despatched  a  canoe  to  the 
new  governor,  to  acquaint  him  with  all  the  movements 
of  the  Outaouaks,  and,  as  he  held  only  a  temporary  com- 
mand in  the  post  which  he  was  occupying,  Monsieur  de 
Frontenac  sent  Monsieur  de  Louvigni  to  relieve  him. 
That  governor  was  of  opinion,  at  the  outset,  that  it  was 
desirable  to  make  known  his  arrival  to  all  the  tribes; 
Perrot  was  the  man  whom  he  selected  for  that  purpose; 
he  ordered  him,  at  the  same  time,  to  make  every  effort  to 
pacify  the  troubles  that  the  Outaouaks  might  have  occa- 
sioned in  those  regions.  He  was  accordingly  despatched 
with  Monsieur  de  Louvigni,  who  cut  to  pieces,  at  fifty 
leagues  from  Montreal,  a  party  of  sixty  Iroquois;  three 
of  these  he  sent  as  prisoners  to  Monsieur  de  Frontenac, 

46  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

and  another  he  took  with  him.  He  also  carried  away 
many  scalps,  in  order  to  show  them  to  the  Outaouaks,  in 
the  hope  of  bringing  about  a  reconciliation  with  them; 
but  those  peoples  had  already  secured  the  start  of  him, 
lest  they  should  draw  upon  themselves  the  indignation 
of  the  Iroquois.  On  the  route  the  French  learned, 
through  the  Missisakis,  that  La  Petite  Racine  had  gone 
as  ambassador  to  the  Iroquois  with  two  chiefs;  that 
nothing  had  been  heard  about  them  since,  except  that 
it  was  said  that  one  of  them  was  yet  to  depart.  This  news 
induced  Monsieur  de  Louvigni  to  send  Perrot  with  two 
canoes  to  Michilimakinak,  to  inform  the  French  of  his 
arrival.  As  soon  as  he  came  in  sight  of  the  place,  he 
displayed  the  white  flag,  and  his  men  uttered  loud  shouts 
of  "Vive  le  Roi!"  The  French  judged,  by  that,  that 
some  good  news  had  come  from  Montreal.  The  Outa- 
ouaks ran  to  the  edge  of  the  shore,  not  in  the  least  under- 
standing all  these  outcries ;  as  they  were  thoroughly  per- 
suaded that  our  affairs  were  in  very  bad  condition,  they 
were  so  politic  as  to  say  that  they  would  receive  in  war- 
like fashion  the  French  who  were  on  the  way.  They 
were  warned  that  our  usages  were  different  from  theirs; 
we  were  unwilling  that  they  should  swarm  into  our  ca- 
noes to  pillage  them,  as  is  their  custom  in  regard  to 
nations  who  come  back  victorious  from  any  military  ex- 
pedition, abandoning  whatever  is  in  their  canoes;  we 
preferred  that  they  should  be  content  with  receiving 
presents.  Warning  was  sent  to  Monsieur  de  Louvigni 
that  he  would  be  received  in  military  array,  with  all  the 
Frenchmen  whom  he  was  bringing;  all  sorts  of  precau- 
tions were  taken  lest  we  should  be  duped  by  those  peo- 
ples, who  were  capable  of  laying  violent  hands  on  us 
when  we  were  least  expecting  such  action.  The  canoes 
came  into  view,  at  their  head  the  one  in  which  was  the 


Iroquois  slave;  according  to  custom,  he  was  made  to 
sing,  all  the  time  standing  upright.  The  Nepiciriniens 
who  had  accompanied  the  Frenchmen  responded  with 
them,  keeping  time,  by  loud  shouts  of  "Sassakoue!"  fol- 
lowed by  volleys  of  musketry.  A  hundred  Frenchmen 
of  Michilimakinak  were  stationed,  under  arms,  on  the 
water's  edge  at  the  foot  of  their  village ;  they  had  only 
powder  in  their  guns,  but  had  taken  the  precaution  to 
place  bullets  in  their  mouths.  The  fleet,  which  pro- 
ceeded in  regular  array,  as  if  it  were  going  to  make  a 
descent  on  an  enemy's  country,  gradually  came  near. 
When  the  canoes  neared  the  village  of  the  Outaouaks, 18 
they  halted,  and  the  Iroquois  was  made  to  sing;  a  volley 
of  musket-shots,  to  which  the  Outaouaks  responded,  ac- 
companied his  song.  The  fleet  crossed,  in  nearly  a 
straight  line,  to  the  French  village,  but  did  not  at  once 
come  to  land.  The  Outaouaks  hastened,  all  in  battle 
array,  to  the  landing-place,  while  the  men  in  the  canoes 
replied  to  the  prisoner's  songs  with  loud  yells  and  firing 
of  guns,  as  also  did  the  French  of  Michilimakinak.  At 
last,  when  it  was  necessary  to  go  on  shore,  Monsieur  de 
Louvigni  had  his  men  load  their  guns  with  ball,  and 
disembark  with  weapons  ready;  the  Outaouaks  stood  at 
a  little  distance  on  the  shore,  without  making  any  further 

The  Hurons-who,  although  they  have  been  at  all 
times  very  unreliable,  had  seemed  greatly  attached  to 
our  interests  amid  the  general  conspiracy  of  the  Outa- 
ouaks-demanded  the  slave,  in  order  to  have  him 
burned;19  the  other  tribes  were  jealous  of  that  prefer- 

18 The  French  post  of  Michilimackinac  then  stood  on  the  mainland,  at  the 
site  of  the  present  St.  Ignace.  There  were  three  separate  villages,  those  of 
the  French,  Hurons,  and  Ottawas.  A  detailed  map,  showing  these,  is  found  in 
La  Hontan's  Voyages  (ed.  1741,  Amsterdam,  tome  i,  156)  ;  this  is  reproduced 
in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  xvi,  136.- ED. 

19  "The  treatment  accorded  captives  was  governed  by  those  limited  ethical 

48  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

ence.  The  Huron  chiefs,  who  were  very  politic,  after 
many  deliberations  warned  their  people  not  to  put  him 
in  the  kettle;  their  object  in  this  was  to  render  them- 

concepts  which  went  hand  in  hand  with  clan,  gentile,  and  other  consanguine  a  1 
organizations  of  Indian  society.  From  the  members  of  his  own  consanguineal 
group,  or  what  was  considered  such,  certain  ethical  duties  were  exacted  of  an 
Indian  which  could  not  be  neglected  without  destroying  the  fabric  of  society  or 
outlawing  the  transgressor.  Toward  other  clans,  gentes,  or  bands  of  the  same 
tribe  his  actions  were  also  governed  by  well  recognized  customs  and  usages 
which  had  grown  up  during  ages  of  intercourse;  but  with  remote  bands  or 
tribes  good  relations  were  assured  only  by  some  formal  peace-making  cere- 
mony. A  peace  of  this  kind  was  very  tenuous,  however,  especially  where  there 
had  been  a  long-standing  feud,  and  might  be  broken  in  an  instant.  Toward 
a  person  belonging  to  some  tribe  with  which  there  was  neither  war  nor  peace, 
the  attitude  was  governed  largely  by  the  interest  of  the  moment.  .  .  If  the 
stranger  belonged  to  a  clan  or  gens  represented  in  the  tribe  he  was  among,  the 
members  of  that  clan  or  gens  usually  greeted  him  as  a  brother  and  extended 
their  protection  over  him.  Another  defense  for  the  stranger  was  — what  with 
civilized  people  is  one  of  the  best  guaranties  against  war  — the  fear  of  dis- 
turbing or  deflecting  trade.  .  .  If  nothing  were  to  be  had  from  the  stranger, 
he  might  be  entirely  ignored.  And,  finally,  the  existence  of  a  higher  ethical 
feeling  toward  strangers,  even  when  there  was  apparently  no  self-interest  to 
be  served  in  hospitality,  is  often  in  evidence.  .  .  At  the  same  time  the 
attitude  assumed  toward  a  person  thrown  among  Indians  too  far  from  his  own 
people  to  be  protected  by  any  ulterior  hopes  or  fears  on  the  part  of  his  captors 
was  usually  that  of  master  to  slave.  .  .  The  majority  of  captives,  however, 
were  those  taken  in  war.  These  were  considered  to  have  forfeited  their  lives  and 
to  have  been  actually  dead  as  to  their  previous  existence.  It  was  often  thought 
that  the  captive's  supernatural  helper  had  been  destroyed  or  made  to  submit 
to  that  of  the  captor,  though  where  not  put  to  death  with  torture  to  satisfy  the 
victor's  desire  for  revenge  and  to  give  the  captive  an  opportunity  to  show  his 
fortitude,  he  might  in  a  way  be  reborn  by  undergoing  a  form  of  adoption. 
It  is  learned  from  the  numerous  accounts  of  white  persons  who  had  been  taken 
by  Indians  that  the  principal  hardships  they  endured  were  due  to  the  rapid 
movements  of  their  captors  in  order  to  escape  pursuers,  and  the  continual 
threats  to  which  they  were  subjected,"  threats  which  were,  however,  seldom 
carried  out;  and  a  certain  amount  of  consideration  was  often  shown  toward 
captive  women  and  children.  "It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  the  honor  of  a 
white  woman  was  almost  always  respected  by  her  captors  among  the  tribes 
east  of  the  Mississippi;  but  west  of  that  limit,  on  the  plains,  in  the  Columbia 
River  region,  and  in  the  southwest,  the  contrary  was  often  the  case."  The 
disposal  of  the  captives  taken  by  war-parties  varied  in  many  ways.  Running 
the  gauntlet,  dancing  for  the  entertainment  of  their  captors,  tortures  of  various 
kinds,  and  often  burning  at  the  stake  (sometimes  accompanied  by  cannibalism), 
were  among  the  methods  of  their  reception  in  the  enemy's  country;  but  the 
majority  were  regarded  and  treated  as  slaves  by  their  captors,  being  sometimes 


selves  acceptable  to  the  Iroquois,  in  case  peace  should 
be  made  with  that  people,  by  the  distinguished  service 
which  they  would  have  rendered  to  one  of  their  chiefs  by 
saving  him  from  the  fire ;  but  we  very  plainly  saw  their 
design.  The  Outaouaks,  who  were  greatly  offended, 
could  not  refrain  from  saying  that  it  would  be  necessary 
to  eat  him.  That  Iroquois  was  surprised  that  a  mere 
handful  of  Hurons,  whom  his  own  people  had  enslaved, 
should  have  prevailed  on  an  occasion  of  such  impor- 

The  father  who  was  missionary  to  the  Hurons,  fore- 
seeing that  this  affair  might  have  results  which  would 
be  prejudicial  to  his  cares  for  their  instruction,  demand- 
ed permission  to  go  to  their  village  that  he  might  con- 
strain them  to  find  some  way  by  which  the  resentment 
of  the  French  might  be  appeased.  He  told  them  that 
the  latter  peremptorily  ordered  them  to  put  the  Iro- 
quois in  the  kettle  and  that,  if  they  did  not  do  so,  the 
French  must  come  to  take  him  away  from  them  and 
place  him  in  their  own  fort.  Some  Outaouaks  who  hap- 
pened to  be  present  at  the  council  said  that  the  French 
were  right.  The  Hurons  then  saw  themselves  con- 
strained to  beg  the  father  to  tell  the  French,  on  their 
behalf,  that  they  asked  for  a  little  delay,  in  order  that 
they  might  bind  him  to  the  stake.  They  did  this,  and 
began  to  burn  his  fingers;  but  the  slave  displayed  so 
great  lack  of  courage,  by  the  tears  that  he  shed,  that  they 
judged  him  unworthy  to  die  a  warrior's  death,  and  de- 
spatched him  with  their  weapons. 

The  chiefs  of  all  the  nations  at  Michilimakinak  were 

sold  to  other  tribes,  and  sometimes  ransomed  (especially  when  whites).  Often 
a  captive  was  adopted  to  take  the  place  of  some  person  who  had  died,  and 
thus  was  liberated  from  slavery.  Most  women  and  children  were  preserved 
and  adopted ;  and  the  Iroquois  adopted  entire  bands  or  even  tribes  in  order  to 
recruit  their  own  population.  — JOHN  R.  SWANTON,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 
[Cf.  vol.  i,  footnote  134.  — ED.] 

50  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

summoned  to  meet  at  the  house  of  the  Jesuit  fathers; 
and  before  each  one  was  placed  a  present  of  guns,  am- 
munition, and  tobacco.  Our  envoy  represented  to  them 
their  short-sightedness  in  abandoning  the  interests  of 
the  French  nation  to  embrace  those  of  the  Iroquois, 
whose  only  desire  was  for  such  a  rupture.  They  were 
told  that  Onontio,  who  had  every  reason  to  abandon 
them,  was  nevertheless  touched  with  compassion  for  his 
children,  whom  he  desired  to  bring  back  to  himself ;  and 
that  he  had  sent  the  band  of  Frenchmen  who  had  just 
arrived  among  them,  striving  to  restore  to  the  right  path 
their  minds,  which  had  gone  astray.  That  those  houses 
burned  on  Montreal  Island  by  the  Iroquois,  and  the  few 
corpses  that  they  had  seen  in  the  unexpected  invasion 
which  the  latter  had  made  there,  ought  not  to  have  such 
an  effect  on  their  minds  as  to  persuade  them  that  all  was 
lost  in  the  colony;  that  the  Iroquois  would  not  derive 
much  profit  from  a  blow  which  would  far  more  redound 
to  their  shame  than  to  the  glory  of  true  warriors,  since 
they  had  come  at  that  very  time  to  ask  for  peace.  That 
the  French  nation  was  more  numerous  than  they  im- 
agined; that  they  must  look  upon  it  as  a  great  river 
which  never  ran  dry,  and  whose  course  could  not  be 
checked  by  any  barrier.  That  they  ought  to  regard  the 
five  Iroquois  nations  as  five  cabins  of  muskrats  in  a 
marsh  which  the  French  would  soon  drain  off,  and  then 
burn  them  there;  that  they  could  be  satisfied  that  the 
hundred  women  and  children  who  had  been  treacher- 
ously carried  away  would  be  replaced  by  many  soldiers, 
whom  the  great  Onontio,  the  king  of  France,  would  send 
to  avenge  them.  That  since  our  Onontio  of  Canada,  the 
Count  de  Frontenac,  had  arrived  at  Quebec,  he  had 
made  the  English  feel  the  strength  of  his  arms,  by  the 
various  war-parties  that  he  had  sent  into  their  country; 


that  even  the  Nepiciriniens  who  had  recently  come  up  to 
Michilimakinak  with  Monsieur  de  Louvigni  had  given 
us  no  little  aid  in  putting  five  large  English  villages  to 
fire  and  sword;  that  Onontio  was  powerful  enough  to 
destroy  the  Iroquois,  the  English,  and  their  allies.  Fi- 
nally, if  any  one  of  these  tribes  undertook  to  declare 
themselves  in  favor  of  the  Iroquois,  he  gave  them  liberty 
to  do  so,  but  he  would  not  consent  that  those  who  wielded 
the  war-club  to  maintain  their  own  interests  should  here- 
after dwell  upon  his  lands;  that,  if  they  preferred  to  be 
Iroquois,  we  would  become  their  enemies;  and  that  it 
would  be  seen,  without  any  further  explanations,  who 
should  remain  master  of  the  country. 

The  chief  of  the  Cinagos,  rising  in  the  council,  spoke 
in  these  terms:  "My  brother  the  Outaouak,  vomit 
forth  thy  hateful  feelings  and  all  thy  plots.  Return  to 
thy  father,  who  stretches  out  his  arms,  and  who  is,  more- 
over, not  unable  to  protect  thee."  Nothing  more  was 
needed  to  overturn  all  the  schemes  of  the  malcontents. 
The  chiefs  of  each  nation  protested  that  they  would 
undertake  no  action  against  the  will  of  their  father.  But, 
whatever  assurance  they  gave  of  their  fidelity,  most  of 
them,  seeing  their  designs  foiled,  sought  to  thwart  us  by 
other  subterfuges.  They  did  not  dare,  it  is  true,  to  carry 
out  their  resolution  -  either  because  they  were  unwill- 
ing to  risk  a  combat  with  the  French,  who  were  only 
waiting  for  a  final  decision;  or  because  they  did  not 
know  how  they  could  transport  their  families  to  the  Iro- 
quois country- but  all  their  desire  was  for  the  time  when 
they  could  open  the  way  for  a  large  troop  from  that 
nation  who  could  carry  them  away.  They  decided, 
however,  in  a  secret  conclave  that  they  would  send  to 
the  Iroquois  the  same  deputies  on  whom  they  had  pre- 
viously agreed;  and  that,  if  their  departure  should  un- 

52  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

fortunately  be  discovered,  the  old  men  should  disown 
them.  This  mystery  was  not  kept  so  hidden  that  we  did 
not  receive  warning  of  it.  A  Sauteur  came  to  warn 
Perrot  of  their  intention;  one  of  their  deputies  entering 
his  cabin  a  little  later,  he  reproached  him  for  it.  But,  as 
the  savage  is  by  nature  an  enemy  of  deceit,  this  man 
could  not  long  disguise  his  sentiments ;  and  he  admitted 
that  his  brother  was  at  the  head  of  that  embassy.  Mon- 
sieur de  Louvigni  did  not  hesitate  to  call  together  all  the 
chiefs,  whom  he  sharply  rebuked  for  their  faithlessness. 
The  Outaouaks  thought  that  they  could  exculpate  them- 
selves by  casting  all  the  blame  upon  the  man  who  was  to 
go  away.  Messengers  were  sent  for  him,  and  never  did 
a  man  seem  more  ashamed  than  he  when  he  saw  that  he 
must  appear  before  the  council;  he  entered  the  place 
with  the  utmost  mortification  in  his  face.  His  brother 
said  to  him:  "Our  chiefs  are  throwing  the  stone  at 
thee,  and  they  say  that  they  know  nothing  about  thy  de- 
parture for  the  Iroquois."  Perrot  took  up  the  word, 
saying:  "My  brother,  how  is  this?  I  thought  that  thou 
wast  the  supporter  of  the  French  who  are  at  Michili- 
makinak.  When  the  attack  was  made  at  Tsonnontouan, 
all  the  Outaouaks  gave  way ;  thou  alone,  with  two  others, 
didst  second  the  French.  At  all  times  thou  hast  kept 
nothing  for  thyself;  when  thou  hadst  anything  thou 
gavest  it  to  the  French,  whom  thou  didst  love  as  thine 
own  brothers;  yet  now  thou  wouldst,  against  the  wishes 
of  thy  tribe,  betray  us.  Onontio,  who  remembers  thee, 
has  told  me  to  reward  thee ;  I  do  not  think  that  thou  art 
capable  of  opposing  his  wishes."  He  gave  the  man  a 
brasse  of  tobacco  and  a  shirt,  and  continued :  "See  what 
he  has  given  me  to  show  thee  that  he  remembers  thee. 
Although  thou  hast  done  wrong,  I  will  give  thee  some- 
thing to  smoke,  so  that  thou  mayest  vomit  up  or  swallow 


whatever  thou  hast  intended  to  do  against  him ;  and  thy 
body,  which  is  soiled  by  treason,  shall  be  made  clean  by 
this  shirt,  which  will  make  it  white."  That  chief  was  so 
overcome  with  sorrow  that  it  was  a  long  time  before  he 
could  speak;  he  recovered  himself  somewhat,  and,  ad- 
dressing the  old  men,  with  an  air  full  of  pride  and  con- 
tempt, said  to  them:  "Employ  me  in  future,  old  men, 
when  you  undertake  to  plot  anything  against  my  father - 
he  who  remembers  me,  and  against  whom  I  have  taken 
sides.  I  belong  wholly  to  him ;  and  never  will  I  take 
part  against  the  French."  Then  turning  toward  Perrot, 
he  said  to  him:  "I  will  not  lie  to  thee.  When  thou 
didst  arrive,  I  went  near  thee,  intending  to  embrace 
thee;  but  thou  didst  regard  me  unkindly.  I  thought 
that  thou  hadst  abandoned  me,  because  I  had  been  to  the 
Iroquois  with  La  Petite  Racine.  When  thou  didst  speak 
to  the  tribes,  I  withdrew,  in  order  to  divert  them  from 
the  design  that  we  all  had  of  giving  ourselves  to  the  Iro- 
quois. They  did  not  dare  to  oppose  thee;  but  at  night 
they  held  a  council  in  a  cabin  (from  which  they  turned 
out  all  the  women  and  children),  to  which  I  was  sum- 
moned. They  deputed  me  to  return  to  the  Iroquois,  and 
I  believed  that  thou  hadst  a  grudge  against  me;  those 
reasons  constrained  me  to  yield  to  what  they  demanded 
from  me." 

Those  peoples  could  no  longer  maintain  their  evil  de- 
sign ;  the  explanations  that  had  just  been  made  checked 
its  progress;  but  they  always  kept  up  a  very  surly  feel- 
ing against  the  French  nation,  and,  although  they  saw 
that  they  were  unable  to  compass  their  object,  they  did 
not  fail  again  to  stir  up  opposition  against  us,  in  order 
to  annoy  us.  The  jealousy  that  they  felt  because  we 
made  presents  of  a  few  gold-trimmed  jackets  to  some 
Hurons,  who  had  appeared  to  be  our  friends  in  this  af- 

54 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

fair,  inspired  in  them  a  new  stratagem.  They  knew  that 
the  Miamis,  our  allies,  were  at  war  with  the  Iroquois; 
and  they  resolved  to  attack  the  former,  who  did  not  mis- 
trust their  design,  that  they  might  force  the  Miamis 
themselves  to  make  peace  with  the  Iroquois.  The  Sau- 
teur  who  had  already  ascertained  that  the  Outaouaks 
had  intended  to  send  deputies  to  the  Iroquois  also 
learned  that  two  canoes  were  to  go  to  break  heads  among 
the  Miamis ;  but  we  again  broke  up  their  plans,  and  pre- 
vented this  act. 

The  Outagamis  and  the  Maskoutechs,  wishing  to  sec- 
ond the  Outaouaks  at  the  time  when  they  took  sides  with 
the  Iroquois -who  had  sent  them  a  large  collar,  in  order 
to  thank  them  for  having  restored  to  them  five  chiefs 
whom  they  had  captured  when  on  a  hostile  expedition 
against  the  Islinois- resolved,  to  do  the  Iroquois  a  plea- 
sure, to  massacre  all  the  French  who  were  coming  down 
from  the  country  of  the  Nadouaissioux.  They  per- 
suaded themselves  that  they  would,  by  such  a  massacre, 
attract  to  themselves  the  friendship  of  that  haughty 
nation,  who  had  appeared  greatly  pleased  when  the 
Outagamis  had  sent  back  to  them  five  slaves  of  their  na- 
tion, whom  the  Miamis  had  given  to  them  to  eat. 

The  arrival  of  the  French  at  Michilimakinak  was 
heard  of  at  La  Baye.  The  chief  of  the  Puans,  a  man  of 
sense,  who  greatly  loved  our  nation,  resolved  to  thwart 
the  plot  to  kill  our  people.  He  went  to  find  the  Outa- 
gamis, and  made  them  believe  that  Onontio  had  sent  La 
Petit  Bled  d'Inde  [i.e.,  Perrot]  with  three  hundred  Iro- 
quois from  the  Sault,  as  many  more  Abenaquis, 20  all  the 

20Abnaki  (a  term  derived  from  Algonkin  words  meaning  "east-land,"  or 
"morning-land"),  "a  name  used  by  the  English  and  French  to  designate  an 
Algonquian  confederacy  centering  in  the  present  state  of  Maine,  and  by  the 
Algonquian  tribes  to  include  all  those  of  their  own  stock  resident  on  the  Atlantic 
seaboard,  more  particularly  the  'Abnaki'  in  the  north  and  the  Delawares  in  the 
south.  .  .  In  later  times,  after  the  main  body  of  the  Abnaki  had  removed 


Nepiciriniens,  and  six  hundred  Frenchmen,  to  revenge 
himself  for  their  evil  project.  The  Outagamis  precipi- 
tately quitted  their  ambuscade,  and  went  back  to  their 
village.  This  chief,  who  was  afraid  that  they  would 
learn  of  his  ruse,  went  to  meet  Perrot  at  the  entrance  of 
the  bay;  the  latter  promised  to  keep  his  secret,  and  pre- 
sented to  him  a  gold-trimmed  jacket.  A  contrary  wind 
compelled  them  to  halt  there  for  a  time,  and  Perrot  had 
an  opportunity  to  become  acquainted  with  all  that  had 
occurred  at  the  bay.  The  Outagamis  had  taken  thither 
their  hatchets,  which  were  dulled  and  broken,  and  had 
compelled  a  Jesuit  brother  to  repair  them;  their  chief 
held  a  naked  sword,  ready  to  kill  him,  while  he  worked. 
The  brother  tried  to  represent  to  them  their  folly,  but 
was  so  maltreated  that  he  had  to  take  to  his  bed.  The 
chief  then  prepared  ambuscades,  in  order  to  await  the 
French  who  were  to  return  from  the  country  of  the 
Nadouaissioux.  All  the  peoples  of  the  bay  had,  it  is 
true,  good  reason  to  complain,  because  our  people  had 
gone  to  carry  to  their  enemies  all  kinds  of  munitions  of 
war;  and  one  could  not  be  astonished  that  we  had  so 
much  difficulty  in  managing  all  those  people.  Perrot 
sent  back  the  Puan  chief  to  the  Outagamis,  to  tell  them 
on  his  behalf  that  he  had  learned  of  their  design  against 
his  young  men,  and  would  punish  them  for  it;  and,  to 
let  them  know  that  he  was  not  disturbed  by  all  their 
threats,  that  he  had  sent  back  all  his  men,  except  fifty 
Frenchmen;  that  he  had  three  hundred  musket-shots  to 
fire,  and  enough  ammunition  with  which  to  receive 
them ;  that  if  he  should  by  chance  encounter  any  one  of 
their  tribe,  he  could  not  answer  for  the  consequences; 

to  Canada,  the  name  was  applied  more  especially  to  the  Penobscot  tribe." 
The  Sokoki  were  one  of  the  tribes  in  this  confederacy.  In  1903  the  Abnaki  of 
Canada  (which  include  remnants  of  other  New  England  tribes)  numbered 
395 ;  and  the  Penobscot  of  Maine  say  that  their  present  population  is  between 
300  and  400.  —  JAMES  MOONEY  and  CYRUS  THOMAS,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

56 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

and  that  it  would  be  useless  for  them  to  ask  him  to  land 
at  their  village. 

The  Puan  chief  returned  to  the  bay,  where  he  ex- 
aggerated still  further  what  Perrot  had  said  to  him. 
The  Renard  chief  visited  him  expressly  to  ascertain  the 
truth  of  the  matter,  and  dared  not  wait  for  Perrot.  He 
departed  with  eighty  of  his  warriors  to  march  against 
the  Nadouaissioux,  after  he  had  given  orders  to  the 
people  of  his  village  to  assure  Perrot  in  his  behalf  that 
he  loved  him,  and  to  take  great  pains  to  entertain  him 
well.  He  proceeded  to  the  post  of  the  Frenchmen  who 
were  sojourning  in  the  country  of  the  Nadouaissioux; 
as  they  were  afraid  of  him,  they  gave  him  presents -a 
gun,  a  shirt,  a  kettle,  and  various  munitions  of  war;  and 
he  told  them  that  Le  Petit  Bled  d'Inde  had  resolved  to 
recall  them  to  the  bay.  This  news,  which  was  not  very 
agreeable  to  them,  induced  them  to  quit  that  establish- 
ment; and  they  retired  to  a  place  eighty  leagues  farther 
inland,  where  they  engaged  the  Nadouaissioux  to  go 
hunting,  and  to  return  to  them  in  the  winter.  The 
Outagamis  profited  by  this  opportunity  to  attack  the 
Nadouaissioux,  of  whom  they  slew  many,  and  took  sev- 
eral captives.  The  alarm  was  immediately  given  among 
the  villages;  the  warriors  fell  upon  them,  and  likewise 
slew  many  of  the  Outagamis,  and  took  some  captives. 
The  chief  fought  on  the  retreat  with  extraordinary  cour- 
age, and  would  have  lost  many  more  of  his  people  if  he 
himself  had  not  made  so  firm  a  stand  at  the  head  of  his 

Chapter  XVIII 

The  Miamis,  who  had  heard  the  report  that  Perrot 
would  soon  arrive  at  the  bay,  set  out  to  visit  him,  to  the 
number  of  forty,  loaded  with  beaver-skins ;  when  they 


came  near  the  house  of  the  Jesuits, 21  canoes  were  sent  to 
them  that  they  might  cross  a  little  stream.  The  chief 
sent  his  young  warriors  to  erect  some  cabins ;  when  these 
had  been  made,  they  all  resorted  thither,  in  order  to  con- 
sult about  the  interview  that  they  expected  to  hold  with 
Sieur  Perrot.  An  accident  happened  to  a  Saki  who  was 
at  the  time  in  his  cabin ;  while  he  was  sitting  in  the  floor, 
a  kettle  which  hung  over  the  fire  fell  over  him,  and  part 
of  his  body  was  burned,  as  he  wore  only  an  old  raccoon- 
skin.  He  uttered  a  yell,  with  contortions  that  made 
those  who  were  present  laugh,  despite  the  compassion 
which  they  could  not  help  feeling  for  him.  A  French- 
man said  to  him,  jestingly,  that  a  man  as  courageous  as 
he  was  ought  not  to  fear  the  fire;  that  it  was  the  proper 
thing  for  a  warrior  such  as  he  to  sing;  but  that,  to  show 
him  that  he  felt  grieved  at  the  accident,  he  would  lay 
over  the  scalded  part  a  plaster,  consisting  of  a  brasse  of 
tobacco.  The  Saki  replied  that  such  an  act  showed  good 
sense;  and  that  the  tobacco  had  entirely  healed  him. 
The  Miamis  sent  to  beg  Perrot  to  visit  them  in  their 
cabins,  that  he  might  point  out  to  them  a  place  where 
he  desired  them  to  assemble.  The  place  of  rendezvous 
was  at  the  house  of  the  Jesuits,  to  which  they  brought 
one  hundred  and  sixty  beaver-skins,  which  they  piled  in 
two  heaps.  The  Miami  chief,  standing  by  one  of  them, 

21  In  this  connection  may  be  mentioned  a  most  interesting  relic  owned  by 
the  Roman  Catholic  diocese  of  Green  Bay,  and  deposited  in  the  State  Historical 
Museum  at  Madison,  Wis.  It  is  an  ostensorium  or  monstrance  of  silver,  fifteen 
inches  high,  of  elaborate  workmanship.  Around  the  rim  of  its  oval  base  is  an 
inscription  in  French,  somewhat  rudely  cut  on  the  metal,  which  translated 
reads:  "This  monstrance  [French,  soleil,  referring  to  its  shape]  was  given  by 
Mr.  Nicolas  Perrot  to  the  mission  of  St.  Francois  Xavier  at  the  Bay  of  Puants 
[i.e.,  Green  Bay],  1686."  This  is,  so  far,  the  oldest  relic  existing  of  French 
occupancy  in  Wisconsin,  For  description  and  illustration  of  this  ostensorium, 
see  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  viii,  199-206;  and  Jesuit  Relations,  vol.  Ixvi,  347. 
The  Jesuit  Mission  was  located  a  little  above  the  mouth  of  Fox  River,  at  the 
present  Depere.  —  ED. 

58  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

spoke  after  this  fashion :  "My  father,  I  come  to  tell  thee 
that  thy  dead  men  and  mine  are  in  the  same  grave ;  and 
that  the  Maskou techs  have  killed  us,  and  have  made  us 
eat  our  own  flesh.  My  three  sisters,  who  were  made 
prisoners  in  the  year  of  the  battle  with  the  Tsonnontou- 
ans,  seeing  that  the  Iroquois  were  routed  by  Onontio 
[footnote,  'The  Marquis  de  Denonville'],  escaped 
from  their  hands.  Some  Maskoutechs,  whom  they  en- 
countered at  the  river  of  Chikagon,  found  on  their  way 
two  Frenchmen  who  were  returning  from  the  Islinois, 
and  assassinated  them.  Their  dread  that  the  women 
would  make  known  this  murder  led  the  assassins  to  break 
their  heads;  but  they  carried  away  the  scalps,  which 
they  have  given  us  to  eat,  saying  that  they  were  those  of 
some  Iroquois.  The  Spirit  has  punished  those  assassins 
by  a  malady  which  has  caused  them  and  all  their  chil- 
dren to  die;  at  last  one  of  them  confessed  his  crime 
when  he  was  dying.  Those  beaver-skins  which  thou 
seest  on  the  other  side  tell  thee  that  we  have  no  will  but 
thine ;  that,  if  thou  tellest  us  to  weep  in  silence,  we  will 
not  make  any  move  [against  the  Maskoutechs]." 

Perrot  made  them  several  presents,  and  spoke  to  them 
in  nearly  the  following  words :  "My  brothers,  I  delight 
in  your  speech,  and  war  is  odious  when  you  fight  against 
the  Maskoutech;  he  is  brave,  and  will  slay  your  young 
men.  I  do  not  doubt  that  you  could  destroy  him,  for 
you  are  more  numerous  and  more  warlike  than  he;  but 
desperation  will  drive  him  to  extremity,  and  he  has 
arrows  and  war-clubs,  which  he  can  handle  with  skill. 
Besides,  the  war-fire  has  been  lighted  against  the  Iro- 
quois, and  will  be  extinguished  only  when  he  ceases  to 
exist.  War  was  declared  on  your  account  when  he 
swept  away  your  families  at  Chikagon ;  those  dead  per- 
sons are  seen  no  longer,  for  they  are  covered  by  those  of 


the  Frenchmen  whom  the  Iroquois  have  betrayed 
through  the  agency  of  the  Englishman -who  was  our 
ally,  and  upon  whom  we  have  undertaken  to  avenge  our- 
selves for  his  treacherous  conduct.  We  have  also  for  an 
enemy  the  Loup,  who  is  his  son.  Accordingly,  we  shall 
not  be  able  to  assist  you  if  you  undertake  war  against  the 

After  he  had  delivered  this  speech  to  them  he  also 
made  two  heaps  of  merchandise ;  and,  displaying  these, 
continued  thus:  "I  place  a  mat  under  your  dead  and 
ours,  that  they  may  sleep  in  peace;  and  this  other  pres- 
ent is  to  cover  them  with  a  piece  of  bark,  in  order  that 
bad  weather  and  rain  may  not  disturb  them.  Onontio, 
to  whom  I  will  make  known  this  assassination,  will  con- 
sider and  decide  what  is  best  to  do."  The  Miamis,  then, 
had  reason  to  be  satisfied ;  since  they  begged  him  to  lo- 
cate his  establishment  upon  the  Missisipi,  near  Ouisken- 
sing  [Wisconsin],  so  that  they  could  trade  with  him  for 
their  peltries.  The  chief  made  him  a  present  of  a  piece 
of  ore  which  came  from  a  very  rich  lead  mine,  which  he 
had  found  on  the  bank  of  a  stream  which  empties  into 
the  Missisipi;22  and  Perrot  promised  them  that  he 

22  This  was  probably  the  Galena  River.  It  is  not  probable  that  the  In- 
dians of  early  days  worked  these  mines  along  the  upper  Mississippi  that  now 
yield  so  great  a  supply  of  lead ;  but  after  they  learned  from  the  French  the 
use  of  firearms  they  began  to  place  much  value  on  this  metal,  and  probably 
obtained  supplies  of  it  in  some  crude  fashion  from  outcropping  ores.  From 
them  the  French  early  learned  the  location  of  lead  deposits,  and  during  the 
eighteenth  century  worked  mines  here  and  there  along  the  Mississippi,  often 
employing  Indians  to  do  the  work  under  their  direction.  The  most  noted  of 
these  mine-owners  was  Julien  Dubuque,  who  obtained  from  the  Sacs  and 
Foxes  (1788)  permission  to  work  mines  on  their  lands,  and  from  the  Spanish 
authorities  (1796)  the  grant  of  a  large  tract  of  land  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Mississippi,  by  means  of  which  he  acquired  great  wealth.  See  Thwaites's 
"Notes  on  Early  Lead  Mining,"  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  xiii,  271-292,  and 
succeeding  articles  by  O.  G.  Libby  on  "Lead  and  Shot  Trade  in  early  Wis- 
consin History."  Cf.  Meeker's  "Early  History  of  the  Lead  Region,"  /</.,  vol. 
vi,  271-296. 

60  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

would  within  twenty  days  establish  a  post  below  the 
Ouiskonche  [Wisconsin]  River.  The  chief  then  re- 
turned to  his  village. 

All  the  Saki  chiefs  and  the  Pouteouatemis  assembled 
near  the  Jesuit  house.  Perrot  gave  them  presents  of 
guns,  tobacco,  and  ammunition,  and  encouraged  them  to 
deal  harder  blows  than  ever  at  the  Iroquois,  to  whom  no 
one  was  a  friend;  and  he  told  them  how  utterly  knavish 
the  Iroquois  were.  He  said  that  the  allies  should  dis- 
trust their  artful  words  and  their  fine  collars,  which 
were  only  so  many  baits  to  lure  them  into  their  nets ;  and 
that,  if  they  should  unfortunately  fall  into  those  snares, 
Onontio  could  not  any  longer  draw  them  out.  He  told 
them  that  they  had  cause  to  be  glad  that  they  had  con- 
tinued in  their  fidelity  notwithstanding  all  the  foolish 
proceedings  of  the  Outaouaks,  who  had  tried  to  induce 
the  allies  to  espouse  their  interests  instead  of  his.  He  re- 
peated to  them  the  details  of  all  that  he  had  said  to  the 
tribes  on  Lake  Huron ;  and  also  made  them  understand 
that,  if  they  undertook  to  declare  themselves  in  favor  of 
the  Iroquois,  they  could  go  to  live  among  them,  since 
we  would  not  suffer  them  to  remain  upon  our  lands. 
They  protested  that  they  would  never  stray  from  their 
duty ;  and  that,  although  the  Outaouaks  had  always  been 
their  friends,  they  were  resolved  to  perish  rather  than 
to  abandon  the  cause  of  the  French. 

When  Perrot  had  reached  a  small  Puan  village  which 
was  near  the  Outagamis,  the  chief  of  the  Maskoutechs 
and  two  of  his  lieutenants  arrived  there.  They  entered 
Perrot's  cabin,  excusing  themselves  for  not  having 
brought  any  present  by  which  they  could  talk  to  him,  as 
their  village  was  upon  his  route ;  the  chief  entreated  him 
to  sojourn  there,  as  he  had  something  of  importance  to 
communicate  to  him.  Although  we  were  greatly  of- 


fended  with  both  them  and  the  Outagamis,  who  had 
sworn  the  ruin  of  the  French  who  were  among  the 
Nadouaissioux,  Perrot  promised  to  stop  at  their  village 
in  order  to  forget  the  resentment  that  he  felt  toward 
them  and  to  pardon  them  their  error,  which  had  been 
made  only  through  the  fault  of  the  Renards. 

The  Sakis  returned  by  way  of  the  Outagamis,  to 
whom  they  reported  all  that  had  been  said  to  them. 
Perrot  encountered  two  Outagami  chiefs,  who  came  to 
meet  him;  they  approached  him  trembling,  and  begged 
him,  in  the  most  submissive  terms,  to  land,  in  order  to 
hear  them  for  a  little  while.  After  he  had  landed,  they 
lit  a  fire,  and  laid  on  the  ground  a  beaver  robe  to  serve 
him  as  a  carpet,  on  which  he  seated  himself ;  they  were 
so  beside  themselves  that  for  a  time  they  could  not  speak. 
Finally  one  of  them  began  to  talk,  saying:  "The  Outa- 
gamis have  done  wrong  not  to  remember  what  thou  didst 
formerly  tell  them.  Since  they  became  acquainted  with 
thee  thou  hast  never  deceived  them ;  and  when  they  do 
not  see  thee  they  let  themselves  be  carried  away  by  the 
solicitations  of  the  Outaouaks  and  others  who  try  to  in- 
duce them  to  abandon  the  French.  I  have  tried  to  pre- 
vent our  people  from  undertaking  anything  against  thy 
young  men ;  but  they  would  not  believe  me,  and  I  have 
been  alone  in  my  opinion.  When  they  learned  that  thou 
wert  coming,  they  were  afraid  of  thee,  and  have  begged 
me  to  tell  thee  on  their  behalf  that  they  wish  to  see  thee 
in  their  village,  in  order  to  reunite  themselves  to  thy 
person -which  they  have  not  altogether  abandoned, 
since  if  they  had  carried  out  the  scheme  with  which  the 
Outaouaks  inspired  them  against  the  French,  they  would 
have  taken  care  of  thy  children.  As  for  me,  I  have  taken 
no  part  in  their  conspiracy;  and  on  that  account  I  have 
come  to  meet  thee,  to  entreat  that,  if  thou  wilt  not  grant 

62  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

me  anything  for  them,  thou  wilt  at  least  not  refuse  to 
come  and  listen  to  them,  out  of  consideration  for  me." 

It  was  very  difficult  to  obtain  from  those  peoples  all 
the  satisfaction  which  we  had  desired.  Their  great  dis- 
tance from  us  prevents  us  from  reducing  them  to  obe- 
dience; and  the  blustering  manner  which  must  be 
assumed  with  them  was  the  best  policy  that  could  be 
adopted  to  make  them  fear  us.  Perrot,  who  understood 
their  character,  yielded  the  point  out  of  consideration 
for  this  chief,  and  promised  to  remain  with  them  half  a 
day,  in  order  to  listen  to  their  words.  The  chief  went 
away  to  console  his  people ;  he  came  back  alone  to  meet 
Perrot,  to  ask  him  that  he  would  land  at  the  village. 
Another  chief,  seeing  that  the  French  did  not  leave  their 
canoes,  said  that  they  were  afraid.  Our  men  answered 
that  we  did  not  fear  them,  and  that  the  weapons  of  the 
French  were  able  to  make  them  repent,  if  they  had  the 
temerity  to  offer  us  any  affront.  The  first-named  chief 
was  greatly  incensed  against  this  one,  and  said  to  his 
countrymen:  "O  Outagamis,  will  you  always  be  fools? 
You  will  make  the  Frenchman  embark,  and  he  will 
abandon  us.  What  will  become  of  us?  can  we  plant  our 
fields  if  he  will  not  allow  it?"  Throughout  the  village 
there  were  endless  harangues,  to  quiet  those  who  were 
seditious,  and  to  induce  the  others  to  give  Sieur  Perrot 
a  good  reception.  The  head  chief  conducted  him  to  his 
own  cabin,  where  were  present  the  most  influential  men 
of  the  tribe,  who  said  to  him  "Welcome !"  while  offering 
him  every  token  of  kind  feeling.  Two  young  men  en- 
tirely naked,  armed  as  warriors,  laid  at  his  feet  two  pack- 
ages of  beaver-skins;  and,  sitting  down,  cried  out  to 
him,  "We  submit  to  thy  wishes,  and  entreat  thee  by  this 
beaver  to  remember  no  more  our  foolish  acts.  If  thou 
art  not  content  with  this  atonement,  strike  us  down ;  we 


will  suffer  death,  for  we  are  willing  to  atone  with  our 
blood  for  the  fault  that  our  nation  has  committed." 
All  these  acts  of  submission  had  no  other  object  than  to 
procure  ammunition  and  weapons  for  the  peltries,  fore- 
seeing that  he  would  refuse  these  supplies  to  them.  Per- 
rot  made  them  understand  that  he  had  come  to  their  vil- 
lage only  to  hear  them;  that,  if  they  repented  of  their 
inconsiderate  demands,  he  would  pardon  them;  that,  al- 
though they  might  escape  from  one  hand,  he  would  hold 
them  tightly  with  the  other;  that  he  was  holding  them 
by  no  more  than  one  finger,  but  that,  if  they  would  bestir 
themselves  a  little,  he  would  take  them  by  the  arms  and 
gradually  bring  them  into  a  safe  place  where  they  could 
dwell  in  peace. 

All  the  chiefs  begged  him,  one  after  another,  to  re- 
ceive them  under  his  protection,  imploring  him  to  give 
them  ammunition  for  their  peltries  so  that  they  could 
kill  game  to  make  soup  for  their  children.  He  would 
not  grant  them  more  than  a  small  amount  \apres-dine\. 
A  war-chief,  who  carried  in  his  hand  a  dagger,  thought 
that  Perrot's  clerk  had  not  given  him  enough  powder, 
and  spoke  so  fiercely  to  him  that  the  clerk  yielded  all 
he  asked.  Perrot  was  greatly  irritated  against  them, 
and  gave  orders  to  have  everything  taken  back  to  the  ca- 
noes ;  but  after  some  explanation  he  recognized  that  the 
chief  had  no  bad  intention.  Those  peoples  are  so  brutal 
that  persons  who  do  not  understand  them  suppose  that 
they  are  always  full  of  anger  when  they  are  speaking. 

-          Chapter  XIX 

Their  trading  being  ended,  the  Frenchmen  reem- 
barked;  they  did  so  very  opportunely,  for  the  desperate 
frame  of  mind  in  which  the  Outagamis  found  them- 
selves the  next  day,  at  tidings  of  the  defeat  of  their  peo- 

64  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

pie  by  the  Nadouaissioux,  would  have  made  them  forget 
the  alliance  which  they  had  just  renewed;  in  the  sequel, 
they  made  that  feeling  sufficiently  evident.  The  French 
arrived  at  a  place  a  little  below  the  village  of  the  Mas- 
koutechs,  where  they  encamped.  The  chiefs,  accom- 
panied by  their  families,  came  to  receive  Perrot  on  the 
bank  of  their  river;  they  entreated  him  to  enter  a  cabin ; 
and  by  a  package  of  beaver-skins  they  told  him  that  they 
covered  the  dead  whom  their  people  had  assassinated, 
including  three  Miami  slaves  who  had  escaped  from  the 
Iroquois.  By  another  present,  they  begged  that  he 
would  allow  them  to  establish  their  village  at  the  same 
place  where  the  French  were  going  to  settle,  saying  that 
they  would  demonstrate  to  him  their  fidelity,  and  would 
trade  with  him  for  their  peltries.  Perrot  told  them  that 
they  had  a  right  to  settle  wherever  they  pleased;  but 
that,  if  he  permitted  them  to  come  near  the  French,  they 
must  turn  their  war-clubs  against  the  Iroquois  only; 
that  they  must  hang  up  the  hatchet  against  the  Nadou- 
aissioux  until  the  fire  of  the  Iroquois  should  be  wholly 
extinguished.  He  told  them  that  since  Onontio  had 
undertaken  war  against  the  Iroquois  (who  was  [former- 
ly] his  son)  -on  account  of  the  Miamis  who  had  been 
slain  at  Chikagon,  and  of  the  Maskoutechs  themselves, 
who  had  lost  their  families -he  could  chastise  the  Na- 
douaissioux  more  easily  than  they  were  aware,  when 
he  saw  that  all  his  children  were  uniting  their  forces 
with  his  to  destroy  the  common  foe.  On  the  next  day 
they  presented  to  the  Frenchmen  a  buffalo  and  some  In- 
dian corn,  and  fire, 23  which  were  of  great  assistance  to 
them  during  the  rest  of  their  journey.  He  disclosed  to 

23  Thus  in  original  (feu)  ;  it  may  be  a  misprint  for  some  other  word,  or  it 
may  mean  a  box  containing  smouldering  tinder  (for  which  "punk,"  or  decaying 
wood,  was  often  used)  —which  would  be  a  convenience  to  the  French  on  their 
river  voyage,  even  though  they  carried  with  them  their  own  fire-steels.  —  ED. 


them  the  project  formed  by  all  the  tribes -the  Miamis, 
the  Outagamis,  the  Kikabous,  and  many  of  the  Islinois. 
All  these  tribes  were  to  assemble  at  the  Missisipi,  to 
march  against  the  Nadouaissioux.  The  Miamis  were 
to  command  the  army;  the  Maskoutechs  also  were  under 
obligation  to  join  them,  in  order  to  avenge  the  assassina- 
tion of  the  Miami  slaves.  At  that  moment  some  Outa- 
gamis brought  the  news  of  the  defeat  of  their  people  by 
the  Nadouaissioux;  and  they  secretly  tried  to  induce  the 
Maskoutechs  to  unite  with  them  against  the  French, 
who  had  furnished  weapons  to  their  enemies.  The  Mas- 
koutechs were  careful  not  to  embroil  themselves  with 
the  French ;  and  the  difficulty  which  they  had  already 
experienced  in  reinstating  themselves  in  the  good  graces 
of  the  latter  hindered  them  from  undertaking  any  enter- 
prise which  would  displease  the  French.  These  Outa- 
gamis, who  had  got  wind  of  Perrot's  sending  to  the  bay 
a  canoe  loaded  with  peltries,  went  to  inform  their  chief 
of  it;  he  sent  out  some  men  to  carry  it  away.  The 
Frenchmen  in  the  canoe,  hearing  at  night  the  noise  of 
paddles,  and  suspecting  that  the  savages  were  going  to 
capture  them,  hastily  slipped  among  the  tall  reeds, 
which  they  traversed  without  being  perceived. 

Perrot  reembarked,  with  all  his  men,  in  good  order; 
he  encountered  at  the  [Fox-Wisconsin]  portage  a  canoe 
of  Frenchmen  who  were  coming  from  the  country  of 
the  Nadouaissioux.  He  warned  them  not  to  trust  the 
Maskoutechs,  who  would  plunder  them ;  but  his  warn- 
ing was  in  vain.  Some  of  that  tribe,  discovering  them, 
bestowed  upon  them  every  kindness,  entreating  them  to 
stop  and  rest  themselves,  on  their  way,  at  their  village; 
but  the  Frenchmen  had  no  sooner  arrived  there  than 
they  were  pillaged.  The  other  Frenchmen  reached  the 
Missisipi;  Perrot  sent  out  ten  men  to  warn,  in  behalf  of 

66  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

Monsieur  de  Frontenac,  the  Frenchmen  who  were 
among  the  Nadouaissioux  to  proceed  to  Michilimaki- 
nak.  Perrot's  establishment  was  located  below  the  Ouis- 
konche,  in  a  place  very  advantageously  situated  for 
security  from  attacks  by  the  neighboring  tribes. 24  The 
great  chief  of  the  Miamis,  having  learned  that  Perrot 
was  there,  sent  to  him  a  war-chief  and  ten  young  war- 
riors, to  tell  him  that,  as  his  village  was  four  leagues 
farther  down,  he  was  anxious  to  sit  down  with  Perrot  at 
the  latter's  fire.  That  chief  proceeded  thither  two  days 
later,  accompanied  by  twenty  men  and  his  women,  and 
presented  to  the  Frenchman  a  piece  of  ore  from  a  lead 
mine.  Perrot  pretended  not  to  be  aware  of  the  useful- 
ness of  that  mineral;  he  even  reproached  the  Miami  for 
a  similar  present  by  which  he  pretended  to  cover  the 
death  of  the  two  Frenchmen  whom  the  Maskoutechs  had 
assassinated  with  the  three  Miami  women  who  had  es- 
caped from  an  Iroquois  village.  The  chief  was  utterly 
astonished  at  such  discourse,  imagining  that  Perrot  was 
ignorant  of  their  deed;  and  told  him  that,  since  he  knew 
of  that  affair,  he  would  do  whatever  Perrot  wished  in 
the  matter.  The  chief  also  assured  him  that,  when  the 
allies  were  assembled,  he  would  make  them  turn  the 
hatchet  against  the  Iroquois;  but  that  until  they  came 
to  the  general  rendezvous  it  was  necessary  that  he  him- 
self should  be  ignorant  of  their  design,  in  order  that  he 
might  be  there  with  his  tribe  and  be  able  to  raise  a  large 
troop  against  the  Iroquois.  The  ice  was  now  strong 
enough  to  support  a  man;  and  the  Maskoutech  chiefs 
had  sent  to  him  a  warrior  to  inform  him  that  the  Outa- 
gamis  were  far  advanced  into  the  country  of  the  Nadou- 

24  Although  the  exact  location  of  this  post  is  unknown,  it  probably  was  not 
far  from  the  present  Dubuque,  Iowa  — where,  and  at  Galena  on  the  Illinois 
side,  were  located  the  lead  mines  often  mentioned  by  La  Potherie;  and  later,  by 
Charlevoix,  as  "Perrot's  mines."  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  x,  301.  -  ED. 


aissioux,  and  prayed  the  Miamis  to  hasten  to  join  them; 
but  the  latter  had  replied  that  they  would  do  nothing 
without  the  Frenchman's  consent. 

The  Tchidiiakouingoues,  the  Oiiaouiartanons,  the 
Pepikokis,  the  Mangakekis,  the  Poiiankikias,  and  the 
Kilataks,  all  Miami  tribes, 25  coming  from  all  directions, 
marched  by  long  stages  to  reach  that  rendezvous.  The 
first  five  of  these  tribes  were  the  first  to  arrive,  with  their 
families,  at  the  French  post;  if  the  Tchidiiakouingoues 
had  not  been  at  hand  with  a  good  supply  of  provisions, 
the  other  bands  would  have  perished  from  hunger. 
Perrot  made  them  many  presents,  to  induce  them  to 
turn  their  war-club  against  the  Iroquois,  the  common 
enemy.  They  excused  themselves  from  a  general  ad- 
vance, asserting,  nevertheless,  that  all  their  young  men 
would  go  in  various  detachments  to  harass  the  Iroquois 
youth  and  carry  away  some  of  their  heads.  But,  far 
from  keeping  their  promise,  they  amused  themselves  for 
an  entire  month  with  hunting  cattle;  meanwhile,  all  the 
warriors  who  had  joined  the  Outagamis  and  Maskou- 
techs  were  intending  to  march  against  the  Nadoiiais- 
sioux,  while  the  old  men,  women,  and  children  would 
remain  with  the  French. 

The  savage's  mind  is  difficult  to  understand ;  he  speaks 
in  one  way  and  thinks  in  another.  If  his  friend's  inter- 
ests accord  with  his  own,  he  is  ready  to  render  him  a 
service;  if  not,  he  always  takes  the  path  by  which  he 
can  most  easily  attain  his  own  ends ;  and  he  makes  all 
his  courage  consist  in  deceiving  the  enemy  by  a  thousand 
artifices  and  knaveries.  The  French  were  warned  of  all 

25  For  account  of  the  Miami  tribes,  see  vol.  i,  note  212;  cf.  note  190  also.  The 
Ouiatanon  were  generally  called  Wea  by  the  English,  which  name  is  still  ap- 
plied to  the  present  remnant  of  the  tribe.  The  Piankashaw  (Poiiankikias)  also 
are  not  quite  extinct;  but  the  other  tribes  named  in  the  text  are  no  longer 
known.  —  ED. 

68  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

the  savages7  intrigues  by  a  Miami  woman;  all  these 
hostile  actions  would  have  greatly  injured  Perrot's 
scheme  that  they  should  turn  their  weapons  against  the 
Iroquois-who,  moreover,  were  delighted  that  these 
peoples  should  be  thus  divided  among  themselves,  for 
whatever  discord  could  be  aroused  among  them  was  the 
only  way  by  which  their  plans  could  be  made  to  fail. 
Perrot  sent  for  the  chief  of  the  Miamis;  he  made  him 
believe  that  he  had  just  received  a  letter  which  informed 
him  that  the  Maskoutechs  -  jealous  at  seeing  themselves 
obliged,  by  way  of  satisfaction,  to  join  their  war-club  to 
that  of  their  allies -had  won  over  the  Outagamis,  and 
that  they  would  by  common  consent  attack  the  Miamis 
while  on  the  general  march  against  the  Nadouaissioux. 
The  chief,  believing  Perrot's  statement,  did  not  fail  to 
break  up  the  band  of  his  warriors,  and  sent  them  the 
next  day  to  hunt  buffalo ;  they  also  held  a  war- feast,  at 
which  they  swore  the  ruin  of  the  Maskoutechs.  The 
Outagamis,  who  had  displayed  more  steadfast  courage 
than  did  the  other  allies,  finding  that  they  were  advanced 
into  the  enemy's  country,  consulted  the  medicine-men  to 
ascertain  whether  they  were  secure.  Those  jugglers  de- 
livered their  oracles,  which  were  that  the  spirits  had 
showed  them  that  the  Sauteurs  and  the  Nadouaissioux 
were  assembling  to  march  against  them. 26  Whether  the 

2«  "Mediators  between  the  world  of  spirits  and  the  world  of  men  may  be 
divided  into  two  classes:  the  shamans,  whose  authority  was  entirely  dependent 
on  their  individual  ability;  and  priests,  who  acted  in  some  measure  for  the 
tribe  or  nation,  or  at  least  for  some  society.  'Shaman'  is  explained  variously 
as  a  Persian  word  meaning  'pagan,'  or,  with  more  likelihood,  as  the  Tungus 
equivalent  for  'medicine-man,'  and  was  originally  applied  to  the  medicine- 
men or  exorcists  in  Siberian  tribes,  from  which  it  was  extended  to  similar  indi- 
viduals among  the  tribes  of  America."  Often  the  shaman  performed  practically 
all  religious  functions,  and  sometimes  was  also  a  chief,  thus  obtaining  also 
civil  authority;  his  office  was  sometimes  inherited,  sometimes  acquired  by 
natural  fitness;  and  as  a  preliminary  to  its  exercise  he  would  enter  into  a 
condition  of  trance  for  a  certain  period,  or  gain  the  proper  psychic  state  through 


devil  had  really  spoken  to  these  men  (as  is  believed  in 
all  Canada) ,  or  the  Outagamis  were  seized  with  fear  at 
finding  themselves  alone,  without  assistance -however 
that  might  be,  they  built  a  fort,  and  sent  their  chiefs  and 
two  warriors  to  Perrot,  begging  that  he  would  go  among 
the  Nadoiiaissioux  to  check  their  advance,  and  thus  en- 
able the  Outagamis,  with  their  families,  to  take  refuge 
in  their  own  village. 

The  Miamis  would  actually  have  engaged  in  battle 
with  the  Maskoutechs,  if  the  Frenchman  had  not  dis- 
suaded their  chief  from  doing  so.  They  received  the 
Outagami  chief  with  all  possible  honors ;  he  told  them 
that  their  people  were  dead.  Perrot  asked  him  how 
many  the  dead  were.  He  replied :  "I  do  not  know  any- 
thing positively;  but  I  believe  that  they  all  are  dead,  for 
our  diviners  saw  the  Nadouaissioux  assemble  together 

the  sweat-bath  —  or  sometimes  as  the  result  of  a  narrow  escape  from  death. 
In  treating  the  sick  or  in  other  functions  of  their  office,  shamans  were  among 
many  tribes  supposed  to  be  actually  possessed  by  spirits,  but  among  the  Iro- 
quois  they  controlled  their  spirits  objectively.  "Hoffman  enumerates  three 
classes  of  shamans  among  the  Chippewa,  in  addition  to  the  herbalist  or  doctor, 
properly  so  considered.  These  were  the  JVdbeno',  who  practiced  medical 
magic ;  the  Jes'sakki'd,  who  were  seers  and  prophets  deriving  their  power  from 
the  thunder  god;  and  the  Mide',  who  were  concerned  with  the  sacred  society 
of  the  Mide'iuiivin,  and  should  rather  be  regarded  as  priests.  .  .  As  dis- 
tinguished from  the  calling  of  a  shaman,  that  of  a  priest  was,  as  has  been  said, 
national  or  tribal  rather  than  individual,  and  if  there  were  considerable  ritual 
his  function  might  be  more  that  of  a  leader  in  the  ceremonies  and  keeper  of 
the  sacred  myths  than  direct  mediator  between  spirits  and  men.  .  .  Even 
where  shamanism  flourished  most  there  was  a  tendency  for  certain  priestly 
functions  to  center  around  the  town  or  tribal  chief.  .  .  Most  of  the  tribes 
of  the  eastern  plains  contained  two  classes  of  men  that  may  be  placed  in  this 
category.  One  of  these  classes  consisted  of  societies  which  concerned  themselves 
with  healing  and  applied  definite  remedies,  though  at  the  same  time  invoking 
superior  powers,  and  to  be  admitted  to  which  a  man  was  obliged  to  pass 
through  a  period  of  instruction.  The  other  was  made  up  of  the  one  or  few 
men  who  acted  as  superior  officers  in  the  conduct  of  national  rituals,  and  who 
transmitted  their  knowledge  to  an  equally  limited  number  of  successors.  Sim- 
ilar to  these  perhaps  were  the  priests  of  the  Mide'wiwin  ceremony  among  the 
Chippewa,  Menominee,  and  other  Algonquian  tribes.  — JOHN  R.  SWANTON,  in 
Handbook  Amer.  Indians,  art.  "Shamans  and  priests." 

70  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

in  order  to  come  against  us ;  they  are  very  numerous,  and 
we  are  greatly  troubled  on  account  of  our  women  and 
children,  who  are  with  us.  The  old  men  have  sent  me  to 
thee,  to  beg  thee  to  deliver  us  from  the  danger  into 
which  we  have  too  blindly  rushed ;  they  hope  that  thou 
wilt  go  among  the  Nadouaissioux  to  stop  their  advance." 
Perrot  told  him  that  they  ought  not  to  place  any  con- 
fidence in  their  jugglers,  who  are  liars ;  and  that  it  was 
only  the  Spirit  who  could  see  so  far.  "Not  at  all,"  re- 
plied the  Outagami ;  "the  Spirit  has  enabled  them  to  see 
what  they  have  divined,  and  that  is  sure  to  happen." 
The  Miamis  were  strongly  in  favor  of  advancing.  The 
Frenchman,  who  felt  obliged  by  the  orders  that  he  had 
received  from  Monsieur  de  Frontenac  to  keep  every- 
thing quiet  among  the  allies,  concluded  that  it  would  be 
best  to  avert  an  attack  so  fatal  to  the  Outagamis;  their 
destruction  would  have  been  very  detrimental  to  the 
Frenchmen  who  happened  to  be  in  those  regions,  because 
the  savages,  who  are  naturally  unruly,  would  have  taken 
the  opportunity  to  vent  their  resentment  against  them. 
He  made  them  understand,  however,  that  since  the  safety 
of  a  band  of  their  tribe  was  concerned,  he  would  go  to 
make  some  attempt  at  ameliorating  their  situation.  He 
encountered  on  the  voyage  five  cabins  of  Maskoutechs, 
a  village  which  was  preparing  to  go  to  the  French  es- 
tablishment to  trade  there  for  ammunition.  He  told 
them  the  reason  for  his  departure,  and  warned  them  not 
to  trust  themselves  with  the  Nadouaissioux. 

Perrot  finally  arrived  at  the  French  fort, "  where  he 
learned  that  the  Nadouaissioux  were  forming  a  large 
war-party  to  seek  out  the  Outagamis  or  some  of  their 
allies.  As  he  was  then  in  a  place  under  his  own  author- 

27  This  fort  may  have  been  Perrot's  supposed  winter-quarters  (1685-1686; 
see  note  172)  near  Trempealeau,  Wis.,  or  else  one  of  the  forts  he  had  built  on 
Lake  Pepin._ED. 


ity,  he  made  known  his  arrival  to  the  Nadouaissioux, 
whom  he  found,  to  the  number  of  four  hundred,  ranging 
along  the  Missisipi  in  order  to  carry  on  some  warlike 
enterprise.  They  would  not  allow  his  men  to  return  to 
him,  and  themselves  came  to  the  fort,  to  which  they 
flocked  from  all  sides  in  order  to  pillage  it.  The  com- 
mandant demanded  why  their  young  men  appeared  so 
frightened  at  the  very  time  when  he  came  to  visit  his 
brothers  in  order  to  give  them  life.  A  chief,  arising, 
made  the  warriors  retire,  and  ordered  them  to  encamp. 
When  their  camp  was  made,  Perrot  summoned  their 
leading  men,  and  told  them  that  he  had  come  to  inform 
them  that  the  Miamis,  the  Outagamis,  the  Islinois,  the 
Maskoutechs,  and  the  Kikabous  had  formed  an  army  of 
four  thousand  men  to  fight  with  them ;  that  they  were 
to  march  in  three  parties -one  along  the  Missisipi,  an- 
other at  a  day's  journey  farther  inland,  but  following  the 
river,  and  a  third  at  a  similar  distance  from  the  second. 
He  told  them  that  he  had  stayed  this  torrent  that  was 
going  to  carry  them  away ;  but  finding  them  by  chance 
in  this  locality,  he  exhorted  them  to  return  to  their  fam- 
ilies and  hunt  beavers.  They  replied  with  much  haughti- 
ness that  they  had  left  home  in  order  to  seek  death ;  and, 
since  there  were  men,  they  were  going  to  fight  against 
them,  and  would  not  have  to  go  far  to  find  them.  They 
exchanged  some  peltries ;  when  that  was  done,  they  sent 
to  ask  Perrot  to  visit  their  camp,  and  there  manifested 
to  him  the  joy  that  they  felt  at  his  saying  that  they  would 
find  their  enemies,  entreating  him  to  allow  them  to  con- 
tinue their  route.  He  tried  all  sorts  of  means  to  dis- 
suade them  from  this  purpose;  but  they  still  replied 
that  they  had  gone  away  to  die ;  that  the  Spirit  had  given 
them  men  to  eat,  at  three  days'  journey  from  the  French ; 
and  that  Perrot  had  invented  a  falsehood  to  them,  since 

72 LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

their  jugglers  had  seen  great  fires  far  away.  They  even 
pointed  out  the  places  where  these  fires  were :  one  was 
on  this  side,  and  at  some  distance  inland ;  another  at  some 
distance,  and  farther  inland ;  and  a  third,  which  they  be- 
lieved to  be  the  fire  of  the  Outagamis.  All  these  state- 
ments were  true,  for  the  five  cabins  of  the  Maskoutechs 
were  at  three  days*  journey  from  the  French  establish- 
ment; their  village  was  on  one  side,  the  fort  of  the  Outa- 
gamis opposite,  and  the  Miamis  and  Islinois  at  a  con- 
siderable distance  farther.  It  is  believed  that  the  demon 
often  speaks  to  the  savages ;  our  missionaries  even  claim 
to  have  recognized  him  on  several  occasions.  There  was 
much  truth  in  what  the  evil  spirit  had  communicated  to 
their  jugglers.  Other  expedients  must  be  employed  to 
stop  them;  to  gain  their  attention,  Perrot  gave  them  two 
kettles  and  some  other  wares,  saying  to  them  with  these: 
"I  desire  you  to  live;  but  I  am  sure  that  you  will  be  de- 
feated, for  your  devil  has  deceived  you.  What  I  have 
told  you  is  true,  for  I  really  have  kept  back  the  tribes, 
who  have  obeyed  me.  But  you  are  now  intending  to 
advance  against  them ;  the  road  that  you  would  take  I 
close  to  you,  my  brothers,  for  I  am  not  willing  that  it 
should  be  stained  with  blood.  If  you  kill  the  Outagamis 
or  their  allies,  you  cannot  do  so  without  first  striking  me ; 
if  they  slay  you,  they  likewise  slay  me;  for  I  hold  them 
under  one  of  my  arms,  and  you  under  the  other.  Can 
you  then  do  them  any  wrong  without  doing  it  to  me?" 
He  was  holding  the  same  calumet  which  they  had  sung 
to  him  when  he  first  made  discovery  of  their  tribe;  he 
presented  it  to  them  to  smoke,  but  they  refused  it.  The 
insult  which  they  thus  offered  was  so  great  that  he  flung 
the  calumet  at  their  feet,  saying  to  them:  "It  must  be 
that  I  have  accepted  a  calumet  which  dogs  have  sung 
to  me,  and  that  they  no  longer  remember  what  they  said 
to  me.  In  singing  it  to  me,  they  chose  me  as  their  chief, 


and  promised  me  that  they  would  never  make  any  ad- 
vance against  their  enemies  when  I  presented  it  to  them; 
and  yet  today  they  are  trying  to  kill  me."  Immediately 
a  war-chief  arose,  and  told  Perrot  that  he  was  in  the 
right;  he  then  extended  it  toward  the  sun,  uttering  invo- 
cations, and  tried  to  return  it  to  Perrot's  hands.  The 
latter  replied  that  he  would  not  receive  it  unless  they 
assured  him  that  they  would  lay  down  their  weapons. 
The  chief  hung  it  on  a  pole  in  the  open  place  within  the 
fort,  turning  it  toward  the  sun ;  then  he  assembled  all  the 
leading  men  in  his  tent,  and  obtained  their  consent  that 
no  hostile  advance  should  be  made.  He  then  called  Per- 
rot thither,  .and  sent  for  the  calumet;  he  placed  it  be- 
fore him,  one  end  in  the  earth  and  the  other  held  upright 
by  a  small  forked  stick.  He  drew  from  his  war-pouch  a 
pair  of  moccasins,  beautifully  made;  then  he  took  off 
Perrot's  shoes,  and  with  his  own  hands  put  the  moccasins 
on  the  Frenchman's  feet.  Finally  he  presented  to  him 
a  dish  of  dried  grapes,  and  three  times  put  some  of  the 
fruit  in  Perrot's  mouth.  After  he  had  eaten  these,  the 
chief  took  the  calumet  and  said  to  him:  "I  remember 
all  that  these  men  promised  to  thee  when  they  presented 
to  thee  this  calumet;  and  now  we  listen  to  thee.  Thou 
art  depriving  us  of  the  prey  that  the  Spirit  had  given 
us,  and  thou  art  giving  life  to  our  enemies.  Now  do  for 
us  what  thou  hast  done  for  them,  and  prevent  them  from 
slaying  us  when  we  are  dispersed  to  hunt  for  beaver, 
which  we  are  going  to  do.  The  sun  is  our  witness  that 
we  obey  thee." 

Chapter  XX 

Quiet  was  restored  by  the  good  management  of  Sieur 
Perrot,  who  returned  to  his  establishment.  He  related 
to  the  Maskoutechs,  who  came  to  meet  him,  all  that  he 
had  accomplished  among  the  Nadouaissioux  in  favor  of 

74  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

them  and  their  allies ;  and  compelled  them  to  settle,  with 
the  Kikabous,  at  a  place  two  days'  journey  from  him 
near  a  Miami  village -in  order  that,  if  the  Nadouais- 
sioux  should  happen  to  break  their  promise,  these  tribes 
might  be  able  to  resist  them.  They  sent  a  band  of  forty 
warriors  against  the  Iroquois,  and  brought  back  twelve 
of  their  scalps. 

The  French  discovered  the  mine  of  lead,  which  they 
found  in  great  abundance ;  but  it  was  difficult  to  obtain 
the  ore,  since  the  mine  lies  between  two  masses  of  rock- 
which  can,  however,  be  cut  away.  The  ore  is  almost  free 
from  impurities,  and  melts  easily;  it  diminishes  by  a 
half,  when  placed  over  the  fire,  but,  if  put  into  a  furnace, 
the  slag  would  be  only  one-fourth. 

The  Outaouaks,  seeing  that  all  was  quiet  among  the 
tribes  of  the  south,  rightly  judged  that  now  they  could 
easily  carry  fire  and  sword  among  those  peoples.  The 
alliance  which  they  desired  to  contract  with  the  Iroquois 
continually  possessed  their  minds;  and  however  great 
the  ascendancy  that  the  Jesuits  had  gained  over  them,  or 
the  skill  with  which  Monsieur  de  Louvigni  managed 
them,  in  order  to  keep  them  in  submission  to  Monsieur 
de  Frontenac's  orders,  nothing  could  prevail  over  their 
caprice.  They  left  Michilimakinak,  to  the  number  of 
three  hundred,  and  formed  two  war-parties;  one  was  to 
join  the  Islinois  against  the  Ozages  and  the  Kangas,  and 
the  other  was  to  disperse  into  the  country  of  the  Nadou- 
aissioux.  Their  course  of  conduct  could  only  be  very 
detrimental  to  the  interests  of  the  French  colony,  which 
would  thus  be  prevented  from  receiving  general  aid 
from  all  the  southern  tribes  against  the  Iroquois.  When 
they  had  arrived  at  the  Bay  des  Puans,  they  could  not 
refrain  from  shouting  that  they  found  in  their  road  a 
very  precipitous  place,  which  they  did  not  believe  they 


could  scale  or  overturn.  "There  is  Metaminens,"  they 
said,  "who  is  going  to  stretch  out  legs  of  iron,  and  will 
compel  us  to  retrace  our  steps ;  but  let  us  make  an  effort, 
and  perhaps  we  shall  get  over  them."  They  remembered 
that  he  had  restrained  them  at  Michilimakinak  when 
they,  after  the  raid  of  the  Iroquois  upon  the  island  of 
Montreal,  declared  themselves  against  the  French.  Their 
fear  that  he  would  exasperate  the  minds  of  certain  tribes 
in  that  region  made  them  speak  thus.  Monsieur  de 
Louvigni  had  taken  the  precaution  to  inform  them  that 
Perrot  had  pledged  the  Outagamis  to  our  cause,  and 
knew  that  he  could  accomplish  a  great  deal  in  circum- 
stances of  such  importance.  Perrot  was  prudent  enough 
to  say  nothing  to  the  Outaouaks  about  their  enterprise; 
he  only  inquired  from  some  of  the  war-chiefs  if  they  had 
not  some  letters  from  Michilimakinak  to  give  him. 
They  told  him  that  they  had  none,  and  that  they  were 
going  to  seek  for  the  bones  of  their  dead  among  the 
Nadouaissioux,  hoping  that  he  would  consent  to  their 
project,  as  the  Jesuit  fathers  and  Monsieur  de  Louvigni 
had  done.  He  treated  them  very  affably,  and  had  them 
smoke  a  pipe,  without  saying  anything  to  them  of  other 
matters.  Some  one  privately  gave  him  the  name  of  the 
chief  who  had  hidden  one  of  his  letters;  Perrot  went  to 
see  this  chief  at  night,  and  demanded  why  he  had  not 
given  him  the  letter.  "Dost  thou  not  suppose,"  he  said 
to  him,  "that  the  Spirit  who  has  made  writing  will  be 
angry  with  thee  for  having  robbed  me?  Thou  art  going 
to  war;  art  thou  immortal?"  The  chief  was,  of  course, 
somewhat  surprised,  imagining  that  the  other  had  had 
some  revelation  in  regard  to  the  letter;  he  restored  it  to 
Perrot,  and  on  the  next  day  asked  him  to  tell  what  he 
had  read  therein.  The  substance  of  it  was,  that  he  posi- 
tively must  restrain  the  Outaouaks ;  or,  if  he  could  not 

76  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

do  that,  he  must  render  them  objects  of  suspicion  to  the 
Outagamis.  The  chief  of  the  Puans  was  extremely 
friendly  to  the  French,  to  whom  he  offered  any  service 
that  he  could  render ;  he  was  thoroughly  convinced  that, 
if  the  Outaouaks  should  advance,  all  the  other  nations 
would  undoubtedly  follow  them,  and  that  an  army  of 
two  thousand  warriors  would  be  formed.  All  the  prom- 
inent men  of  that  tribe  desired  to  hear  the  speech  that 
Perrot  was  going  to  deliver  to  them ;  and  it  was  in  the 
following  manner  that  he  addressed  them,  holding  his 
calumet  in  his  hand,  and  having  at  his  feet  twelve 
brasses  of  tobacco:  "Cinagots,  Outaouaks,  and  you 
other  warriors,  I  am  astonished  that,  after  having  prom- 
ised me  last  year  that  you  would  have  no  other  will  than 
Onontio's,  you  should  tarnish  his  glory  by  depriving 
him  of  the  forces  that  I  have  with  much  labor  obtained 
for  him.  How  is  this?  you  who  are  his  children  are 
the  first  to  revolt  against  him.  I  come  from  a  country 
where  I  have  hung  up  a  bright  sun,  to  give  light  to  all 
the  tribes  that  I  have  seen -who  now  leave  their  fam- 
ilies in  quiet,  without  fearing  any  storms,  while  war- 
riors are  seeking  to  avenge  the  bones  of  their  dead 
among  the  Iroquois;  but  you  are  trying  to  raise  clouds 
there  which  will  give  birth  to  thunderbolts  and  light- 
nings, in  order  to  strike  them,  and  perhaps  to  destroy 
even  us.  I  love  peace  in  my  country;  I  have  discovered 
this  land,  and  Onontio  has  given  the  charge  of  it  to  me ; 
and  he  has  promised  me  all  his  young  men  to  punish 
those  who  undertake  to  stain  it  with  blood.  You  are 
my  brothers ;  I  ask  from  you  repose.  If  you  are  going 
to  war  against  the  Nadouaissioux,  go  by  way  of  Cha- 
gouamigon, 28  on  Lake  Superior,  where  you  have  al- 

28  Shaugawaumikong,  one  of  the  most  ancient  Chippewa  villages,  situated 
on  Long  Island  (formerly  known  as  Chequamegon  peninsula),  in  Ashland 
County,  Wis.  On  account  of  the  inroads  of  the  Sioux  it  was  at  one  time  re- 


ready  begun  war  with  them.  What  will  Onontio  say 
when  he  learns  of  the  measures  that  you  are  taking  to 
deprive  him  of  the  aid  that  he  is  expecting  from  you, 
and  from  his  other  children,  whom  you  are  trying  to 
seduce?  You  have  forgotten  that  your  ancestors  in 
former  days  used  earthen  pots,  stone  hatchets  and  knives, 
and  bows ;  and  you  will  be  obliged  to  use  them  again,  if 
Onontio  abandons  you.  What  will  become  of  you  if  he 
becomes  angry?  He  has  undertaken  war  to  avenge  you, 
and  he  has  maintained  it  against  nations  far  stronger 
than  you.  Know  that  he  is  the  master  of  peace,  when  he 
so  wills;  the  Iroquois  are  asking  it  from  him,  and  it 
would  be  made  if  he  did  not  fear  that  you  would  be 
made  its  victims,  and  that  the  enemy  would  pour  out 
upon  you  his  vengeance,  to  satisfy  the  shades  of  the  many 
families  that  he  has  sacrificed  on  your  account.  With 
what  excuses  will  you  defend  yourselves  before  him 
from  all  the  charges  that  will  be  made  against  you? 
Cease  this  hostile  advance  which  he  forbids  to  you.  I 
do  not  wash  the  blackened  countenances  of  your  war- 
riors; I  do  not  take  away  the  war-club  or  the  bow  that  I 
gave  you  on  Onontio's  behalf ;  but  I  recommend  to  you 
to  employ  them  against  the  Iroquois,  and  not  against 
other  peoples.  If  you  transgress  his  orders,  you  may  be 
sure  that  the  Spirit  who  made  all,  who  is  master  of  life 
and  of  death,  is  for  him ;  and  that  he  knows  well  how  to 
punish  your  disobedience  if  you  do  not  agree  to  my  de- 
mands." He  lighted  his  calumet,  and,  throwing  to  them 
the  twelve  brasses  of  tobacco,  continued:  "Let  us  smoke 
together ;  if  you  wish  to  be  children  of  Onontio,  here  is 

moved  to  Madeleine  Island,  on  the  site  of  the  modern  La  Pointe ;  and  in  later 
years  was  located  on  the  mainland,  near  Bayfield.  It  was  on  Long  Island 
(which  stretches  across  the  entrance  of  Chequamegon  Bay)  that  the  Jesuits 
established  in  1655  the  mission  of  La  Pointe  du  Saint  Esprit;  it  became  large 
and  prosperous,  but  was  broken  up  in  1670  by  the  Sioux.  —  JAMES  MOONEY,  in 
Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

78  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

his  calumet.    I  shall  not  fail  to  inform  him  of  those  who 
choose  to  set  him  at  naught." 

He  presented  it  to  them,  but  there  was  one  war-chief 
who  refused  it;  the  result,  however,  was  more  propitious 
than  Perrot  had  expected.  The  Puans,  seeing  that  the 
only  question  now  at  issue  was  to  appease  this  man,  of- 
fered to  him  the  calumet,  and  made  him  a  present  of 
six  kettles,  with  two  porcelain  collars.  The  next  day, 
they  made  a  solemn  feast  for  the  Outaouaks,  and  sang 
the  calumet  to  them.  At  the  time  when  these  three  hun- 
dred warriors  set  out  to  return  to  Michilimakinak,  a 
young  warrior,  with  several  of  his  comrades,  left  the 
troop,  in  order  to  continue  their  march  against  the 
Nadouaissioux.  The  Outaouaks,  who  had  fully  decided 
to  forget  all  their  resentment,  were  so  offended  at  this 
proceeding  that  they  threw  all  the  baggage  of  these  men 
into  the  river,  and  dragged  their  canoe  more  than  a 
hundred  paces  up  on  the  land. 

Chapter  XXI 

The  only  tribes  who  defended  the  interests  of  the  col- 
ony in  the  midst  of  this  great  revolution  were  the  Ne- 
piciriniens  and  the  Kikabous ;  they  marched  against  the 
Iroquois,  and  brought  back  some  scalps  of  the  latter, 
which  they  presented  to  the  commandants  at  Michilli- 
makinak.  A  few  days  later  was  seen  the  arrival  of  other 
canoes,  who  had  carried  away  an  Iroquois;  he  was  re- 
leased before  they  came  ashore,  which  was  contrary  to 
the  laws  of  war -which  require  that  a  general  council 
be  held  in  order  to  deliberate  on  the  death  or  the  life  of 
a  prisoner.  It  was  known  that  the  Outaouaks  were  re- 
sponsible for  this  proceeding;  they  had  maliciously 
informed  this  f  reedman  of  several  grievances  which  they 


had  invented  against  the  French  people.  He  said  that 
his  people  had  fought  a  battle  in  the  vicinity  of  Mon- 
treal, in  which  four  hundred  Frenchmen  had  been  slain, 
and  that  Onontio  had  not  dared  to  go  outside  the  town. 
As  this  tale,  mingled  with  insulting  language,  made 
evident  the  evil  intentions  of  those  peoples,  it  was 
[considered]  proper  to  come  to  an  understanding  [with 
them]  in  regard  to  the  many  insolent  utterances  which 
were  heard  on  every  side.  The  more  prominent  chiefs 
tried  to  justify  themselves,  and  in  truth  there  were  some 
of  them  who  had  taken  no  part  in  this  dissension;  the 
author  of  it  was  the  man  who  seemed  least  opposed  to 
our  interests,  but  he  nevertheless  caused  all  these  dis- 
orders. He  assembled  a  general  council,  to  which  all 
the  Nepiciriniens  were  summoned.  They  came  to  see 
the  French,  with  five  collars,  and  asked  them  by  the 
first,  to  forget  their  error;  by  the  second,  they  assured 
us  that  they  had  united  themselves  to  the  body  of  their 
father,  never  to  be  detached  from  him.  By  the  third, 
that  he  would  know  them  in  the  following  spring,  by 
the  war-parties  that  they  would  send  against  the  Iro- 
quois;  by  the  fourth,  that  they  submitted  to  Onontio; 
and  by  the  fifth,  that  they  renounced  the  English  and 
their  trade. 

Reply  was  made,  by  five  presents,  to  all  that  they  had 
said;  and  it  was  represented  to  them  that  the  trade  with 
the  English,  which  they  so  eagerly  sought  to  obtain, 
would  deliver  them  into  the  hands  of  the  Iroquois, 
whose  only  endeavor  was  to  deceive  them. 

The  long  stay  made  at  Montreal  by  four  canoes  which 
had  been  sent  thither  to  learn  news  of  the  colony  made 
the  savages  suspect  that  [our]  affairs  were  going  ill; 
they  made  a  feast  in  the  village,  which  was  attended  by 
the  chiefs  only.  A  Frenchman  who  passed  that  way  was 

8o LA  PQTHERIE [Vol. 

invited  to  it,  and  the  most  distinguished  among  the 
chiefs  said  to  him:  'Thou  who  meddlest  in  thwarting 
us,  cast  a  spell  to  learn  what  has  become  of  our  men 
whom  thy  chief  sent  into  thy  country  to  be  eaten  there." 
This  savage  had  had  secret  connections  with  the  Eng- 
lish, in  order  to  secure  for  them  entrance  into  the  beaver- 
trade;  and  he  made  them  a  present  of  ten  packets  of 
pelts,  as  a  pledge  for  the  promise  that  he  had  given  them. 
All  the  allied  tribes  acted  only  by  his  order;  he  was  the 
originator  of  all  that  was  done  among  those  peoples; 
and  he  had  rendered  himself  so  influential  that  what- 
ever he  required  was  blindly  followed.  In  his  child- 
hood he  had  been  carried  away  [from  his  home]  as  a 
slave.  This  Frenchman  whom  he  told  to  play  the  jug- 
gler replied  that  "The  Frenchmen  were  not  in  the  habit 
of  eating  men;  that  if  this  man  were  a  chief  he  would 
answer  him,  but  he  was  a  slave;  and  that  it  was  not  a 
dog  like  him  with  whom  the  Frenchman  compared,  he 
who  bore  the  message  of  one  of  the  greatest  captains 
who  had  ever  been  heard  of."  This  savage  replied  [to 
the  other  savages]  :  "You  who  are  here  behold  the  in- 
sults which  I  meet  in  your  village  from  this  man  who 
is  troubling  our  peace,  when  I  am  trying  to  maintain 
our  common  interest."  All  the  guests  began  to  show 
their  discontent,  and  matters  would  perhaps  have  turned 
to  the  disadvantage  of  the  Frenchman  if  he  had  not  in- 
stantly found  some  expedient  for  rendering  this  very 
chief  odious  to  them.  He  had  been  a  slave  of  a  man 
named  Jason  [jc.  Talon]  (of  whom  I  have  already 
spoken),  who  had  been  the  first  to  go  from  the  north  to 
Three  Rivers,  the  second  government  district  in  Can- 
ada, and  who  for  all  the  services  which  he  had  rendered 
to  the  tribe  had  been  chosen  its  head  chief.  At  his  death 
he  left  several  children,  who  could  not  maintain  that 


high  position  because  this  slave,  who  was  freed,  had  by 
his  ability  acquired  the  general  esteem  of  all  those  peo- 
ples. This  Frenchman,  I  say,  began  to  call  out  in  the 
middle  of  the  feast:  "Where  art  thou,  Talon?  where 
art  thou,  B  rochet?"  (another  head  chief)  ;  "it  was  you 
two  who  ruled  over  all  this  country;  but  your  slave  has 
usurped  your  authority  and  is  making  your  children  his 
slaves,  although  they  ought  to  be  the  real  masters.  But 
I  will  sacrifice  everything  to  maintain  their  rights,  and 
Onontio  will  favor  us ;  he  will  know  how  to  restore  them 
to  the  rank  that  they  ought  to  occupy."  Hardly  had  he 
spoken  when  the  sons  and  relatives  of  those  two  chiefs 
arose,  and  took  the  Frenchman's  part,  uttering  threats 
against  this  seditious  man;  and  it  lacked  little  of  their 
reaching  the  utmost  violence  of  conduct.  Those  young 
chiefs,  remembering  what  their  ancestors  had  been, 
compelled  this  old  man  to  render  satisfaction  to  the 
Frenchman ;  and  the  fear  which  they  also  felt  of  being 
exposed  to  unpleasant  results  constrained  them  to  en- 
treat the  missionary  fathers  to  adjust  all  these  matters. 

The  French  themselves  did  not  know  what  to  think 
of  the  delay  of  those  canoes ;  at  last  they  arrived,  after 
a  three  months'  wait.  They  reported  that  a  battle  had 
been  fought  at  the  Prairie  de  la  Madeleine,  three 
leagues  from  and  opposite  Montreal,  against  the  Iro- 
quois  and  the  English,  in  which  we  had  gained  all  the 
advantage -it  might  be  said  that  the  enemy  had  suf- 
fered extreme  injury. 

This  news  made  some  impression  on  the  minds  of 
the  Outaouaks,  but  the  Miamis  of  the  Saint  Joseph 
River  easily  forgot  what  they  had  promised  to  execute 
against  the  Iroquois ;  they  no  longer  thought  of  anything 
except  of  opening  the  way  to  the  Loups,  who  had 
opened  a  commerce  with  the  English.  Those  of  Mara- 

82  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

mek  were  somewhat  unsettled ;  they  were  reminded  that 
the  bow  and  war-club  of  Onontio  had  been  delivered  to 
them  in  order  to  attack  the  Iroquois  and  avenge  their 
own  dead.  The  story  of  the  battle  at  the  Prairie,  and  of 
the  raising  of  the  siege  of  Quebec  [1690]  by  the  English 
(who  had  come  thither  with  all  the  forces  of  New  Eng- 
land), was  related  to  them.  "Your  father,"  it  was  said 
to  them,  "does  not  cease  to  labor  for  your  peace ;  but  you 
have  always  remained  inactive  since  he  undertook  war 
against  the  Iroquois.  The  Spirit  favors  his  arms;  his 
enemies  fear  him,  but  he  does  not  heed  them."  They 
were  counseled  to  avail  themselves  of  his  aid  while  he 
was  willing  to  favor  them ;  and  they  were  told  that  there 
was  reason  to  complain  of  their  indifference  while  he 
was  sacrificing  his  young  men.  They  promised  to  send 
out  three  hundred  warriors,  who  would  not  spare  either 
the  Loups  or  the  English.  The  Maskoutechs,  who  had 
seemed  to  have  our  interests  so  strongly  at  heart,  gave 
very  unsatisfactory  evidence  of  their  fidelity;  they 
amused  themselves  with  making  raids  into  the  lands  of 
the  Nadouaissioux,  where  they  carried  away  captive 
some  Puans  and  some  Ayoes  who  had  made  a  settlement 
there,  without  troubling  themselves  whether  those  two 
tribes  were  their  allies.  The  jealousy  which  they  felt 
because  some  Frenchmen  had  promised  to  barter  mer- 
chandise among  the  Miamis  in  preference  to  them  in- 
spired them  to  send  to  that  people  ten  large  kettles,  to 
warn  them  to  distrust  the  Frenchmen,  who  were  going 
to  form  a  large  band  of  Abenaquis  and  their  [other] 
allies  to  deal  a  blow  on  the  families  of  the  Miamis  after 
their  men  had  set  out  on  the  march  against  the  Iroquois. 
This  present  put  an  end  to  all  their  war-parties,  except- 
ing only  their  chief,  who  went  away  with  eighty  war- 
riors. The  Outagamis,  who  had  been  very  quiet,  not- 


withstanding  the  promise  that  they  had  given  to  join 
with  that  tribe  against  the  common  enemy,  promised  to 
do  so  when  the  Sakis,  the  Puans,  and  the  Pouteouatemis 
should  take  the  war-path.  For  this  purpose  an  Iroquois 
scalp  and  a  gun  were  given  to  them,  and  this  speech  was 
made  to  them:  "Here  is  an  Iroquois  who  is  given  to 
you  to  eat;  this  scalp  is  his  head,  and  this  gun  is  his  body. 
We  wish  to  know  whether  you  are  French  or  Iroquois, 
in  order  to  send  word  to  Onontio ;  if  you  go  to  war  we 
shall  believe  that  you  are  French,  if  you  do  not  go  we 
shall  declare  you  an  enemy." 

Chapter  XXII 

The  great  distance  which  lay  between  us  and  all  these 
allies  was  a  hindrance  in  causing  them  to  show  all  the 
activity  that  we  could  have  desired.  The  French  who 
went  among  them,  either  to  facilitate  their  trading  or  to 
maintain  them  in  entire  harmony,  were  even  exposed  to 
many  dangers.  Perrot  was  on  the  point  of  being  burned 
by  the  Maskoutechs,  who  had  received  from  him  so 
many  benefits.  That  tribe,  insatiable  for  all  that  they 
saw,  sent  to  ask  him  to  come  to  their  village,  to  trade  for 
beaver-skins ;  and  a  chief  of  the  Pouteouatemis  accom- 
panied him.  Hardly  had  he  reached  their  village,  with 
six  Frenchmen,  when  the  savages  seized  all  their  mer- 
chandise ;  and  they  displayed  more  inhumanity  to  him 
than  to  the  meanest  of  their  slaves.  It  is  a  rule  among 
all  the  tribes  to  give  to  the  captives  the  first  morsels  of 
what  food  may  be  eaten ;  but  these  savages  would  not 
give  him  any  food.  One  of  their  chiefs  could  not  re- 
frain from  complaining  that  he  would  not  have  the 
strength  to  endure  the  fire,  if  they  did  not  take  better 
care  of  him ;  they  intended  to  sacrifice  him  to  the  shades 

84  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

of  many  of  their  men  who  had  been  killed  in  various 
fights,  and  they  said  that  Perrot  was  the  cause  of  their 
death.  A  warrior  who  came  to  him  to  pronounce  his 
sentence  told  him  that  they  had  intended  to  burn  him  in 
the  village,  but  that  part  of  them  would  not  be  wit- 
nesses of  this  execution.  He  said  to  Perrot:  "Thou 
wilt  set  out  at  sunrise,  and  wilt  be  closely  followed,  and 
at  noon  thou  wilt  be  burnt  on  the  plain.  Thou  art  a  sor- 
cerer, who  hast  caused  the  deaths  of  more  than  fifty  of 
our  men,  in  order  to  pacify  the  shades  of  two  Frenchmen 
whom  we  killed  at  Chikagon.  If  thou  hadst  taken  re- 
venge for  those  two  alone  we  would  not  have  said  any- 
thing, for  blood  must  be  paid  for  with  blood;  but  thou 
art  too  cruel,  and  therefore  thou  art  going  to  be  the 
victim  who  is  to  be  sacrificed  to  them."  Great  stead- 
fastness was  necessary  in  so  terrible  an  emergency.  The 
Pouteouatemi  chief  also  sang  his  death-song,  on  the  eve 
of  his  departure,  and  they  made  him  and  Perrot  set  out 
the  next  morning  from  the  village,  with  the  other 
Frenchmen,  who  were  lamenting  their  wretched  fate. 
While  the  people  in  the  village  were  amusing  them- 
selves with  dividing  all  the  property  of  the  Frenchmen, 
the  latter  went  forward  a  little  distance  on  a  beaten  path, 
and  then  they  bethought  themselves  to  take  several  wrong 
directions  without  losing  sight  of  one  another.  Some 
warriors  were  sent  after  them,  who  could  not  find  their 
tracks ;  but  the  French  do  not  know  whether  these  men 
really  could  not  discover  them,  or  only  pretended  not  to 
find  them.  However  that  may  be,  a  Miami  who  had 
married  a  Maskoutech  woman  saw  these  warriors  start, 
and  immediately  gave  notice  of  it  to  his  tribe,  telling 
them  that  Perrot  had  been  plundered  and  burned  by  the 
Maskoutechs.  The  chief  of  the  Miamis  was  at  that  time 
at  war  with  the  Iroquois;  and  the  Miamis  were  only 
waiting  the  moment  of  his  arrival,  in  order  to  avenge 


this  death.  The  tribes  of  the  bay  were  also  notified  of 
it,  and  desired  to  seize  the  war-club  for  the  chastisement 
of  those  peoples.  Perrot  arrived  safely  among  the 
Puans,  where  they  immediately  hung  up  some  war-ket- 
tles, as  if  to  go  in  search  of  what  had  been  taken  from 
him,  and  to  kill  some  M askou techs ;  but  as  it  was  a 
question  of  holding  together  all  those  tribes  in  their  de- 
sire to  form  a  connection  with  the  common  enemy,  he 
obliged  them  to  suspend  their  anger,  for  the  sake  of  the 
French  nation. 

On  all  sides  hostilities  were  begun  in  earnest  against 
the  Iroquois.  The  Outaouaks  sent  out  war-parties  against 
them  from  all  quarters,  and  during  the  summer  killed 
or  captured  more  than  fifty  of  them.  The  Miamis  of 
Muramik  [sc.  Maramek]  29  carried  off  eight  Loups,  to 
whom  the  English  had  given  many  presents;  four  of 
these  captives  they  gave  to  the  commandant  on  the  Saint 
Joseph  River,  and  reserved  the  others  for  Frenchmen, 
friends  of  theirs  who  had  rendered  them  many  services. 
Monsieur  de  Louvigny  sent  thirty-eight  men  to  go  in 
quest  of  these,  with  orders  to  induce  the  Miamis  to  put 
them  in  the  kettle  if  they  could  not  be  taken  to  Michilli- 
makinak;  but  those  of  Saint  Joseph  had  carried  them 
away.  The  tribe  of  Loups  was  entirely  devoted  to  the 
interests  of  the  English,  who  were  trying  to  make  use  of 
them  in  order  to  gain  entrance  among  our  allies;  and 
the  Iroquois  profited  by  this  union.  Too  many  pre- 
cautions, therefore,  could  not  be  taken  to  keep  back  the 
former  from  the  beaver  trade,  and  to  obtain  the  advan- 
tage from  acts  of  hostility  against  the  latter.  A  present 
of  fifty  pounds  of  gunpowder  was  given  to  the  Miamis 
of  Maramek,  to  unite  them  to  our  interests;  and  they 
took  the  war-path  to  the  number  of  two  hundred -who 

29  Marameg  (Maramek)  was  the  early  name  of  Kalamazoo  River,  Mich. 


86  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

separated  into  four  bands,  after  having  divided  the 
powder  among  them.  On  the  next  day  after  their  de- 
parture a  solemn  feast  was  made  by  order  of  Ouagi- 
kougaiganea,  the  great  chief,  to  obtain  from  the  Spirit 
a  safe  return.  They  erected  an  altar,  on  which  they 
placed  bear-skins  arranged  to  represent  an  idol;  they 
had  smeared  the  heads  of  these  with  a  green  clay,  as  they 
passed  in  front  of  these  skins,  kneeling  down  before 
them ;  and  every  one  was  obliged  to  assist  at  this  cere- 
mony.80 The  jugglers,  the  medicine-men,  and  those 
who  were  called  sorcerers  occupied  the  first  row,  and 
held  in  their  hands  their  pouches  for  medicines  and  for 
jugglery;  they  cast  the  spell,  they  said,  upon  those  whose 
deaths  they  wished  to  cause,  and  who  feigned  to  fall 
dead.  The  medicine-men  placed  some  drugs  in  the 
mouths  of  these,  and  seemed  to  resuscitate  them  imme- 
diately by  rudely  shaking  them ;  the  one  who  made  the 
most  grotesque  appearance  attracted  the  most  admira- 

30  The  term  "ceremony"  means,  in  the  strict  sense,  "a  religious  per- 
formance of  at  least  one  day's  duration.  These  ceremonies  generally  refer  to 
one  or  the  other  of  the  solstices,  to  the  germination  or  ripening  of  a  crop,  or 
to  the  most  important  food  supply.  There  are  ceremonies  of  less  importance 
that  are  connected  with  the  practices  of  medicine-men  or  are  the  property  of 
cult  societies.  Ceremonies  may  be  divided  into  those  in  which  the  whole 
tribe  participates  and  those  which  are  the  exclusive  property  of  a  society, 
generally  a  secret  one,  or  of  a  group  of  men  of  special  rank,  such  as  chiefs  or 
medicine-men,  or  of  an  individual.  Practically  all  ceremonies  of  extended  dura- 
tion contain  many  rites  in  common.  An  examination  of  these  rites,  as  they  are 
successively  performed,  reveals  the  fact  that  they  follow  one  another  in  pre- 
scribed order,  as  do  the  events  or  episodes  of  the  ritual."  Among  some  tribes 
the  ritual  predominates,  among  others  it  is  subordinated  to  the  drama.  The 
rites  are  partly  secret  (and  proprietary),  and  partly  public  (constituting  the 
actual  play  or  drama)  ;  there  are  also  semi-public  performances,  but  conducted 
by  priests  only.  There  is  much  symbolism  connected  with  most  of  these  elabo- 
rate ceremonials.  "Inasmuch  as  ceremonies  form  intrinsic  features  and  may  be 
regarded  as  only  phases  of  culture,  their  special  character  depends  on  the 
state  of  culture  of  the  people  by  which  they  are  performed;  hence  there  are  at 
least  as  many  kinds  of  ceremonies  as  there  are  phases  of  culture  in  North 
America.  .  .  In  those  tribes  or  in  those  areas  extended  forms  abound  where 
there  exists  a  sessile  population  or  a  strong  form  of  tribal  government." 

-GEORGE  A.  DORSEY,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


tion.  They  danced  to  the  sound  of  drums  and  gourds; 
they  formed,  as  it  were,  two  hostile  parties,  who  at- 
tacked and  defended  in  a  battle.  They  had  for  weapons 
the  skins  of  serpents  and  otters,  which,  they  said,  brought 
death  to  those  on  whom  they  cast  the  spell,  and  restored 
life  to  those  whom  they  wished  [to  live].  The  director 
of  the  ceremony,  accompanied  by  two  old  men  and  two 
women  at  his  side,  walked  with  serious  manner,  going 
into  all  the  cabins  of  the  village  to  give  notice  that  the 
ceremony  was  to  begin  soon.  They  practiced  the  impo- 
sition of  hands  on  all  persons  whom  they  met,  who,  by 
way  of  thanks,  embraced  their  legs.  Everywhere  were 
seen  dances,  and  one  heard  only  the  howls  of  the  dogs 
which  they  were  killing  in  order  to  offer  the  sacrifices. 
The  bones  of  those  which  were  eaten  were  afterward 
burned,  as  in  a  holocaust.  The  persons  who  had  been 
killed,  and  whom  the  medicine-men  brought  back  to 
life  by  the  spell,  danced  separately,  while  the  others 
remained  as  if  dead.  Men,  women,  girls,  and  boys  of 
twelve  years  old,  fell  dead  or  were  restored  to  life,  as 
were  even  the  jugglers,  the  medicine-men,  and  the  sor- 
cerers. Every  one  had  offered  the  handsomest  orna- 
ments that  he  could.  Some  persons  thrust  down  their 
throats  sticks  a  foot  and  a  half  long,  and  as  large  as 
one's  thumb,  and  feigned  to  lie  dead;  then  they  were 
carried  to  the  medicine-men,  who  brought  them  back  to 
life  and  sent  them  away  to  dance.  Others  swallowed 
feathers  of  the  swan  or  eagle,  then  drew  these  out,  and 
fell  down,  as  if  dead ;  and  these  also  were  resuscitated. 
In  short,  one  recognized  in  their  antics  only  diabolical 

The  best  thing  in  this  festival  was,  that  all  the  riches 
of  the  village  were  destined  for  the  jugglers.  The  cere- 
monies lasted  during  five  days,  both  day  and  night;  at 
the  latter  time  they  were  within  the  cabins,  and  by  day 

88  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

in  the  public  place -where  they  approached  from  all 
sides,  marching  as  if  in  procession.  It  was  useless  to 
represent  to  them  that  all  this  that  they  were  doing  was 
criminal  before  God;  they  answered  that  this  was  the 
right  way  to  secure  his  favor,  to  the  end  that  he  should 
give  some  enemies  to  be  eaten  by  their  young  men,  who 
would  die  without  that  if  they  did  not  observe  this 
solemnity.  One  of  their  war-parties  arrived  at  the  end 
of  thirty  days;  they  had  killed  many  Iroquois,  without 
losing  one  of  their  own  men,  and  they  said  to  the  French : 
"Believe  us,  our  sort  of  ceremony  has  made  the  Spirit 
listen  to  us."  The  other  bands  came  back  some  time 
afterward,  with  a  number  of  prisoners,  and  the  Loups 
whom  the  men  of  Saint  Joseph  had  made  to  turn  aside. 
While  the  Miamis  were  giving  to  Monsieur  de  Fron- 
tenac  proofs  of  their  fidelity,  the  Maskoutechs  had 
openly  declared  hostilities  against  their  allies  the  Ayoes, 
and  had  cut  to  pieces  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  Ayoes's 
main  village.  Some  of  them  came  to  the  Miamis  and 
tried  to  induce  Perrot  to  go  among  them,  assuring  him 
that  they  would  make  reparation  for  the  pillage  of  his 
merchandise;  but  the  Miamis,  who  knew  that  the  Mas- 
koutechs intended  to  eat  him,  sharply  asked  them  if  they 
thought  that  he  was  a  dog,  whom  they  could  drive  away 
when  he  disturbed  them,  and  then  bring  him  back  at 
the  first  caress  which  they  offered  him.  The  Maskou- 
techs learned  that  all  the  peoples  of  the  bay,  with  the 
Miamis  and  several  other  tribes,  had  intended  to  avenge 
the  injury  which  the  former  had  inflicted  on  Perrot;  and 
they  sent  him  two  deputies  to  ask  that  he  would  not  go 
away  from  Maramek,  where  they  wished  to  confer  with 
him.  Their  chief  came  in  person,  with  a  number  of 
warriors,  and  entered  the  cabin  of  the  Miami  chief, 
where  a  meeting  was  called  of  the  more  prominent  men 


of  the  tribe,  and  of  the  Kikabous.  The  Maskoutechs 
had  carried  away  some  Ayoes  slaves,  a  woman  and  three 
children,  whom  they  seated  before  Perrot,  and  said  to 
him:  "We  have  borrowed  thy  guns;  they  have  thun- 
dered upon  a  village,  which  they  have  made  us  eat.  See 
the  effect  which  they  produced,  and  which  we  bring  to 
thee,"  at  the  same  time  displaying  these  slaves.  They 
placed  forty  beaver  robes  before  him,  and  continued 
their  speech  thus:  "We  have  taken  from  thee  a  gar- 
ment to  dazzle  the  sight  of  our  enemies  and  make  our- 
selves feared  by  them,  and  we  pay  thee  for  it  by  this 
beaver;  we  do  not  pay  thee  for  thy  guns  and  merchan- 
dise. If  thou  art  willing  to  receive  us  with  forgiveness, 
we  know  where  are  some  beavers,  for  we  saw  them  on 
our  road  [to  this  place].  If  we  live  a  few  years,  thou 
shalt  be  satisfied;  for  we  did  not  intend  to  plunder  thee, 
and  we  have  only  placed  thy  merchandise  to  thy  credit." 
This  chief  was  told  that  in  order  to  appease  the  wrath 
of  Onontio  it  was  necessary  to  destroy  a  village  of  Iro- 
quois ;  and  that  they  must  not  attack  people  who  had  not 
made  war  on  them ;  that  they  were  easily  forgetting  their 
own  dead  [killed  by  the  Iroquois],  whom  the  French 
were  continually  avenging;  that  they  would  do  well  to 
send  to  Montreal  one  of  their  chiefs,  in  order  to  appease 
Onontio;  that  his  fire  was  lighted,  to  receive  all  those 
who  desired  to  warm  themselves  at  it  -  and  even  the  Iro- 
quois, although  they  were  his  enemies;  and  that  they 
might  be  sure  that  we  would  have  taken  vengeance  on 
their  tribe,  if  we  had  not  caused  all  the  others  to  hang 
up  their  hatchets.  A  chief  resolved  to  accompany  that 
Frenchman  [i.e.,  Perrot]  to  Montreal,  in  order  to  turn 
aside  the  resentment  of  Monsieur  de  Frontenac;  and 
forty  Miamis  escorted  him  as  far  as  the  bay.  When 
they  arrived  among  the  Outagamis,  the  latter  dissuaded 

90  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

the  Maskoutech  from  going  farther;  because  they  told 
him  that  the  rule  of  the  French  was  to  hang  thieves, 
without  any  pardon,  and  that  he  would  for  love  of  his 
people  certainly  suffer  the  same  fate- which  caused  him 
to  return  home. 

The  English,  who  had  until  then  made  all  sorts  of 
attempts  to  insinuate  themselves  among  the  Outaouaks, 
found  the  finest  opportunity  in  the  world  for  succeeding 
in  this.  As  soon  as  they  learned  that  the  Iroquois  had 
granted  life  to  the  son  of  a  Sauteur  chief,  they  procured 
his  freedom;  they  had  thought  that,  as  his  father  was 
dead,  he  might  succeed  the  latter,  and  that  the  ascend- 
ency which  he  possessed  over  the  minds  of  his  people 
would  be  an  effectual  means  to  facilitate  to  them  some 
further  entrance  among  the  neighbors  of  the  Sauteurs. 
The  gratitude  that  this  freedman  felt  (as  they  believed 
beyond  doubt)  for  so  great  a  benefaction  must  induce 
him  to  engage  in  any  undertaking  in  favor  of  his  libera- 
tors. Moreover,  the  Iroquois  were  planning  also  to 
obtain  some  advantage  from  this  matter;  and  on  both 
sides  they  gave  the  Sauteur  collars  and  presents  in  order 
to  persuade  our  allies  to  take  sides  and  carry  on  trade 
with  them.  He  met  the  Outaouaks  out  hunting,  in  the 
midst  of  the  winter;  they  met  together  to  hear  the  expla- 
nation of  those  collars,  and  at  the  same  time  concluded 
to  keep  the  affair  secret.  They  secretly  sent,  "under 
ground,"  many  presents  to  the  Sakis  and  to  the  peoples 
at  the  bay,  to  constrain  them  to  withdraw  from  the  war 
against  the  Iroquois;  among  those  tribes  many  visits 
were  made  [by  the  Outaouak  envoys],  but  they  replied 
that  all  those  solicitations  were  useless,  and  that  they 
would  die  rather  than  abandon  the  interests  of  the 
French.  The  Sauteurs,  who  were  beginning  to  realize 
that  the  Iroquois  had  spared  their  lives,  declared  them- 


selves  against  our  allies  if  they  intended  to  continue  war 
against  the  Iroquois.  Nothing  could  make  them  go 
back  from  their  decision ;  they  said  that  they  were  men, 
capable  of  resisting  whomsoever  undertook  to  thwart 
them  in  what  they  had  resolved.  The  commandant  at 
Michillimakinak,  when  he  heard  of  the  friendship  of 
the  Sakis,  sent  word  to  them  that  he  and  his  Frenchmen 
would  die  [for  them]  if  they  were  attacked,  even  offer- 
ing them  his  fort  as  a  refuge.  The  Cinago  Outaouaks, 
who  had  declared  in  favor  of  the  Sauteurs,  fearing  that 
the  Sakis  would  carry  far  the  resentment  which  they 
had  displayed  against  the  latter,  on  the  one  hand  under- 
took to  reconcile  them  with  the  Sakis,  and  on  the  other 
did  everything  in  their  power  to  turn  them  aside  from 
the  Iroquois  War.  They  made  presents  to  the  Sauteurs, 
and  gave  them  a  calumet  which  said  that  their  dead  lay 
together  among  the  Nadouaissioux,  and  that,  since  they 
were  relatives,  they  ought  to  hang  up  their  hatchets  this 
year -but  assuring  them  of  no  interference  another 
year,  if  they  wished  to  resume  the  war. 

The  Outaouaks  faithfully  kept  the  secret  of  the  collar 
which  the  Iroquois  had  given  to  the  Sauteurs,  and,  in 
order  not  to  cause  suspicion  in  the  French,  they  asserted 
to  Monsieur  de  Louvigny  that  they  had  received  it  for 
the  sake  of  peace,  and  that  they  had  been  urged  to  be- 
come mediators  with  Onontio  for  that  end.  They  tried 
to  persuade  that  officer  to  accept  this  collar  himself, 
since  he  was  commandant  at  Michillimakinak;  but  he 
excused  himself,  and  informed  them  that  they  must  go 
to  present  it  to  Onontio.  They  did  not  hesitate  to  send 
envoys  to  him,  who  took  advantage  of  the  departure  of 
the  Sakis. 

We  may  say  that  the  Hurons  and  the  Outaouaks  were 
in  extreme  blindness  about  all  that  concerned  the  Iro- 

92  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

quois,  whom  they  believed  to  be  really  their  friends;  for 
while  they  did  whatever  the  latter  wished,  in  order  to 
give  them  substantial  proofs  of  their  friendship,  the 
Iroquois  sought,  underhand,  for  occasions  to  take  the 
others  by  surprise.  After  the  departure  of  those  envoys 
the  Hurons  captured  two  Iroquois,  whom  they  sent  back 
to  their  homes  with  many  presents,  as  a  pledge  to  their 
nation  that  the  Outaouak  people  had  no  greater  desire 
than  alliance  with  them -at  the  same  time  congratulat- 
ing them  on  having  spared  the  lives  of  the  Sauteurs ;  but 
the  Iroquois  did  not  act  in  so  good  faith. 

Dabeau,  a  Frenchman  who  had  been  a  slave  among 
them  for  several  years,  was  with  a  band  of  warriors  who 
went  out  to  attack  whomsoever  they  should  encounter; 
being  left  alone  with  eight  of  their  men  and  two  women, 
he  killed  them  all  while  they  were  asleep,  and  took  the 
women  to  the  first  village  of  our  allies  that  he  could 
light  on,  when  he  found  two  Hurons  hunting  beavers. 
His  fear  of  being  himself  slain  by  men  who  could  have 
appropriated  to  themselves  the  exploit  which  he  had 
performed  constrained  him  to  make  them  a  present  of 
the  two  slaves,  and  of  the  scalps  which  he  had  brought 
with  him.  He  embarked  with  them  for  Michillimak- 
inak.  The  arrival  of  these  two  women  threw  much 
light  [on  the  designs  of  the  Iroquois],  and  the  [Huron] 
people  felt  indignation  at  finding  themselves  thus  de- 
ceived. Immediately  a  war-party  was  sent  out,  who  laid 
violent  hands  on  thirteen  Iroquois  who  were  coming  to 
make  war  on  them ;  they  killed  five  and  captured  seven 
of  these,  and  only  one  escaped.  As  it  was  known  that 
an  agreement  had  been  made  between  the  Hurons  and 
the  Iroquois  that  they  would  on  both  sides  spare  the  lives 
of  captives  whom  they  might  take,  our  people  observed 
that  the  Hurons  were  planning  to  act  thus  by  these  Iro- 


quois.  Some  Frenchmen,  seeing  them  come  ashore, 
killed  two  of  the  captives  with  their  knives;  the  Hurons 
rescued  the  other  five  and  took  them  into  their  village, 
and  seized  their  weapons.  General  disorder  arose;  the 
Outaouaks  remained  neutral,  and  stepped  aside  to  be 
spectators  of  the  fracas.  Nansouakouet,  the  only  friend 
of  the  French,  called  his  warriors  together,  in  order  to 
support  the  French  in  case  fighting  arose.  The  Hu- 
rons, who  knew  the  generous  nature  of  the  French,  in- 
capable of  doing  harm  to  those  who  were  in  their  power, 
hastened  to  our  fort,  in  order  to  find  an  asylum  there. 
The  Hurons  did  not  push  their  violent  acts  further;  the 
old  men  entreated  the  commandant  not  to  pay  attention 
to  the  insolence  of  their  young  men,  and  brought  to  him 
the  chief  of  the  Iroquois  band,  to  dispose  of  him  as  he 
should  think  best.  Although  the  character  of  the  French 
is  opposed  to  inhumanity,  it  was  impossible  to  avoid 
giving  a  public  example  of  it  [in  this  case].  The  con- 
tinual favors  which  were  bestowed  on  the  captives  by 
our  allies -who  at  heart  were  more  our  enemies  than 
were  even  the  Iroquois -only  secured  the  continuance 
on  both  sides  of  the  secret  arrangements  which  existed 
between  them;  and,  in  order  to  exasperate  at  least  the 
Iroquois,  it  was  considered  best  to  sacrifice  this  chief. 
For  this  purpose  all  the  Outaouaks  were  invited  "to 
drink  the  broth  of  this  Iroquois,"  to  express  myself  after 
their  manner  of  speech.  A  stake  was  planted,  to  which 
he  was  attached  by  his  hands  and  feet,  leaving  him  only 
enough  freedom  to  move  around  it;  and  a  large  fire  was 
kindled  near  him,  in  which  iron  implements,  gun- 
barrels,  and  frying-pans  were  made  red-hot,  while  he 
sang  his  death-song.  All  being  ready,  a  Frenchman 
began  to  pass  a  gun-barrel  over  his  feet;  an  Outaouak 
seized  another  instrument  of  torture,  and  one  after  an- 

94 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

other  they  broiled  him  as  far  as  the  knees,  while  he  con- 
tinued to  sing  tranquilly.  But  he  could  not  refrain  from 
uttering  loud  cries  when  they  rubbed  his  thighs  with 
red-hot  frying-pans,  and  he  exclaimed  that  the  fire  was 
stronger  than  he.  At  once  all  the  crowd  of  savages  de- 
rided him  with  yells,  saying  to  him,  "Thou  art  a  war- 
chief,  and  afraid  of  fire;  thou  art  not  a  man!"  He  was 
kept  in  these  torments  during  two  hours,  without  giving 
him  any  respite;  the  more  he  gave  way  to  despair  and 
struck  his  head  against  the  stake,  the  more  they  flung 
jests  at  him.  An  Outaouak  undertook  to  refine  on  this 
sort  of  torture ;  he  cut  a  gash  along  the  captive's  body, 
from  the  shoulder  to  the  thigh,  put  gunpowder  along 
the  edges  of  the  wound,  and  set  fire  to  it  This  caused 
the  captive  even  more  intense  pain  than  had  the  other 
torments,  and,  as  he  became  extremely  weak,  they  gave 
him  something  to  drink -but  not  so  much  to  quench  his 
thirst  as  to  prolong  his  torture.  When  they  saw  that  his 
strength  began  to  be  exhausted,  they  cut  away  his  scalp, 
and  left  it  hanging  behind  his  back;  they  lined  a  large 
dish  with  hot  sand  and  red-hot  coals,  and  covered  his 
head  with  it;  and  then  they  unbound  him,  and  said  to 
him,  "Thou  art  granted  life."  He  began  to  run,  falling 
and  again  rising,  like  a  drunken  man ;  they  made  him 
go  in  the  direction  of  the  setting  sun  (the  country  of 
souls),  shutting  him  out  from  the  path  to  the  east;  and 
they  allowed  him  to  walk  only  so  far  as  they  were  willing 
he  should  go.  He  nevertheless  had  still  enough  strength 
to  fling  stones  at  random;  finally  they  stoned  him,  and 
every  one  carried  away  [a  piece  of]  his  broiled  flesh. 

Those  savages  who  were  most  incensed  quieted  down 
after  the  departure  of  the  deputies  who  carried  to  Mon- 
sieur de  Frontenac  the  Sauteur's  collar;  and  our  people 
made  various  attempts  to  ascertain  its  real  meaning,  and 


what  reply  the  Outaouaks  and  the  other  tribes  made  to 
the  English  and  the  Iroquois.  At  Michilimakinak  there 
was  a  Frenchman  who  was  an  intimate  friend  of  one  of 
the  principal  council  chiefs  among  our  allies ;  he  assured 
this  chief  of  entire  protection  from  Onontio.  As  man 
readily  discloses  his  thought  in  the  midst  of  joy,  the 
chief,  after  being  warmed  by  a  little  brandy,  promised 
the  Frenchman  to  meet  him  next  day  in  the  woods, 
where  he  would  tell  him  in  confidence  the  entire  condi- 
tion of  affairs;  and  the  two  went  to  the  appointed  place. 
The  Outaouak  assured  him  that  the  English  had  sent 
to  the  tribes  four  collars.  By  the  first  they  sent  word 
that  they  would  establish  a  post  on  Lake  Herier,  where 
they  would  come  to  trade ;  the  second  took  the  savages 
under  their  protection.  By  the  third,  the  English  ceased 
to  remember  the  pillage,  by  the  savages  together  with 
the  French,  from  their  warriors  who  were  going  to 
Michilimakinak;  and  by  the  fourth  they  promised  to 
furnish  their  merchandise  at  lower  prices  than  those 
asked  by  Onontio- who  was  avaricious  and  robbed  them. 
As  for  the  Iroquois,  they  had  sent  to  these  tribes  eight 
collars.  By  the  first,  they  said  that  they  remembered  the 
peace  that  they  had  made  with  La  Petite  Racine,  and 
that  they  had  not  desired  to  break  it,  even  though  their 
brothers  the  Outaouaks  should  kill  them  every  day;  by 
the  second,  they  buried  all  the  dead  whom  their  brothers 
had  slain.  The  third  hung  up  a  sun  at  the  strait  between 
Lake  Herier  and  Lake  Huron,  which  should  mark  the 
boundaries  between  the  two  peoples,  and  this  sun  should 
give  them  light  when  they  were  hunting.  By  the  fourth, 
they  threw  into  the  lake,  and  into  the  depths  of  the  earth, 
the  blood  that  had  been  shed,  in  order  that  nothing 
might  be  tainted  with  it.  By  the  fifth,  they  sent  "their 
own  bowl,"  so  that  they  might  have  but  one  dish  from 

96  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

which  to  eat  and  drink.  By  the  sixth,  they  promised  to 
eat  the  "wild  beasts"  around  them  which  should  be  com- 
mon [enemies]  to  both.  The  seventh  was  to  make  them 
"eat  together  of  the  buffalo,"  meaning  that  they  would 
unite  to  make  war  on  the  Miamis,  the  Islinois,  and  other 
tribes.  By  the  eighth,  they  were  to  eat  "the  white  meat," 
meaning  the  flesh  of  the  French. 

This  chief  told  the  Frenchman  the  replies  of  the 
Outaouaks,  who  consented  to  all  these  demands  and  sent 
return  messages  by  means  of  collars,  red-stone  calu- 
mets,31 and  bales  of  beaver-skins;  and  he  was  secretly 
engaged  to  go  down  to  Montreal  and  talk  with  Onontio, 
who  would  not  fail  to  question  closely  the  Sauteurs  who 
had  gone  away  with  the  Outaouak  deputies. 

31  Among  the  Indians  a  favorite  material  for  their  pipes  was  "the  red  clay- 
stone  called  catlinite,  obtained  from  a  quarry  in  southwestern  Minnesota,  and 
so  named  because  it  was  first  brought  to  the  attention  of  mineralogists  by 
George  Catlin,  the  noted  traveler  and  painter  of  Indians.  .  .  When  freshly 
quarried  it  is  so  soft  as  to  be  readily  carved  with  stone  knives  and  drilled  with 
primitive  hand  drills."  The  deposit  of  catlinite  occurs  in  a  valley  near  Pipe- 
stone,  Minn.;  the  stratum  of  pipestone  varies  from  ten  to  twenty  inches  in 
thickness,  the  fine,  pure-grained  stone  available  for  the  manufacture  of  pipes 
being,  however,  only  three  or  four  inches  thick.  The  aboriginal  excavations 
were  quite  shallow,  and  extended  nearly  a  mile  in  length ;  but  since  the  en- 
trance of  the  whites  into  that  region  the  Indians  have  carried  on  much  more 
extensive  operations,  with  the  aid  of  iron  implements  obtained  from  the  whites. 
"This  quarry  is  usually  referred  to  as  the  sacred  pipestone  quarry.  According 
to  statements  by  Catlin  and  others,  the  site  was  held  in  much  superstitious 
regard  by  the  aborigines;"  and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  it  was  held  and 
owned  in  common,  and  as  neutral  ground,  by  tribes  elsewhere  hostile  to  one 
another.  "Since  the  earliest  visits  of  the  white  man  to  the  Coteau  des  Prairies, 
however,  the  site  has  been  occupied  exclusively  by  the  Sioux,  and  Catlin  met 
with  strong  opposition  from  them  when  he  attempted  to  visit  the  quarry  about 
1837."  In  1851  these  lands  were  relinquished  to  the  Federal  government,  and 
by  a  treaty  in  1858  the  privilege  of  freely  mining  and  using  the  red  stone  was 
guaranteed  to  the  Sioux ;  accordingly  those  people  annually  obtain  from  the 
quarry  so  much  of  the  stone  as  they  desire  to  use.  They  manufacture  pipes  and 
various  trinkets  from  it,  and  sell  much  of  the  stone  to  the  whites,  who  in  turn 
manufacture  and  sell  similar  articles,  using  lathes  in  making  them;  in  conse- 
quence, the  genuine  Indian  products  are  crowded  out  of  the  market,  and  are 
seldom  found.  —  W.  H.  HOLMES,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


Chapter  XXIII  / 

The  Miamis,  continually  occupied  against  the  Iro- 
quois,  levied  a  force  of  three  hundred  warriors.  Some 
Frenchmen  who  were  in  that  quarter,  looking  only  at 
their  own  interests,  made  the  savages  believe  that  Onon- 
tio  desired  them  to  hunt  beavers  for  one  winter,  to  trade 
these  for  ammunition,  in  order  to  undertake  in  the  fol- 
lowing spring  an  expedition  against  the  common  enemy ; 
but  this  advice  did  not  hinder  them  from  sending  out  a 
war-party,  who  captured  and  tomahawked  twelve  Iro- 
quois.  Finding  themselves  pursued  by  a  great  number, 
in  another  encounter  they  killed  sixteen  of  the  enemy. 
The  Sakis  and  their  allies  also  displayed  their  fidelity 
to  Onontio;  and  it  was  only  the  Outagamis  and  the 
Maskoutechs  who  broke  all  their  promises.  They  were 
implacable  against  only  the  Nadouaissioux,  whatever 
the  peace  which  they  had  made  together,  and  whatever 
the  difficulty  in  which  they  had  found  themselves,  from 
which  they  were  only  extricated  through  the  mediation 
of  the  French.  This  passion  for  vengeance  which  domi- 
nated them  could  never  be  effaced  from  their  minds,  and 
they  set  out  on  the  war-path,  with  all  their  families. 
They  destroyed  [a  village  of]  eighty  cabins  of  Nadou- 
aissioux, and  cut  to  pieces  all  who  offered  resistance; 
and  they  practiced  unheard-of  cruelties  on  their  cap- 
tives. In  this  fight  they  lost  fifteen  men,  and  in  revenge 
for  this  they  burned  two  hundred  women  and  children. 
Six  Frenchmen  went  among  them  in  order  to  redeem 
some  of  these  slaves,  and  themselves  narrowly  escaped 
being  consigned  to  the  flames.  The  Miamis  were  deeply 
moved  by  all  these  disturbances  of  the  peace;  and  they 
feared  that  the  Nadouaissioux,  desiring  to  take  revenge, 
would  attack  them  on  their  journey.  As  they  had  not 

98  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

been  at  all  implicated  with  the  Maskoutechs,  they  en- 
gaged Perrot  to  go  to  the  Nadouaissioux,  to  assure  them 
of  the  sympathy  felt  for  them  by  the  Miamis.  Perrot 
encountered  a  band  of  Nadouaissioux  who  were  coming 
as  scouts  against  the  Maskoutechs,  who  told  him  that 
at  eight  leagues  above  he  would  find  sixty  of  their  men, 
who  formed  an  advance-guard  to  watch  lest  their  ene- 
mies should  return  to  the  attack.  He  had  no  sooner 
reached  that  place  than  those  men  approached  him,  all 
bathed  in  tears,  and  uttering  cries  which  would  touch 
even  the  most  unfeeling.  After  they  had  wept  about 
half  an  hour,  they  placed  him  on  a  bear-skin  and  carried 
him  to  the  summit  of  a  mountain,  on  which  they  had 
encamped;  this  was  done  at  the  moment  when  he  ap- 
peared deeply  affected  by  their  disaster.  He  asked  them 
to  make  his  arrival  known  at  the  French  fort;  and  a  few 
days  later  six  Nadouaissioux  set  out  with  him,  to  go 
thither.  He  passed  through  the  village,  which  was  en- 
tirely ruined,  and  where  nothing  could  be  seen  except 
melancholy  remains  from  the  fury  of  their  enemies;  the 
laments  of  those  who  had  escaped  from  their  cruelty 
were  heard  on  every  side.  A  Frenchman  was  there  at 
this  time  who  called  himself  a  great  captain;  he  had 
persuaded  the  savages,  while  displaying  many  pieces  of 
cloth,  that  he  was  unfolding  these  in  order  to  bring 
death  on  those  who  had  devoured  their  families -a  de- 
ception which  only  served  him  to  get  rid  of  his  merchan- 
dise more  quickly.  But  when  the  Nadouaissioux 
learned  that  Perrot  had  arrived  they  came  to  find  him  at 
this  village  and  conducted  him  to  his  fort;  and  he  took 
advantage  of  so  favorable  an  opportunity  to  present  to 
them  the  calumet  on  behalf  of  the  Miamis.  It  was  in 
this  manner  that  he  delivered  his  message : 

"Chiefs,  I  weep  for  the  death  of  your  children,  whom 


the  Outagamis  and  the  Maskoutechs  have  snatched 
from  you,  while  they  told  lies  to  me;  Heaven  has  seen 
their  cruelties,  and  will  punish  them  for  it.  This  blood 
is  still  too  fresh  to  undertake  vengeance  for  it  at  once. 
God  allows  you  to  weep,  in  order  to  incline  him  toward 
you ;  but  he  declares  against  you  and  will  not  aid  you  if 
you  set  out  on  the  war-path  this  summer.  I  have  heard 
that  you  are  assembling  together  to  seek  your  enemies; 
they  form  but  one  body,  and  are  resolutely  awaiting  you. 
They  have  entrenched  themselves  in  a  strong  fort;  the 
Outagamis  have  with  them  the  greater  part  of  their  prey, 
and  will  certainly  massacre  those  captives  if  you  make 
your  appearance.  I  cover  your  dead,  by  placing  over 
them  two  kettles.  I  do  not  bury  them  deep  in  the 
ground,  and  intend  only  to  protect  them  from  the  bad 
weather  until  Onontio  has  heard  of  your  loss;  he  will 
deliberate  on  what  he  can  do  for  you.  I  will  go  to  see 
him,  and  will  try  to  obtain  from  him  that  he  should 
cause  the  restoration  of  your  children  who  are  slaves 
among  your  enemies;  it  is  not  possible  that  he  should 
not  be  moved  by  compassion.  The  Miamis,  who  are  his 
children,  obeyed  him  when  I  told  them  in  his  behalf  to 
put  a  stop  to  the  war  which  they  were  waging  against 
you;  they  have  heard  of  your  affliction,  and  they  weep 
for  your  calamity.  See  their  calumet  which  they  have 
sent  you;  they  send  you  word  that  they  disapprove  the 
actions  of  the  Maskoutechs  and  the  Outagamis.  They 
ask  you  to  renew  this  alliance  which  exists  between  them 
and  you ;  and,  if  you  send  out  war-parties  to  go  to  find 
your  bones,  do  not  make  a  mistake  by  perhaps  attacking 
their  families  on  your  way." 

This  discourse  was  followed  by  many  bitter  lamenta- 
tions ;  only  cries  and  songs  of  death  were  heard.  They 
seized  burning  brands,  with  which  they  burned  their 

ioo  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

own  bodies,  without  making  any  display  of  pain,  repeat- 
ing many  times  this  expression  of  despair,  Kabato!  Ka- 
bato!  and  they  scorched  their  flesh,  with  wonderful  forti- 

Perrot,  having  allowed  them  time  to  yield  to  the 
natural  emotions  all  that  a  just  resentment  could  inspire 
in  them,  placed  before  them  several  brasses  of  tobacco, 
and  said:  "Smoke,  chiefs!  smoke,  warriors!  and  smoke 
peacefully,  in  the  expectation  that  I  will  send  back  to 
you  some  of  your  women  and  children,  whom  I  will 
draw  out  from  the  mouths  of  your  enemies.  Place  all 
your  confidence  in  Onontio  ["Monsieur  de  Fronte- 
nac"  -  La  Potherie],  who  is  the  master  of  the  land,  and 
from  whom  you  will  receive  all  sorts  of  satisfaction." 
Then  he  gave  them  five  or  six  packages  of  knives,  and 
again  spoke  to  them:  "These  knives  are  for  skinning 
beavers,  and  not  for  lifting  the  scalps  of  men ;  use  them 
until  you  have  tidings  from  Onontio." 

The  Frenchmen  who  had  detained  them  to  trade  for 
their  peltries  were  obliged  to  come  to  the  fort  to  sell 
their  merchandise.  He  whom  they  had  regarded  as  a 
great  captain  having  arrived  there,  the  savages  went  to 
find  him,  and  told  him  that,  since  the  goods  which  he 
had  displayed  to  them  would  cause  the  deaths  of  the 
Outagamis  and  the  Maskoutechs,  they  desired  to  sing 
to  him  and  Perrot  some  "funeral  calumets,"  in  order 
that  these  might  aid  them  in  their  enterprises.  They 
said:  "We  have  resolved  not  to  leave  our  dead  until 
we  have  carried  away  [the  people  of]  a  village,  whom 
we  intend  to  sacrifice  to  their  shades.  We  recognize  the 
Miamis  as  our  brothers,  and  we  are  going  to  send  depu- 
ties to  make  peace  with  them.  We  do  not  bear  much 
ill-will  to  the  Outagamis  for  their  having  carried  away 
our  women,  for  they  have  spared  their  lives,  and  did  not 


pursue  them  when  they  ran  away  from  them.  Ten  of 
the  women  have  arrived  here,  who  report  to  us  that  the 
Outagamis  have  good  hearts,  and  that  they  take  it  ill 
that  the  Maskoutechs  have  eaten  all  their  slaves.  Here 
are  three  young  men  who  have  just  arrived,  who  report 
that  for  one  Maskoutech  who  was  killed  in  the  battle 
they  have  burned  and  put  to  death  twenty  of  our  wives 
and  children;  and  that  in  their  retreat  their  only  food 
was  our  flesh." 

This  Frenchman  said  that  he  was  ready  to  receive  the 
calumet,  if  Perrot  was  willing  to  accept  the  other.  The 
Nadouaissioux  assembled  in  the  cabin  of  the  war-chief, 
where  they  went  through  the  ceremonies  connected  with 
calumets  of  war ;  they  made  the  two  Frenchmen  smoke 
these,  and  placed  the  ashes  of  the  tobacco  in  the  ground, 
invoking  the  [Great]  Spirit,  the  sun,  the  stars,  and  all 
the  other  spirits.  With  difficulty  Perrot  refused  this 
calumet,  excusing  himself  as  being  only  a  child,  who 
could  not  do  anything  without  the  consent  of  his  father. 
He  said  that  he  had  come  to  weep  for  their  dead,  and  to 
bring  them  the  calumet  for  the  Miamis,  who  had  had 
no  share  in  the  barbarous  act  of  their  enemies;  and  that 
if  they  would  give  him  a  calumet  as  a  response  to  the 
Miamis  he  would  carry  it  to  them.  But  he  could  not 
declare  against  the  Maskoutechs,  who  would  distrust 
him  because  they  would  not  fail  to  hear  that  the  "funer- 
al calumets"  had  been  sung  to  him.  He  said  that  he  had 
very  strong  reason  to  complain  of  them,  since  he  had  run 
the  risk  of  being  himself  burned  among  them;  but  that 
everything  must  be  referred  to  Onontio.  The  Nadou- 
aissioux admitted  that  he  was  right,  and  said  that  they 
would  hang  up  the  war-club  until  they  should  have  in- 
formed Monsieur  de  Frontenac  of  all  that  had  occurred. 
The  Outagamis  would  have  been  glad  if  the  Frenchmen 

102 LA  PQTHERIE [Vol. 

had  conducted  some  Nadouaissioux  to  them  to  arrange 
for  peace;  they  were  much  encumbered  with  their  pris- 
oners, and  they  were  not  ignorant  that  their  proceedings 
had  been  contrary  to  the  law  of  nations.  The  Nadou- 
aissioux did  not  think  it  best  to  expose  their  deputies, 
alone  [to  danger],  and  to  the  number  of  thirty  they  set 
out  for  the  Miami  village;  and  they  spent  some  time  on 
the  bank  of  the  Missisipi,  at  a  French  post  opposite  the 
lead  mine.  Notice  was  given  to  the  Miamis  of  the  ar- 
rival of  envoys  from  the  Nadouaissioux,  and  forty  of 
them  set  out  to  join  the  latter.  The  conference  that  took 
place  between  these  two  tribes  was  occupied  with  offers 
of  service  from  one,  and  lamentations  on  the  part  of 
the  other.  The  Nadouaissioux  (according  to  their  cus- 
tom) poured  many  tears  on  the  heads  of  the  Miamis, 
who  made  them  a  present  of  a  young  girl  and  a  little 
boy  whom  they  had  rescued  from  the  hands  of  the  Mas- 
koutechs.  They  covered  the  dead  of  the  Nadouaissioux 
by  giving  them  eight  kettles,  assuring  them  of  their 
friendship,  and  made  the  chiefs  smoke -promising  them 
that  they  would  obtain  as  many  as  they  could  of  their 
[captive]  women  and  children.  They  held  secret  con- 
ferences (unknown  to  the  French)  during  one  night, 
and  the  Miamis  swore  the  entire  destruction  of  the  Mas- 
koutechs.  Our  people  sent  word  to  a  village  of  Miamis, 
established  on  the  other  side  of  the  Missisipi,  that  we 
had  something  to  communicate  to  them  from  Onontio; 
and  they  came,  to  the  number  of  twenty-five.  They 
were  told  that  in  the  post  where  they  were  settled  they 
were  of  no  use  for  supporting  Onontio  in  the  Iroquois 
War;  that  they  would  obtain  no  more  supplies  for  war 
unless  they  turned  the  war-club  against  the  Iroquois; 
and  that  they  ought  to  fear  that  the  Nadouaissioux 
would  fall  upon  them  when  that  people  should  go  to 


take  vengeance  for  their  dead  upon  the  Maskou techs. 
They  promised  to  locate  their  fires  at  Maramek.  They 
would  have  done  so  at  the  Saint  Joseph  River,  at  the 
solicitation  of  the  chief  of  that  district;  but  his  refusal 
to  furnish  them  gunpowder  and  balls  gave  them  too  un- 
favorable an  opinion  of  his  avarice  to  attract  them  to  a 
union  with  him.  The  Maskoutechs  got  wind  of  the 
meeting  between  the  Nadouaissioux  and  the  Miamis 
that  was  brought  about  by  Perrot;  and  they  imagined 
that  this  could  only  be  the  result  of  his  remembering  the 
injuries  that  they  had  done  him.  [Accordingly]  they 
immediately  swore  his  ruin,  and  flattered  themselves 
that,  by  plundering  all  the  property  of  Perrot  and  the 
Frenchmen  who  were  with  him,  they  would  have  the 
means  for  taking  flight  more  easily  to  the  Iroquois 
country  if  they  had  to  give  way  under  the  power  of  the 
[other]  tribes.  One  night  they  tried  to  take  him  by  sur- 
prise, but  some  dogs -who  have  a  very  strong  antipathy 
for  the  savages,  who  commonly  eat  them -caused  them 
to  be  discovered;  and  this  obliged  Perrot  to  put  himself 
in  an  attitude  of  defense.  The  Maskoutechs,  whose  at- 
tack had  miscarried,  retreated  without  making  any 
further  effort;  and  their  fear  lest  the  French  and  the 
Miamis  might  form  a  league  with  the  Nadouaissioux 
against  them  induced  them  to  send  one  of  their  chiefs  to 
Maramek,  to  sound  the  Miamis  adroitly.  He  there  en- 
countered Perrot,  with  whom  he  had  a  private  conver- 
sation. The  savage  is  ordinarily  politic  and  very  pliant 
in  behavior ;  this  man  said  to  Perrot  with  a  smile,  "Thou 
rememberest  what  I  did  to  thee ;  thou  art  seeking  to  re- 
venge thyself,"  and  told  him  that  he  was  sure  that  the 
tribes  felt  much  resentment  against  the  Nadouaissioux, 
who  knew  well  that  they  were  surrounded  on  all  sides 
by  their  enemies;  but  that  what  was  causing  the  Mas- 

104  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

koutechs  most  regret  was  the  seizure  that  they  had  made 
of  all  his  merchandise -for  which,  it  would  appear,  he 
sought  an  opportunity  to  take  revenge.  It  was  a  matter 
of  prudence  not  to  exasperate  this  chief  too  much,  and 
unreasonable  acts  often  cause  ruinous  results;  and  it 
might  be  that,  if  he  were  told  that  the  French  would 
find  means  to  put  a  stop  to  all  the  annoyances  to  which 
they  were  continually  exposed,  the  Maskoutechs  would 
come  and  attack  the  Miamis,  as  people  who  no  longer 
placed  bounds  to  their  conduct  with  any  one  whatever. 
Perrot  contented  himself  with  very  concisely  upbraid- 
ing the  Maskoutech  for  all  his  tribe's  acts  of  perfidy,  in 
regard  to  not  only  the  French  but  the  Nadouaissioux. 
Meanwhile  some  young  Maskoutech  warriors  came  into 
their  cabin,  who  told  this  chief  that  he  was  required  at 
the  village,  and  that  their  men  had  discovered  the  army 
of  the  Nadouaissioux  at  the  lead  mine.  He  was  very 
ready  to  break  off  the  conversation,  and  ran  precipitate- 
ly into  the  village,  where  he  uttered  shouts  to  notify  his 
men,  who  were  dispersed,  that  they  must  retreat  to  their 
own  village  in  order  to  build  a  fort  as  quickly  as  pos- 

The  principal  chiefs  of  the  Miamis  took  advantage 
of  the  departure  of  the  French,  who  were  going  back  to 
Montreal,  and  nearly  all  the  village  escorted  them  as 
far  as  the  Bay  of  Puans.  The  Sakis  and  the  Pouteou- 
atemis  wished  to  be  also  of  this  party;  and  on  all  sides 
were  heard  many  expressions  of  eagerness  to  go  to  hear 
the  voice  of  Monsieur  de  Frontenac.  The  Frenchmen 
devoted  themselves,  while  waiting  for  their  embarca- 
tion,  to  the  deliverance  of  the  Nadouaissioux  prisoners 
who  were  among  the  Outagamis.  The  latter  had  re- 
ceived as  a  present  two  Iroquois  from  the  Miamis  of 
Chikagon;  and  policy  restrained  them  from  burning 


these  captives,  because  they  hoped  that,  in  case  the 
Nadouaissioux  came  to  attack  their  village,  they  could 
immediately  retire  with  their  families  among  the  Iro- 
quois,  who  would  protect  them  from  their  enemies. 
They  were  persuaded  [by  the  French]  that  all  the  peo- 
ples of  these  quarters  desired  their  complete  ruin;  the 
Sauteurs  had  been  plundered,  the  French  treated  in  a 
brutal  manner,  and  all  their  allies  insulted.  They  had 
intended  to  send  to  the  Iroquois  one  of  their  chiefs,  with 
these  two  liberated  captives,  in  order  to  invite  that  na- 
tion to  join  them  on  the  confines  of  Saint  Joseph  River, 
and  were  inclined  to  ask  the  Maskoutechs  to  unite  with 
them -which  would  have  enabled  them  to  collect  a  body 
of  nine  hundred  warriors,  in  order  to  attack  first  the 
Miamis  and  the  Islinois.  The  son  of  the  great  chief  of 
the  Outagamis  came  to  the  bay,  where  he  had  a  secret 
conversation  with  one  of  the  most  distinguished  French- 
men. It  was  no  sooner  learned  that  he  had  resolved  to 
go  down  to  Montreal  than  some  men  of  his  tribe  did  all 
that  they  could  to  hinder  him  from  this;  but  he  told 
them  that  he  was  very  glad  to  visit  the  French  colony. 
The  French  departed  as  soon  as  they  had  sent  some  Na- 
douaissioux, whom  they  had  redeemed,  back  to  their 
own  country. 

Chapter  XXIV 

The  Outaouaks  at  Michilimakinak  conceived  jeal- 
ousy at  the  arrival  of  these  newcomers,  and  did  what 
they  could  to  make  them  return  each  to  his  own  country; 
it  was  suspected  that  they  were  still  plotting  something 
against  the  French  nation.  An  Outaouak  was  adroitly 
sounded,  in  order  to  find  out  [if  there  were]  new  in- 
trigues, and  many  presents  were  promised  to  him.  He 
asked  for  a  drink  of  brandy,  intending  to  feign  intoxi- 

io6 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

cation,  so  that  he  could  make  one  of  his  companions  talk 
who  was  actually  in  that  condition;  he  told  the  latter, 
very  angrily,  that  he  would  prevent  the  scheme  of  the 
Michilimakinak  people  from  succeeding.  The  other 
replied  that  he  was  not  able  to  prevent  it;  and  there  was 
much  disputing  on  both  sides.  The  Outaouak  acknowl- 
edged, privately,  that  the  Hurons  had  gone  to  the  Iro- 
quois,  with  a  calumet  ornamented  with  plumes,  and 
several  collars,  in  order  to  carry  the  message  of  the  Outa- 
ouaks;  the  latter  asked  for  full  union  with  the  Iroquois, 
and  desired  to  abandon  the  side  of  the  French,  in  order 
to  place  themselves  under  the  protection  of  the  English. 
Our  people  attempted  to  gain  further  and  more  thor- 
ough information  by  means  of  another  Outaouak,  who 
was  the  most  influential  man  in  that  tribe ;  and  he  was 
regarded  as  the  most  faithful  friend  of  the  French.  He 
said  only  this,  that  the  Hurons,  pretending  to  go  to 
Sakinan  in  search  of  medicinal  herbs,  had  really  gone 
to  the  Iroquois  country.  Soon  afterward  it  was  learned 
that  the  Hurons  were  to  bring  some  of  the  Iroquois  with 
them  to  make  arrangements,  during  the  coming  winter, 
for  the  place  of  rendezvous ;  but  they  did  not  fail  to  send 
chiefs  to  Montreal  to  beguile  Monsieur  de  Frontenac. 
The  Outagamis  were  very  undecided  over  the  conduct 
that  they  should  observe  in  regard  to  the  Iroquois,  since 
the  son  of  their  chief  had  gone  to  visit  our  governor; 
whatever  inclination  they  may  have  felt  for  the  Iroquois, 
they  concluded  to  await  his  return.  The  Hurons  and 
the  Outaouaks  practiced  all  their  tricks,  as  they  had 
planned.  Monsieur  de  Frontenac  gave  them  several 
public  audiences,  at  which  they  presented  to  him  collars 
which  assured  him  of  their  unshakable  attachment.  They 
returned  home  well  pleased,  and  kept  on  the  defensive 
in  the  river  of  the  Outaouaks,  not  daring  even  to  travel 


in  the  daytime  for  fear  of  the  Iroquois-who  on  the  voy- 
age down  the  river  had  killed  one  of  their  men,  and 
wounded  a  Frenchman  and  the  Huron  chief  Le  Baron. 
We  can  say  that  all  those  peoples  were  strangely  blind 
as  to  their  own  interests.  There  was  [among  them]  only 
eagerness  to  become  attached  to  the  Iroquois,  whom  they 
believed  to  be  their  friends -who,  however,  did  not 
spare  them  when  they  could  find  an  opportunity  [to  at- 
tack them]  ;  but  when  it  was  a  question  of  declaring  in 
our  favor  they  did  so  in  the  most  indifferent  possible 

Soon  after  their  departure  from  Montreal,  a  rumor 
circulated  that  six  hundred  Iroquois  were  coming  to 
ravage  all  our  coasts;  Monsieur  de  Frontenac  made  a 
general  review  of  all  his  troops,  and  detached  ten  or 
twelve  hundred  men  to  resist  the  enemy  at  the  start.  The 
Pouteouatemis,  the  Sakis,  the  Malhominis,  and  that  son 
of  the  great  chief  of  the  Outagamis  undertook  to  go  out 
themselves  scouting  as  far  as  Lake  Frontenac.  The 
zeal  that  they  displayed  in  this  emergency  deeply 
touched  the  governor,  and  he  made  them  many  presents 
on  their  return;  and  he  assured  the  Outagami  that,  al- 
though his  tribe  had  always  been  hostile  to  us,  by  plun- 
dering and  insulting  the  French,  they  would  be  num- 
bered with  our  allies. 

Meanwhile  the  fleet  of  the  French  and  the  allies  who 
were  bringing  their  peltries  arrived  at  Montreal ;  they 
informed  us  of  the  death  of  the  famous  Outaouak  chief 
Nansoaskouet,  who  had  been  slain  among  the  Osages.32 

32 The  Osage  (a  name  corrupted  by  French  traders  from  Wazhazhe,  their 
own  name)  are  the  most  important  southern  Siouan  tribe  of  the  western  di- 
vision. Dorsey  classed  them  "in  one  group  with  the  Omaha,  Ponca,  Kansa, 
and  Quapaw,  with  whom  they  are  supposed  to  have  originally  constituted  a 
single  body  living  along  the  lower  course  of  the  Ohio  River.  .  .  The  first 
historical  notice  of  the  Osage  appears  to  be  on  Marquette's  autograph  map  of 
1673,  which  locates  them  apparently  on  Osage  River,  and  there  they  are  placed 

io8  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

He  was  the  supporter  of  the  French  in  his  own  country, 
and  had  been  an  opponent  of  the  English,  in  spite  of  his 
tribe.  He  had  gone  to  the  Islinois  the  preceding 
autumn,  at  the  solicitation  of  his  warriors,  who  for  a 
long  time  tried  to  deprive  us  of  the  succor  which  the 
tribes  of  the  south  were  giving  us  in  the  Iroquois  War. 
He  had,  I  say,  gone  to  the  Islinois,  to  avenge  the  death 
of  the  son  of  Talon  (who  had  died  from  sickness  in  the 
war  which  he  had  undertaken  to  wage  on  the  Kancas 
and  the  Osages),  and  had  induced  all  the  Islinois  to 
join  his  expedition.  In  the  attack  on  a  village  they  en- 
countered sturdy  resistance;  Nansoaskoiiet,  who  tried 
to  storm  it,  pushed  too  far  in  advance  [of  his  men] 
and  was  surrounded,  and  they  pierced  him  with  arrows, 
which  caused  his  death.  The  Outaouaks  who  had  come 
down  in  this  fleet  brought  some  presents  and  an  Osage 
slave,  by  way  of  announcing  to  Monsieur  de  Frontenac 
the  death  of  this  great  chief;  he  made  answer  to  them 
that  they  ought  first  to  take  revenge  against  the  Iroquois, 
who  had  slain  his  nephew  (meaning  Nansoaskoiiet's), 
and  that  he  would  send  his  warriors  against  the  Osages 

by  all  subsequent  writers  until  their  removal  westward  in  the  nineteenth  cen- 
tury. .  .  In  1714  they  assisted  the  French  in  defeating  the  Foxes  at  Detroit. 
Although  visits  of  traders  were  evidently  quite  common  before  1719,  the  first 
official  French  visit  appears  to  have  been  in  that  year  by  Du  Tisne,  who  learned 
that  their  village  on  Osage  River  then  contained  100  cabins  and  200  warriors. 
The  village  of  the  Missouri  was  higher  up.  "Then,  as  always,  the  tribe  was 
at  war  with  most  of  the  surrounding  peoples."  By  a  treaty  of  Nov.  10,  1808, 
the  Osage  ceded  a  large  part  of  their  lands  to  the  United  States,  and  still 
more  by  later  agreements.  "The  limits  of  their  present  reservation  were  es- 
tablished by  act  of  Congress  of  July  15,  1870.  This  consists  (1906)  of 
1,470,058  acres,  and  in  addition  the  tribe  possessed  funds  in  the  Treasury  of 
the  United  States  amounting  to  $8,562,690,  including  a  school  fund  of  $119,911, 
the  whole  yielding  an  annual  income  of  $428,134.  Their  income  from  pas- 
turage leases  amounted  to  $98,376  in  the  same  year,  and  their  total  annual 
income  was  therefore  about  $265  per  capita,  making  this  tribe  the  richest  in 
the  entire  United  States.  By  act  of  June  28,  1906,  an  equal  division  of  the 
lands  and  funds  of  the  Osage  was  provided  for."  Their  population  in  the 
last-named  year  was  1,994,  having  dwindled  to  that  figure  from  some  5.000 
a  century  ago.  -  JOHN  R.  SWANTON,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


and  the  Kancas.  This  response  pleased  them  little,  be- 
cause, as  the  savages  are  very  capricious,  they  do  not 
allow  themselves  to  be  easily  influenced  by  mere  prom- 
ises. They  went  back,  however,  to  Michilimakinak,  as 
did  all  our  allies,  with  the  wife  of  the  chief  of  the 
Nadouaissioux,  who  had  been  one  of  the  prisoners  whom 
the  Outagamis  had  taken ;  she  was  sold  to  an  Outaouak, 
and  ransomed  by  a  Frenchman  who  brought  her  to 
Montreal.  There  remained  only  one  Nadouaissioux, 
who  was  kept  there  some  time;  our  people  were  very 
glad  to  let  him  see  the  colony,  in  order  that  he  might 
give  his  own  people  some  idea  of  the  power  of  the 
French.  He  had  come  expressly  to  arouse  in  Monsieur 
de  Frontenac  some  compassion  for  their  calamity. 

-,   Chapter  XXV 

Monsieur  the  Count  de  Frontenac  had  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  the  Hurons  and  the  Outaouaks  had  spoken  to 
him  with  open  heart  in  the  audiences  that  he  had  given 
them;  but  he  was  much  surprised  to  learn  that  the  Hu- 
rons had  sent  ambassadors  to  the  Iroquois,  and  the  Iro- 
quois  to  the  Hurons.  The  French  commandant  at 
Michilimakinak  did  not  doubt  that  the  presence  of  these 
latter  would  cause  a  great  disturbance,  and  tried  to  make 
the  Outaouaks  tomahawk  them.  Great  disorder  pre- 
vailed, and  the  savages  generally  took  up  arms  against 
him;  they  were,  however,  obliged  to  send  the  envoys 
back  to  their  homes,  for  fear  of  some  accident.  The 
Outaouaks  departed,  the  following  winter,  in  order  to 
hunt  game  at  the  rendezvous  that  they  had  appointed, 
where  they  were  to  conclude  a  full  and  substantial  peace. 
They  had  taken  the  precaution  to  leave  at  Michilimaki- 
nak a  chief  to  keep  up  friendly  intercourse  with  the 
French,  and  as  a  pledge  of  their  fidelity  to  Onontio, 

no  LAPOTHERIE  [Vol. 

without  letting  it  be  known  that  they  had  any  premedi- 
tated design -even  asserting  that,  if  they  saw  any  Iro- 
quois,  they  would  gradually  lure  them  on,  in  order  to 
"put  them  into  the  kettle."  The  French  affected  not  to 
distrust  their  fidelity,  but  sent  an  envoy  to  the  Bay  of 
Puans  to  induce  our  allies  to  send  out  meantime  some 
bands  who  could  hinder  this  [proposed]  interview.  At 
the  bay  were  found  only  the  old  men -as  at  that  time  all 
the  young  men  were  out  hunting  except  those  who  had 
gone  down  to  Montreal,  who  had  [not  yet?]  returned 
home -and  one  chief,  who  was  told  that  a  favorable  op- 
portunity now  offered  itself  which  might  secure  for  him 
recommendation  to  Onontio,  from  whom  he  would  re- 
ceive all  possible  advantages  if  he  would  go  to  persuade 
his  people  to  fight  the  Iroquois  at  the  rendezvous  which 
the  latter  had  granted  to  the  Outaouaks.  He  promised 
that  he  would  go  gladly,  for  love  of  Onontio,  and  imme- 
diately set  out  without  attempting  to  make  a  war-feast 
beforehand.  The  Outagamis  were  weaned  from  the 
ardor  that  they  had  had  for  going  with  their  families 
to  join  the  Iroquois.  The  son  of  their  chief,  who  had 
returned  from  Montreal,  made  a  deep  impression  on 
their  minds  by  the  account  which  he  gave  of  the  power 
of  the  French.  The  Sakis  had  always  supported  our 
interests  during  that  time;  they  lost  some  men  and  va- 
rious captives  were  taken  from  them,  for  they  found 
themselves  surrounded  by  six  hundred  Iroquois  who 
were  going  to  Montreal  for  war.  It  was  this  army  (who 
had  been  discovered  by  our  Iroquois  of  the  Saut), 
whom  the  Outagami  chief's  son  and  our  other  allies  had 
gone  to  reconnoiter  at  Lake  Frontenac.  These  Sakis  were 
taken  to  Onnontague,  where  the  ambassadors  of  the  Hu- 
rons  had  arrived;  and  the  Onnontaguais 33  censured  the 

33  Onondaga   (or  Onontagues),  one  of  the  Iroquois  Five  Nations,  formerly 
living  on  Onondaga  Lake,  N.Y.,  and  extending  northward  to  Lake  Ontario, 


Hurons  for  coming  to  treat  of  peace  while  their  allies 
the  Sakis  were  killing  the  Iroquois.  The  Hurons  re- 
plied that  they  did  not  regard  the  Sakis  as  friends  or 
as  allies;  and  for  the  purpose  of  confirming  this  asser- 
tion they  immediately  burned  the  hands  and  cut  off  the 
finger  ends  of  the  Saki  prisoners.  The  Outagamis  and 
the  Sakis  made  every  possible  effort  to  form  a  peace 
with  the  Nadouaissioux.  They  promised  the  French 
that  they  would,  if  the  latter  would  prevent  the  incur- 
sions of  the  Nadouaissioux,  take  the  war-path  against 
the  Iroquois  to  the  number  of  twelve  or  fifteen  hundred 
men ;  and  even  that,  if  the  Outaouaks  made  peace  with 
that  nation,  they  would  strike  higher  up -"in  order  to 
clear  the  road,"  they  said,  "which  the  Outaouaks  would 
proceed  to  close  against  the  French  who  should  come 
to  trade  at  the  bay  and  with  the  southern  tribes."  All 
the  Frenchmen  who  were  in  those  quarters  were  called 
together;  and  it  was  decided  that  an  attempt  must  be 
made  to  restrain  the  Nadouaissioux,  to  the  end  that  the 
Outagamis  might  place  in  the  field  an  expedition  that 
would  without  fail  be  successful.  The  French  bought 
six  boys  and  six  girls,  the  children  of  chiefs,  besides  the 
great  chief's  wife  whom  they  already  had;  and  they  set 
out  across  the  country  to  conduct  these  captives  to  the 
Nadouaissioux.  Perrot  was  selected  to  transact  this 
business;  he  also  held  special  orders  from  Monsieur  de 

and  southward  to  perhaps  the  Susquehanna.  Their  principal  village,  Onon- 
daga,  was  also  the  capital  of  the  confederation ;  and  their  present  reserve  is  in 
the  valley  of  Onondaga  Creek.  "Many  of  the  Onondaga  joined  the  Catholic 
Iroquois  colonies  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  in  1751  about  half  of  the  tribe 
was  said  to  be  living  in  Canada."  In  1775  most  of  the  Iroquois  took  sides 
with  the  British,  who  at  the  close  of  the  war  granted  them  lands  on  Grand 
River,  Ont,  where  a  part  of  them  still  reside.  "The  rest  are  still  in  New 
York,  the  greater  number  being  on  the  Onondaga  reservation,  and  the  others 
with  the  Seneca  and  Tuscarora  on  their  several  reservations.  .  .  In  1906 
the  Onondaga  in  New  York  numbered  553,  the  rest  of  the  tribe  being  with  the 
Six  Nations  in  Canada."  — J.  N.  B.  HEWITT,  in  Handbook  Amer,  Indians. 

ii2  LAPOTHERIE  [Vol. 

Frontenac  for  other  enterprises.  He  arrived  in  the 
country  of  the  Miamis,  who  sent  people  to  meet  him 
and  point  out  to  him  their  village,  having  learned  from 
some  one  of  their  people  who  had  come  from  Montreal 
that  he  was  coming  to  see  them  again.  On  his  arrival  he 
announced  to  them  that  Onontio  gave  positive  orders 
that  they  should  quit  their  [present]  fires,  and  light 
them  at  the  Saint  Joseph  River;  for  the  execution  of  this 
order  they  gave  him,  on  their  part,  five  collars.  He 
told  them  that  he  was  going  to  make  efforts  to  restrain 
the  Nadouaissioux,  and  to  return  to  them  some  slaves 
whom  he  had  rescued  from  their  enemies;  and  he  ad- 
monished them  all  to  be  present  in  their  village  on  his 
return  thither.  The  Nadouaissioux  had  sent  to  the  Mi- 
amis  seven  of  their  women,  whom  they  had  rescued  from 
the  hands  of  the  Maskoutechs;  and  the  Miamis  made 
them  presents  of  eight  kettles,  a  quantity  of  Indian  corn, 
and  tobacco. 

Chapter  XXVI 

Twelve  hundred  Nadouaissioux,  Sauteurs,  Ayoes,  and 
even  some  Outaouaks  were  then  on  the  march  against 
the  Outagamis  and  the  Maskoutechs,  and  likewise  were 
not  to  spare  the  Miamis.  They  had  resolved  to  take 
revenge  on  the  French,  if  they  did  not  encounter  their 
enemies.  These  warriors  were  only  three  days'  journey 
distant  from  the  Miami  village  from  which  Perrot  had 
departed ;  they  learned  that  he  was  coming  among  them 
with  their  women  and  children  and  the  wife  of  the 
great  chief.  This  was  enough  to  make  them  lay  down 
their  arms  and  suspend  war  until  they  had  heard  what 
he  had  to  say  to  them.  He  reached  his  fort,  where  he 
learned  these  circumstances ;  he  was  also  told  that  it  was 
believed  that  the  Miamis  were  already  routed.  As  he 
did  not  know  that  the  Nadouaissioux  had  the  news  that 


he  was  coming,  he  sent  to  them  two  Frenchmen,  who 
came  back  the  next  day  with  their  great  chief.  I  cannot 
express  the  joy  that  they  displayed  when  they  saw  their 
women.  The  remembrance  of  the  loss  of  the  other  cap- 
tives caused  at  the  same  time  so  much  grief  that  it  was 
necessary  to  allow  a  day's  time  to  their  tears  and  all  the 
lamentations  that  they  uttered.  According  to  them, 
Perrot  was  a  chief  whose  "feet  were  on  the  ground  and 
his  head  in  the  sky;"  he  was  also  the  "master  of  the 
whole  earth,"  and  they  heaped  on  him  expressions  of 
joy  and  endearment,  regarding  him  as  a  divinity.  They 
were  so  busy  in  weeping  hot  tears  on  his  head  and  on  the 
captives,  and  in  gazing  on  the  sun  with  many  exclama- 
tions, that  he  could  not  obtain  from  them  any  satisfac- 
tion. On  the  next  day  they  told  him  that  when  "the 
men"  arrived  they  would  render  him  thanks;  it  is  thus 
that  all  the  savages  are  designated  among  themselves, 
while  they  call  the  French  "French,"  and  the  [other] 
people  from  Europe  by  the  names  of  their  respective 
nations.  They  are  persuaded  that  in  all  the  world  they 
are  the  only  real  men;  and  the  greatest  praise  that  they 
can  bestow  on  a  Frenchman  whose  worth  they  recog- 
nize is  when  they  say  to  him,  "Thou  art  a  man."  When 
they  wish  to  show  him  that  they  have  contempt  for  him, 
they  tell  him  that  he  is  not  a  man.  The  chief  desired  to 
bring  up  all  his  men  near  the  fort,  but  the  Sauteurs,  the 
Ayoe's,  and  several  villages  of  the  Nadouaissioux  had 
made  their  arrangements  for  hunting  beaver,  and  there 
were  only  two  villages,  of  about  fifty  cabins  each,  who 
came  to  the  fort.  After  the  Nadouaissioux  had  en- 
camped, this  chief  sent  to  ask  Perrot  to  come  to  his 
cabin,  with  all  the  men  who  had  accompanied  him.  His 
brother,  seeing  a  Saki,  exclaimed  that  he  was  an  Outa- 
gami,  saying,  "Behold  the  man  who  has  eaten  me!" 
This  Saki,  knowing  well  that  he  was  not  safe,  offered 


him  his  calumet,  which  the  Nadouaissioux  refused.  A 
Miami,  who  also  was  with  the  French,  took  his  own 
calumet  and  offered  it,  which  he  accepted.  Perrot  gave 
his  own  calumet  to  the  Saki,  and  told  him  to  offer  it; 
the  Nadouaissioux  did  not  dare  to  refuse,  and  took  and 
smoked  it  -but  with  the  cries  and  tears  of  an  angry  man, 
calling  the  Great  Spirit,  the  Sky,  the  Earth,  and  all  the 
spirits  to  witness  that  he  asked  to  be  pardoned  if  he  re- 
ceived the  calumet  which  his  enemy  offered  him,  which 
he  dared  not  refuse  because  it  belonged  to  a  captain 
whom  he  esteemed.  There  was  no  one  save  a  woman 
whom  this  very  Saki  had  rescued  from  slavery  who 
could  prove  who  he  was.  He  was  so  frightened  that,  if 
he  had  not  felt  some  confidence  in  the  outcome,  he  would 
have  longed  to  be  far  away.  During  several  days  feasts 
were  made,  and  the  result  of  this  conference  was,  that 
the  Nadouaissioux  were  very  willing  to  make  peace  with 
the  Outagamis  if  the  latter  would  restore  the  rest  of 
their  people  ;  but  in  regard  to  the  Maskoutechs  they  had, 
together  with  the  Miamis,  sworn  to  ruin  them  ;  and  they 
parted,  each  according  to  his  own  side.  The  Miamis 
were  advised  not  to  rely  on  the  Nadouaissioux,  and  they 
were  more  than  ever  attracted  to  the  idea  of  abandoning 
Maramek  in  order  to  settle  on  Saint  Joseph  River,  as 
Onontio  had  commanded  them.  They  were  given  two 
hundred  pounds  of  gunpowder  in  order  to  procure  sub- 
sistence for  their  families  while  on  the  journey,  and  to 
kill  any  Iroquois  whom  they  might  meet  The  Saki 
who  had  been  so  frightened  in  the  cabin  of  the  Nadou- 
aissioux chief  took  to  flight,  and  filled  the  Outagamis 
with  such  alarm  that  even  the  women  and  children 
worked,  day  and  night,  to  build  a  fort  in  which  they 
could  make  themselves  safe.  The  arrival  of  one  of  their 
men,  who  was  out  hunting  beaver,  increased  their  ter- 


ror.  He  had  indeed  seen  the  camp  of  the  Nadouaissioux 
army,  but  had  not  been  able  to  consider  whether  it  was 
recently  made.  The  alarm  therefore  broke  out  more 
wildly  than  ever;  they  made  many  harangues  to  en- 
courage all  the  warriors  to  make  a  stout  defense;  and 
each  vied  with  the  others  in  showing  the  best  way  of 
ordering  the  combat.  Word  was  sent  to  the  bay  to  in- 
form the  tribes  of  the  march  of  the  Nadouaissioux,  and 
at  the  same  time  to  ask  them  to  furnish  aid  to  that  peo- 
ple. Scouts  went  out  in  all  directions;  some  reported 
that  they  had  seen  the  fires  of  the  army  and  some  freshly- 
killed  animals,  at  two  days'  distance;  and  others,  who 
arrived  the  next  day,  said  that  the  army  was  only  one 
day's  march  from  there.  Finally,  people  came  in  great 
haste  to  say  that  the  river  was  all  covered  with  canoes, 
and  that,  from  all  appearances  the  general  attack  was  to 
be  made  at  night;  nothing,  however,  was  visible.  Per- 
rot,  who  was  then  among  them,  wished  to  go  in  person 
to  reconnoiter;  but  they  prevented  him  from  this,  in  the 
fear  which  they  felt,  [imagining  that]  by  detaining  him 
the  enemy  would  not  come  to  surprise  them.  Some 
hunters,  who  had  been  bolder  than  the  others,  reported 
that  the  [alleged]  camp  had  been  made  the  preceding 
winter.  Their  minds  began  to  regain  confidence,  and 
they  no  longer  sought  for  anything  save  the  means  for 
sending  back  their  prisoners  in  order  to  secure  peace, 
and  for  making  ready  after  that  to  march  against  the 
Iroquois;  and  they  again  entreated  Perrot  to  be  their 
mediator  for  peace.  He  went  among  them  and  pro- 
posed to  them  the  above  arrangement,  which  they  ac- 
cepted; and  promised  to  conduct  their  people  [to  the 
Nadouaissioux  country]  in  the  moon  when  the  [wild] 
bulls  would  be  rutting.  The  savages  divide  the  year 
into  twelve  moons,  to  which  they  give  the  names  of  ani- 

ri6 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

mals,  but  which  are  similar  to  our  months.  Thus,  Jan- 
uary and  February  are  the  first  and  second  moons,  when 
the  bears  bring  forth  their  young;  March  is  the  moon  of 
the  carp,  and  April  that  of  the  crane;  May  is  the  moon 
of  the  Indian  corn ;  June,  the  moon  when  the  wild  geese 
shed  their  feathers;  July,  that  when  the  bear  is  in  rut; 
August,  the  rut  of  the  bulls;  September,  that  of  the  elk; 
October,  the  rut  of  the  moose;  November,  that  of  the 
deer;  December,  the  moon  when  the  horns  of  the  deer 
fall  off.  The  tribes  who  dwell  about  the  [Great]  Lakes 
call  September  the  moon  when  the  trout  milt;  October, 
that  of  the  whitefish ;  and  November,  that  of  the  herring ; 
to  the  other  months  they  give  the  same  names  as  do  those 
who  live  inland. 34  Perrot  then  assured  them  that  at  the 

34  "Although  the  methods  of  computing  time  had  been  carried  to  an  ad- 
vanced stage  among  the  cultured  tribes  of  Mexico  and  Central  America,  the 
Indians  north  of  Mexico  had  not  brought  them  beyond  the  simplest  stage. 
The  alternation  of  day  and  night  and  the  changes  of  the  moon  and  the  seasons 
formed  the  bases  of  their  systems.  The  budding,  blooming,  leafing,  and  fruit- 
ing of  vegetation,  the  springing  forth,  growth,  and  decay  of  annuals,  and  the 
molting,  migration,  pairing,  etc.,  of  animals  and  birds,  were  used  to  denote 
the  progress  of  the  seasons.  The  divisions  of  the  day  differed,  many  tribes 
recognizing  four  diurnal  periods  —  the  rising  and  setting  of  the  sun,  noon,  and 
midnight  — while  full  days  were  usually  counted  as  so  many  nights  or  sleeps. 
The  years  were  generally  reckoned,  especially  in  the  far  north,  as  so  many 
winters  or  so  many  snows;  but  in  the  Gulf  States,  where  snow  is  rare  and  the 
heat  of  summer  the  dominant  feature,  the  term  for  year  had  some  reference  to 
this  season  or  to  the  heat  of  the  sun.  As  a  rule  the  four  seasons  —  spring,  sum- 
mer, autumn,  and  winter  — were  recognized  and  specific  names  applied  to 
them;  but  the  natural  phenomena  by  which  they  were  determined,  and  from 
which  their  names  were  derived,  varied  according  to  latitude  and  environment, 
and  as  to  whether  the  tribe  was  in  the  agricultural  or  the  hunter  state.  .  .  The 
most  important  time  division  to  the  Indians  north  of  Mexico  was  the  moon,  or 
month,  their  count  of  this  period  beginning  with  the  new  moon."  Some  tribes 
counted  twelve  moons  to  the  year,  and  some  thirteen.  "There  appears  to 
have  been  an  attempt  on  the  part  of  some  tribes  to  compensate  for  the  surplus 
days  in  the  solar  year.  Carver  (Travels,  ed.  1796,  160),  speaking  of  the 
Sioux  or  the  Chippewa,  says  that  when  thirty  moons  have  waned  they  add  a 
supernumerary  one,  which  they  term  the  lost  moon.  .  .  The  Indians  gen- 
erally calculated  their  ages  by  some  remarkable  event  or  phenomenon  which 
had  taken  place  within  their  remembrance;  but  few  Indians  of  mature  years 
could  possibly  tell  their  age  before  learning  the  white  man's  way  of  counting 
time.  Sticks  were  sometimes  notched  by  the  Indians  as  an  aid  in  time 


time  of  the  bulls'  rutting  he  would  be  present  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Ouisconk  [i.e.,  the  Wisconsin  River], 
where  the  peace  was  to  be  concluded.  He  sent  word  to 
the  Outagamis  to  have  the  Nadouaissioux  slaves  all 
ready;  the  chiefs  met  together  for  that  purpose,  and 
placed  all  the  slaves  in  one  cabin.  Then  they  suddenly 
heard  death-cries  from  the  other  side  of  their  river;  they 
believed  that  the  Nadouaissioux  had  defeated  the  Mi- 
amis,  and  immediately  sent  messengers  to  find  out  how 
affairs  stood;  and  these  reported  that  the  Nadouaissioux 
had  destroyed  forty  of  the  Miami  cabins,  in  which  all 
the  women  and  children  and  fifty-five  men  had  been 
killed.  This  act  of  hostility  against  people  whom  they 
regarded  as  friends  made  them  suspect  that  the  Nadou- 
aissioux would  not  spare  them  [even]  after  they  had 
sent  back  the  people  of  the  latter.  Twelve  Frenchmen 
immediately  set  out  with  Perrot  in  order  to  try  to  over- 
take the  Nadouaissioux,  and  to  induce  them  to  give  back 
the  slaves  whom  they  had  just  taken.  They  reached  the 
French  fort  which  is  in  the  country  of  those  peoples,  and 
there  they  obtained  information  of  everything.  The 
French  undertook  to  join  the  Nadouaissioux,  in  a  vil- 
lage which  was  inaccessible  on  account  of  numberless 
swamps,  from  which  they  could  not  extricate  themselves ; 
and  they  traveled  through  the  bogs,  without  food  for 
four  days.  All  these  Frenchmen  took  refuge  on  a  little 
island,  except  two  who,  still  trying  to  find  some  exit, 
encountered  two  hunters,  who  conducted  them  to  their 
village.  The  Nadouaissioux  were  unwilling  to  send  for 
the  other  Frenchmen,  not  daring  to  let  them  enter 
[their  village]  on  account  of  their  fear  lest  the  French 

counts.  .  .  Some  of  the  northern  tribes  kept  records  of  events  by  means  of 
symbolic  figures  or  pictographs ;"  some  of  these  are  described  in  the  loth  and 
lyth  annual  Reports  of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology.  -  CYRUS  THOMAS,  in  Hand- 
book Amer.  Indians. 

n8  LAPOTHERIE  [Vol. 

would  kill  them  in  order  to  avenge  the  Miamis.  The 
latter  sent  presents  to  the  Outagamis,  with  entreaties  to 
furnish  them  assistance  and  with  them  avenge  their  dead, 
by  a  general  march  [against  the  Nadouaissioux],  which 
they  would  make  in  the  approaching  winter.  The  com- 
mandant of  Michilimakinak,  when  he  heard  of  the 
treachery  of  the  Nadouaissioux,  wrote  to  Perrot  to  make 
the  Miamis  hang  up  the  war-club,  so  that  he  could  go 
to  the  Nadouaissioux  country  and  bring  away  all  the 
Frenchmen,  as  he  did  not  wish  them  to  become  the  vic- 
tims of  this  new  war;  and  he  had  even  resolved  to  de- 
stroy that  people  who  had  so  injured  our  best  friends. 
The  Miamis,  who  had  abandoned  everything  to  escape 
from  that  furious  attack,  were  destitute  of  ammunition 
and  of  many  articles  which  they  obtained  only  from  the 
French,  who  exchanged  these  for  peltries.  The  Outa- 
gamis were  resolved  to  give  their  lives  for  the  cause  of 
the  Miamis,  in  case  the  French  would  consent  to  this; 
the  Kikabous  also  asked  for  nothing  better.  A  general 
expedition  was  formed  to  go  to  join  the  Miamis,  their 
women  and  children  also  going  with  them.  Perrot  met 
on  the  way  four  Miamis,  whom  the  chief  had  sent  to  ask 
that  he  would  come  to  their  camp ;  and  he  left  all  that 
procession,  to  go  thither.  The  allies,  being  in  sight  of 
the  camp,  fired  some  gunshots  as  a  signal  of  his  arrival ; 
and  all  the  Miami  young  men  stood  in  rows,  and 
watched  him  pass  them.  He  heard  a  voice  saying  Paku- 
mikol  which  signifies  in  their  language,  "Tomahawk 
him!"  and  he  rightly  judged  that  there  was  some  decree 
of  death  against  him ;  but  he  feigned  to  take  no  notice 
of  this  speech,  .and  continued  his  walk  to  the  chief's 
cabin,  where  he  called  together  the  most  prominent  men 
among  them.  He  set  forth  to  them  that,  as  he  had  not 
been  able  to  secure  a  more  favorable  opportunity  for 


giving  them  proofs  of  the  interest  which  he  took  in  the 
matters  which  concerned  their  tribe,  he  had  engaged  the 
Outagamis  and  Kikabous  who  were  following  him  to 
take  up  arms  to  avenge  the  Miami  dead  against  the 
Nadouaissioux.  These  words  turned  aside  the  evil  de- 
sign which  they  had  formed  against  him,  and  they  re- 
galed him.  At  the  same  time  there  arrived  a  young 
man,  who  brought  the  news  that  the  Frenchmen  who 
were  living  in  the  Nadouaissioux  country  were  at  the 
portage.  The  chief  assigned  fifty  women  to  transport 
their  bales  of  peltries ;  but  the  young  men,  who  had  re- 
ceived a  private  order  to  plunder  these,  carried  off  every- 
thing that  they  could  into  the  woods,  and  hid  themselves 
there.  The  chief,  being  informed  of  this  act,  pretended 
to  make  a  great  commotion  in  the  village,  to  the  end 
that  they  should  bring  back  what  had  been  stolen;  but 
there  was  one  of  the  people  who  objected  that  this  pil- 
lage had  been  made  with  the  chief's  consent,  since  he  had 
even  ordered  them  to  kill  the  French ;  and  very  few  of 
the  peltries  were  brought  back.  A  great  tumult  arose 
among  the  chiefs,  who  quarreled  together,  some  taking 
the  side  of  the  French,  and  others  that  of  the  tribe.  In 
that  place  were  three  different  tribes:  the  Pepikokis, 
the  Mangakokis,  and  the  Peouanguichias 35  (who  had 
conspired  against  the  French) .  One  of  their  chiefs  said 
that  he  knew  how  to  plunder  merchandise  and  slay  men, 

35  The  Piankashaw  were  formerly  a  subtribe  of  the  Miami,  but  later  a 
separate  people.  La  Salle  induced  some  of  them  to  come  to  his  fort  in  Illinois; 
Cadillac  mentions  them  (1695)  as  being  "west  of  the  Miami  village  on  St. 
Joseph's  River,  Mich.,  with  the  Mascoutens,  Kickapoo,  and  other  tribes;"  and 
a  little  later  they  had  a  village  on  Kankakee  River.  Their  ancient  village 
was  on  the  Wabash,  at  the  junction  of  the  Vermillion;  later  they  formed  another 
village,  at  the  present  site  of  Vincennes,  Ind.  In  the  beginning  of  the  nine- 
teenth century  they  and  the  Wea  began  to  remove  to  Missouri,  and  in  1832 
both  tribes  sold  their  lands  to  the  government  and  went  to  a  reservation  in 
Kansas,  in  1867  again  removing  to  Oklahoma  with  the  Peoria  (with  whom 
they  had  united  about  1854).  "The  Piankashaw  probably  never  numbered 

120 LA  PQTHERIE [Vol. 

and  that,  since  his  children  had  been  eaten  by  the  Sioux 
(who  had  formerly  been  his  enemies),  on  whom  the 
French  had  taken  pity,  obliging  the  Miamis  to  make 
peace  with  them,  he  would  now  avenge  himself  on  the 
French.  Four  of  his  warriors  immediately  sang  [their 
war-song],  to  invite  their  comrades  to  join  all  together 
in  an  attack  on  the  French.  Two  other  tribes,  who  had 
always  had  much  intercourse  with  us,  at  the  same  time 
took  up  arms ;  they  obliged  the  others  to  cross  the  river 
the  next  day,  after  reproaching  them  with  having  robbed 
themselves  in  pillaging  the  Frenchmen,  who  were  com- 
ing to  succor  them.  "It  is  we,"  they  said,  "who  have 
been  ill-treated  by  the  Nadouaissioux,  whom  we  re- 
garded as  our  allies ;  why  stir  up  an  unseasonable  quarrel 
with  the  French,  with  whom  you  ought  not  to  have  any 
strife?"  Those  who  had  been  so  well-intentioned  re- 
quested from  the  French  only  four  men  to  accompany 
them  to  the  Nadouaissioux  country,  in  order  that,  in 
case  the  enemy  should  be  entrenched  there,  the  French- 
men might  show  them  how  to  undermine  the  fort.  They 
would  not  depend  at  all  upon  the  rest  of  the  Frenchmen, 

many  more  than  1,000  souls.  .  .  In  1825  there  were  only  234.  remaining, 
and  in  1906  all  the  tribes  consolidated  under  the  name  of  Peoria  numbered  but 
192,  none  of  whom  was  of  pure  blood." 

The  Pepikokia  are  "an  Algonquian  tribe  or  band  mentioned  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  seventeenth  century  as  a  division  of  the  Miami.  In  1718  both  they 
and  the  Piankashaw  were  mentioned  as  villages  of  the  Wea.  That  the  rela- 
tion between  these  three  groups  was  intimate  is  evident.  They  were  located 
on  the  Wabash  by  Chauvignerie  (1736)  and  other  writers  of  the  period. 
They  are  spoken  of  in  1695  as  Miamis  of  Maramek  River,  that  is,  the  Kala- 
mazoo.  A  letter  dated  1701  (Margry,  Decou<vertes>  vol.  iv,  592)  indicates  that 
they  were  at  that  time  in  Wisconsin.  Chauvignerie  says  that  Wea,  Piankashaw, 
and  Pepikokia  'are  the  same  nation,  though  in  different  villages,'  and  that 
'the  devices  of  these  Indians  are  the  Serpent,  the  Deer,  and  the  Small  Acorn.' 
They  were  sometimes  called  Nation  de  la  Grue,  as  though  the  crane  was  their 
totem.  They  disappear  from  history  before  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury and  may  have  become  incorporated  in  the  Piankashaw,  whose  principal 
village  was  on  the  Wabash  at  the  junction  of  the  Vermillion.  -  JAMES  MOONEY, 
in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


whom  they  even  entreated  to  return  to  the  bay.  Orders 
were  given  to  these  four  men  to  desert  when  they  should 
come  within  a  day's  journey  from  the  French  fort,  in 
order  to  give  warning  there  to  keep  on  their  guard,  and 
to  inform  the  Sauteurs  of  the  plans  of  the  Miamis,  who 
intended  to  slaughter  them.  The  Miamis  began  their 
march,  and  crossed  the  river;  only  a  few  chiefs  were 
left,  who  spent  the  night  with  the  Frenchmen.  At  nine 
o'clock  in  the  evening  the  moon  was  eclipsed ;  and  they 
heard  at  the  camp  a  volley  of  three  hundred  gunshots, 
and  yells  as  if  they  were  being  attacked;  these  sounds 
were  repeated.  These  chiefs  asked  the  Frenchmen  what 
they  saw  in  the  sky ;  the  latter  answered  that  the  Moon 
was  sad  on  account  of  the  pillage  that  they  had  suffered. 
The  chiefs  answered,  gazing  .at  the  moon:  "This  is 
the  reason  for  all  the  gunshots  and  cries  that  you  hear. 
Our  old  men  have  taught  us  that  when  the  Moon  is 
sick  it  is  necessary  to  assist  her  by  discharging  arrows 
and  making  a  great  deal  of  noise,  in  order  to  cause  terror 
in  the  spirits  who  are  trying  to  cause  her  death ;  then  she 
regains  her  strength,  and  returns  to  her  former  condi- 
tion. If  men  did  not  aid  her  she  would  die,  and  we 
would  no  longer  see  clearly  at  night;  and  thus  we  could 
no  longer  separate  the  twelve  months  of  the  year." 

The  Miamis  continued  to  fire  their  guns,  and  only 
ceased  when  the  eclipse  was  ended;  on  this  occasion 
they  did  not  spare  the  gunpowder  that  they  had  taken 
from  us.  It  would  have  been  very  easy  for  the  French 
to  bind  these  chiefs  and  sacrifice  them  to  the  Nadouais- 
sioux,  but  the  Miamis  could  have  taken  vengeance  for 
this  on  our  missionaries,  on  our  Frenchmen  at  the  Saint 
Joseph  River,  and  on  those  at  Chikagon ;  and  our  men 
took  the  road  to  the  bay.  They  met  three  cabins  of  Outa- 
gamis,  who  were  surprised  at  their  return,  and  at  seeing 

122 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

their  canoes;  they  concluded  that  the  Miamis  had  stolen 
these,  but  the  latter  were  exonerated  [by  the  French] 
from  an  act  in  which  they  had  been  suspected  of  taking 

When  these  Frenchmen  arrived  at  the  bay  they  found 
one  hundred  and  fifty  Outaouaks,  sixty  Sakis,  and 
twenty-five  Pouteouatemis,  who  were  going  to  hunt 
beavers  toward  the  frontiers  of  the  Nadouaissioux;  these 
savages  held  a  council,  to  ascertain  the  decision  of  the 
leading  Frenchmen  regarding  their  voyage  from  Mi- 
chilimakinak. The  Miamis  of  Saint  Joseph  River  had 
informed  the  commandant  of  Michilimakinak  of  the 
hostile  acts  which  the  Nadouaissioux  had  committed  on 
them,  and  demanded  his  protection.  This  commandant 
sent  out  despatches  prohibiting  the  French  in  all  those 
regions  to  go  up  to  the  Nadouaissioux  country;  and 
ordering  those  who  had  come  thence  to  ask  the  Miamis 
to  hang  up  the  war-club  until  spring,  as  he  was  going  to 
avenge  them,  with  all  the  French  who  should  be  at 
Michilimakinak.  The  aspect  of  affairs  had  necessarily 
changed  since  the  Miamis  had  pillaged  the  Frenchmen; 
tjhe  Outaouaks  therefore  held  a  council,  to  learn  the 
final  resolution  of  the  latter.  They  set  forth  that  they 
found  no  one  at  Michilimakinak,  and  that,  if  these 
Frenchmen  did  not  choose  to  join  them,  they  could  pre- 
vent the  ruin  of  the  Sauteurs  through  the  agency  of  the 
Outagamis;  and  the  Frenchmen  themselves  were  run- 
ning a  risk,  in  case  they  were  not  backed  up,  since  the 
Outagamis  had  been  displeased  at  the  intercourse  which 
the  former  had  held  with  the  Nadouaissioux  in  the  past. 
These  arguments  were  sufficiently  strong  to  induce  the 
greater  number  of  the  French  to  join  the  Outaouaks. 
They  set  out  on  the  march  across  the  country,  and  a  few 
days  later  two  Sakis  were  sent  to  notify  the  Outagamis 


of  it,  and  to  ask  them  not  to  go  to  Ouiskonch  until  this 
army  had  reached  their  village ;  they  were  also  requested 
to  inform  the  Miamis  that  Perrot  was  going  to  find 
them,  without  positively  telling  the  latter,  however,  that 
he  was  coming  to  furnish  them  assistance  in  their  war. 
These  two  Sakis  reported  that  the  Outagamis  and  Kika- 
bous,  having  heard  of  the  plunder  of  the  French  by  the 
Miamis,  were  all  dispersed  through  the  country  in 
search  of  means  for  subsistence -having  been  unwilling, 
since  that  news,  to  take  up  the  cause  of  these  tribes 
against  the  Nadouaissioux;  that  they  were  grieved  be- 
cause Sieur  Perrot  had  not  gone  to  find  them  after  that 
pillage,  since  they  would  have  sacrificed  themselves  in 
order  to  secure  the  restitution  of  his  goods;  that  they 
were  going  to  send  for  all  their  people,  so  as  to  receive 
them  on  the  shore  of  Ouiskonche,  which  they  would  not 
cross  until  everybody  should  arrive  there.  They  said 
also  that  they  had  found  the  chief  of  the  Miamis,  with 
two  of  those  Frenchmen  who  were  to  accompany  them 
to  the  Nadouaissioux;  this  chief  was  urgently  soliciting 
the  Outagamis  to  march  with  the  Miamis  as  they  had 
promised,  but  the  latter  had  replied  that  the  Miamis 
could  continue  their  course  if  they  would  not  wait  for 
the  arrival  of  the  French  and  the  Outaouaks.  The  bad 
roads  and  the  lack  of  provisions  obliged  the  Outaouaks 
to  remain  [on  the  way]  for  some  time;  finally  they 
reached  the  nearest  cabins  of  the  Outagamis,  among 
whom  they  were  well  entertained.  The  chiefs  of  twenty- 
five  [Outagami]  cabins,  and  fifteen  of  the  Kikabou 
cabins,  becoming  impatient  because  the  Outaouaks  did 
not  arrive,  had  gone  a  little  too  far  ahead,  in  order  to 
gain  Ouiskonch ;  the  Miamis  who  met  them  constrained 
them  to  go  to  their  camp,  where  they  displayed  little 
consideration  for  the  newcomers.  The  latter  sent  in 

124 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

haste  a  Saki  and  a  Frenchman  to  urge  the  Outaouaks  to 
hasten  their  arrival  as  soon  as  possible,  saying  that  mean- 
while they  would  try  to  divert  the  Miamis  and  prevent 
them  from  beginning  the  march. 

Two  or  three  Frenchmen  set  out  at  once,  and  at  night 
reached  the  cabin  of  the  Outagami  chief,  who  imme- 
diately had  their  arrival  made  public.  The  Miamis 
promptly  made  their  appearance  there,  and  demanded, 
"Where  are  the  other  warriors?"  On  both  sides  depu- 
ties were  sent  to  fix  the  place  for  the  general  rendezvous, 
which  was  at  the  entrance  of  a  little  river.  The  Miamis, 
who  numbered  five  villages,  desiring  to  break  camp,  sent 
out  some  men  from  each  group  to  kindle  fires,  which  was 
the  signal  of  departure;  they  built  five  of  these,  abreast, 
the  Outagamis  two,  and  the  Kikabous  one.  When  these 
fires  were  kindled  the  call  to  break  camp  was  uttered; 
all  the  women  folded  up  the  baggage,  and  gathered  at 
the  fires  of  their  respective  tribes,  at  which  the  men  also 
assembled.  All  the  people  being  ready,  the  war-chiefs 
(with  their  bags  on  their  backs)  began  to  march  at  the 
head,  singing,  making  their  invocations,  and  gesticu- 
lating; the  warriors,  who  were  on  the  wings,  marched  in 
battle  array,  abreast,  and  forming  many  ranks ;  the  con- 
voy for  the  women  composed  the  main  body,  and  a  bat- 
talion of  warriors  formed  the  rear-guard.  This  march 
was  made  with  order;  some  Frenchmen  were  detailed 
to  go  to  meet  the  Outaouaks.  The  latter,  having 
arrived  in  sight  of  the  Miami  camp,  began  to  defile,  and 
fired  a  volley  of  musketry.  The  Outagamis  refused  to 
return  the  salute  to  them ;  on  the  contrary,  they  sent  word 
to  the  Miami  camp  to  make  no  commotion,  for  fear  of 
frightening  their  brothers,  the  Outaouaks  -  because  the 
Outagamis  feared  lest  the  Miamis,  already  entertaining 
evil  thoughts,  might  lay  violent  hands  on  them,  under 


pretext  of  receiving  them  as  friends.  The  Outaouaks 
having  made  their  camp,  their  chiefs  entered  the  cabin 
of  the  chief  of  the  Outagamis,  with  two  guns,  twelve 
kettles,  and  two  collars  made  of  round  and  long  porce- 
lain beads;  but  they  sent  to  call  the  Miamis,  without 
making  them  any  present.  They  asked  from  the  Outa- 
gamis permission  to  hunt  on  their  lands,  intending  to 
devote  themselves  only  to  the  beavers  and  [other]  quad- 
rupeds, as  they  had  come  under  the  protection  of  the 
French.  The  Outagamis  divided  their  presents  into 
three  lots;  they  gave  the  largest  to  the  Miamis,  the  sec- 
ond to  the  Kikabous,  and  reserved  the  smallest  for  them- 

The  Miamis  did  not  show  to  the  Outaouaks  the 
resentment  which  they  felt  at  the  affront  which  they  had 
just  received.  They  assembled  about  three  hundred 
warriors  to  perform  their  war-dances,  and  in  these  they 
chanted  the  funeral  songs,  in  which  they  named  the  per- 
sons who  had  been  slain  by  the  Nadouaissioux.  They 
should,  according  to  the  custom  in  war,  make  the  round 
of  the  camp  while  singing  and  dancing;  it  was  their 
design  [while  doing  so]  to  kill  at  the  same  time  all  the 
dogs  belonging  to  the  Outaouaks,  in  order  to  make  a 
war-feast  with  them.  The  Outagamis,  fearing  that  they 
would  go  to  this  extreme,  came  to  meet  them,  so  as  to 
prevent  the  Miamis  from  acting  toward  the  Outaouaks 
as  they  had  done  in  regard  to  the  Outagami  dogs.  The 
Outaouaks  had  already  placed  themselves  on  the  de- 
fensive; however,  everything  went  off  without  a  dis- 

After  this  last  people  had  ended  their  council,  the 
Miamis  assembled  at  night  with  the  Fox  Outagamis; 
they  imagined  that  the  French-  [especially]  two  among 
them -had  come  only  to  prevent  the  Outagamis  from 

126  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

uniting  with  them.  A  war-chief,  desiring  to  irritate  his 
tribe  against  the  Frenchmen,  was  urging  his  people  to 
burn  them;  the  report  of  this  ran  through  the  camp. 
An  Outagami,  hearing  the  discourse  of  this  chief,  went 
out  and  told  the  Miamis  that  after  having  eaten  the 
Outagamis  they  would  probably  eat  these  two  French- 
men; he  gave  the  alarm  to  the  men  of  his  tribe,  who 
placed  themselves  under  arms.  Another  Miami,  ad- 
dressing his  people,  said  that  it  was  absolutely  necessary 
to  burn  them.  All  the  night  there  was  nothing  but  com- 
motions on  the  part  of  the  Miamis,  who  only  longed  for 
the  moment  to  attack  the  Outaouaks-whom  they  called 
friends  of  the  Sioux  and  the  Iroquois  who  had  eaten 
them.  The  Outagamis  did  not  pay  much  attention  to 
all  these  incivilities ;  their  only  endeavor  was  to  follow 
the  wishes  of  the  Frenchmen.  When  the  day  had  come, 
the  Miamis  beat  the  salute,  and  defiled  in  battle  array, 
the  Outagamis  and  the  Kikabous  remaining  stock-still. 
The  decision  which  the  French  advised  the  Outagamis 
to  make  was,  to  join  their  forces  with  the  Miamis,  say- 
ing: "Go  with  them ;  they  mean  to  slay  the  Frenchmen 
who  are  in  the  country  of  the  Nadouaissioux,  without 
sparing  the  Sauteurs.  Even  though  the  latter  may  be 
your  enemies,  spare  their  lives ;  and  prevent  the  Miamis 
from  attacking  them  or  insulting  the  French.  Go,  then, 
to  assist  them,  rather  than  to  wage  war  against  the 
Nadouaissioux.  If  they  engage  in  fighting,  remain  in 
the  reserve  force,  and  quit  it  only  when  the  enemy  shall 
take  to  flight."  The  old  men  of  the  Miamis  had  re- 
mained at  the  camp  in  order  to  know  the  final  decision 
of  the  Outagamis;  they  came  into  the  council  cabin, 
where  these  Frenchmen  were  present.  The  eldest  of 
them  offered  his  calumet  to  one  of  the  latter,  who 
smoked  it,  and  told  the  other  that  he  had  heard  the 


clamor  of  their  speech-maker,  who  was  inciting  all  the 
Miamis  to  burn  his  body  so  as  to  put  it  into  the  kettle; 
and  had  heard  this  man's  brother,  who  said  that  it  was 
necessary  to  lay  violent  hands  on  the  Outaouaks  whom 
the  French  had  brought,  although  they  had  come  to 
avenge  the  dead  of  the  Miamis.  He  said  that,  since  he 
found  in  them  so  little  good  sense  and  was  aware  of 
their  misconduct,  the  French  would  abandon  their  en- 
terprise, and  would  join  the  four  other  Frenchmen  who 
had  been  furnished  to  accompany  them  into  the  Nadou- 
aissioux  country.  "Eat,"  said  this  Frenchman  to  the  old 
man,  "eat  the  French  who  are  among  the  Nadouais- 
sioux,  but  thou  wilt  no  sooner  take  them  in  thy  teeth  than 
we  will  make  thee  disgorge  them."  Then  every  one 
arose ;  and  all  the  Outagamis  and  the  Kikabous  had  their 
bundles  tied  up  by  the  women,  so  as  to  go  to  join  the 
Miamis  in  their  camp -excepting  the  old  men,  and  some 
people  who  were  not  very  alert. 

The  first  news  that  came  after  their  departure  was, 
that  the  Miamis  had  been  defeated;  that  the  Outagamis 
and  the  Kikabous  had  lost  no  men ;  and  that  the  Outa- 
gamis had  saved  the  Sauteurs  and  the  French.  Four 
of  the  Outagami  youth  arrived  some  days  later,  sent  by 
the  chiefs  to  give  information  of  all  that  had  occurred 
since  the  departure  of  the  army.  At  the  outset,  they 
were  heard  to  utter  eight  death-cries,  but  without  saying 
whether  they  were  Miamis  or  of  some  other  tribe.  A 
kettle  was  promptly  set  over  the  fire  for  them,  and  even 
before  the  meat  was  cooked  they  were  set  to  eating. 
After  they  had  satisfied  their  hunger,  one  of  them  spoke 
before  the  old  men  and  some  Frenchmen.  He  said : 

"A  chief  of  the  Chikagons  having  died  from  sickness, 
the  Miamis  made  no  present  to  his  body;  but  our  chiefs, 
touched  by  this  lack  of  feeling,  brought  some  kettles  to 

128  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

cover  it.  The  Miamis  of  Chikagon  were  so  grateful  for 
this  that  they  told  our  chiefs  that  they  would  unite  with 
them,  to  the  prejudice  of  their  allies -who  paid  them  no 
attention  when  they  were  dying,  even  though  they  had 
come  to  avenge  them.  A  Piouanguichias  also  died,  a 
little  farther  on;  we  went  to  bury  him,  and  made  him 
presents;  but  the  Miamis  again  did  nothing.  I  tell  you, 
old  men,  that  these  two  tribes  would  have  turned  the 
war-clubs  of  the  Miamis  against  us  if  we  had  undertaken 
to  do  the  same  by  them.  When  we  arrived  at  one  of  the 
arms  of  the  Missisipi,  eight  Miamis  who  had  gone  out 
as  scouts  brought  to  the  camp  two  Frenchmen  who  were 
coming  from  the  Sauteur  country;  it  was  planned  to 
burn  them,  but  our  warriors  opposed  this,  loudly  de- 
claring that  we  had  set  out  to  wage  war  on  the  Nadou- 
aissioux.  They  kept  one  of  the  prisoners,  and  sent  back 
the  other,  with  some  Miamis,  to  the  Sauteurs,  who  re- 
ceived them  well.  This  Frenchman  remained  there  only 
one  day;  on  the  next  day  ten  Sauteurs  and  Outaouaks 
accompanied  him  to  come  after  the  Miamis,  to  whom 
they  made  a  present  of  twelve  kettles.  Our  people  were 
displeased  that  the  Sauteurs  were  not  divided  between 
them  and  us  in  the  cabins,  and  that  they  had  presented 
to  the  Miamis  seven  kettles,  while  the  Kikabous  and  we 
received  only  five ;  but  what  we  considered  extraordi- 
nary was,  that  at  night  the  Miamis  came  to  find  our 
chiefs  with  the  kettles  of  the  Sauteurs,  and  other  goods 
which  they  had  added  to  these,  to  invite  us  to  eat  these 
ambassadors  with  them.  It  is  true  that  our  chief  imme- 
diately drew  out  a  collar  which  a  Frenchman  had  given 
to  him,  without  our  knowledge,  by  which  he  asked  our 
chief  not  to  attack  his  people  who  were  among  the 
Nadouaissioux,  or  the  Sauteurs,  or  any  of  the  allies  of 
Onontio.  This  collar,  I  say,  restrained  us  all.  Then 


they  allowed  the  Sauteurs  to  go  away;  the  latter  pointed 
out  the  village  of  the  Nadouaissioux,  who  had  built  a 
strong  fort  in  order  to  take  refuge  in  it  in  case  of  need. 
A  part  of  the  Miamis  resolved  to  carry  them  away  from 
it;  but  we  also  followed,  so  as  to  hold  them  back.  The 
Oiiaouyartanons  and  the  Peouanguichias,  remembering 
the  obligations  which  they  were  under  to  us  for  the  care 
which  we  had  taken  of  their  dead,  broke  their  camp,  in 
order  to  thwart  the  designs  of  their  allies.  While  they 
were  making  up  their  bundles,  a  young  Sauteur  arrived 
who  had  had  some  dispute  with  a  Nadouaissioux;  he 
said  that  he  came  to  join  our  party;  but  a  Miami  imme- 
diately tomahawked  him  and  cut  off  his  scalp.  This 
proceeding  obliged  us  to  pack  our  baggage  and  follow 
the  Oiiaouyartanons  and  the  Peouanguichias.  The  Mi- 
amis,  seeing  that  they  were  not  strong  enough  to  attack 
the  Nadouaissioux,  broke  camp  as  we  had  done,  and 
followed  us.  At  evening  they  concluded  that  it  was 
necessary  to  go  toward  the  Missisipi,  where  they  would 
find  more  game  than  upon  the  road  which  they  had  so 
far  taken.  They  sent  forty  of  their  warriors  to  the 
French  fort,  and  imagined  that  they  could  enter  it  as 
they  would  one  of  our  cabins.  The  dogs  of  the  fort,  dis- 
covering them,  barked  at  them.  The  French,  seeing  men 
who  were  marching  with  hostile  aspect,  seized  their 
arms  and  told  them  to  advance  no  farther;  the  Miamis 
derided  them,  but  the  French  fired  over  their  heads  and 
made  them  retire.  The  Miamis  who  had  broken  camp 
on  the  day  after  this  detachment  had  set  out  took  the 
same  route  as  the  latter.  When  we  saw  that  they  were 
going  toward  the  French  post  we  followed  them,  fear- 
ing lest  they  would  go  to  make  trouble  for  the  French ; 
the  Oiiaouyartanons  and  the  Peouanguichias  refused  to 
abandon  us.  We  saw  the  arrival  of  the  above-mentioned 

130  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

[Miami]  detachment,  who  as  they  came  cried  out  that 
the  French  had  fired  on  them ;  and  by  that  we  knew  that 
they  had  attempted  to  take  the  French  fort  by  surprise. 
This  was  enough  to  make  our  chiefs  reproach  the  Mi- 
amis  for  trying  to  ruin  the  land  and  redden  it  with  the 
blood  of  the  French.  The  Ouaoiiyartanons  stoutly  sup- 
ported us;  we  declared  to  them  that  we  would  go  to 
visit  the  French,  and  that  we  felt  sure  we  would  be  well 
received.  At  the  same  time  our  young  chief  set  out  with 
forty  warriors;  on  arriving  at  the  fort,  they  called  out 
to  the  Frenchmen,  and  the  chief  had  no  sooner  told  his 
name  than  three  of  those  who  had  been  plundered  with 
Metaminens  recognized  him.  Immediately  they  made 
our  people  enter,  who  had  a  hearty  meal,  and  whom  the 
French  loaded  with  Indian  corn  and  meat-  also  warning 
them  to  beware  of  the  Miamis,  who  were  planning 
treachery  toward  them.  After  they  had  eaten  they  came 
to  join  us  at  the  camp,  where  they  related  the  friendly 
reception  which  the  French  had  given  them ;  but  when 
the  Miamis  saw  that  their  design  had  been  unmasked 
they  acknowledged  that  they  could  no  longer  hope  for 
any  success -that  Metaminens  was  against  them,  and 
that  Heaven  seconded  him.  They  gave  up,  therefore, 
their  design  of  going  to  attack  the  French,  but  that  did 
not  prevent  them  from  going  afterward  to  encamp  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  fort;  the  French  defended  its  ap- 
proaches from  them  by  volleys  of  musketry,  and  even 
defied  them  to  come  on  to  the  attack,  asking  us  to  re- 
main neutral.  The  chief  of  the  Miamis,  however,  asked 
them  to  [let  him]  enter  the  fort  alone,  which  was 
granted.  He  asked  the  French  to  inform  the  Nadou- 
aissioux  that  the  Miamis  were  going  to  hunt,  in  order  to 
make  amends  for  the  theft  of  merchandise  which  they 
had  committed  on  the  French;  and  to  accompany  them 


to  the  Nadouaissioux  village,  in  order  to  obtain  their 
women  and  children  whom  the  latter  were  holding  as 
slaves.  What  happened?  the  French  were  simple 
enough  to  send  this  message,  believing  that  this  chief 
had  spoken  in  good  faith.  The  Miamis  encamped  mean- 
while at  a  place  two  leagues  below  the  fort,  and  sent 
three  hundred  warriors,  with  forty  of  our  men,  to  go 
among  the  Nadouaissioux.  The  French,  who  had  done 
their  errands,  heard  on  their  return  many  gunshots; 
they  saw  plainly  that  they  had  been  deceived,  and  im- 
mediately suspected  that  the  Miamis  were  under  the 
guidance  of  a  slave  who  had  recently  escaped.  The 
French  hastened  to  find  again  the  Nadouaissioux,  who 
were  abandoning  their  fort  for  lack  of  provisions.  When 
they  knew  of  the  Miami  expedition,  they  went  back 
into  the  fort,  and  on  the  morrow  at  daybreak  they  were 
attacked ;  a  Nadouaissioux  went  out  with  the  calumet,  in 
order  to  hold  a  parley,  but  a  Miami  shot  him  dead,  and 
his  men  brought  him  back  to  the  fort.  The  Miamis 
came  against  the  fort  to  cut  it  away,  with  great  in- 
trepidity; but  they  were  charged  at  so  vigorously  that 
they  were  compelled  to  abandon  the  attack  with  much 
loss  of  men.  We  all  withdrew  from  the  siege,  and  after 
making  a  general  retreat  we  separated,  five  days  Later. 
Our  chiefs  have  sent  us  ahead,  to  give  you  the  detailed 
account  of  all  that  I  have  just  related  to  you;  they  have 
remained  to  set  the  young  men  at  hunting,  and  will 
arrive  in  a  little  while." 

The  conduct  of  the  Outagamis  on  this  occasion  was 
altogether  discreet:  for  the  Outaouaks  who  were  in  those 
regions  were  not  attacked  by  the  Miamis  (who  were 
seeking  a  quarrel  with  them) ,  the  Sauteurs  escaped  fall- 
ing into  the  hands  of  their  enemies,  the  French  profited 
by  the  warning  that  was  given  them  to  be  on  their  guard, 

132 LA  POTHERIE [Vol. 

and  the  Nadouaissioux  were  not  worsted  [in  the  fight]. 
The  tribe,  certain  that  Monsieur  de  Frontenac  would  be 
pleased  at  the  services  which  they  had  just  rendered 
him,  sent  him  several  chiefs,  to  whom  he  gave  a  most 
friendly  reception.  The  Outaouaks,  who  were  then  at 
Michilimakinak,  kept  them  there  a  fortnight,  in  order 
to  entertain  them.  Everything  seemed  to  turn  to  the  ad- 
vantage of  the  Colony,  when  an  event  occurred  which 
was  of  infinite  benefit  to  it;  this  was  a  great  quarrel  be- 
tween the  Iroquois  and  the  Outaouaks,  which  resulted 
in  overthrowing  all  the  schemes  of  the  former.  After 
I  have  given  an  account  of  a  battle  that  was  fought  on 
Lake  Herier  between  these  two  peoples,  I  will  also 
finish  describing  the  disturbances  which  occurred  among 
all  those  tribes. 

Chapter  XXVII 

Among  the  Outaouaks  of  Michilimakinak,  who  al- 
ways joined  with  the  Hurons  in  favor  of  the  Iroquois, 
there  were  some  chiefs  who  did  not  fail  to  support  our 
cause  manfully.  One  day,  loud  reproaches  passed  be- 
tween the  Hurons  and  our  partisans,  who  told  the  former 
that  Le  Baron  was,  with  impunity,  deceiving  Onontio 
with  the  protestations  of  friendship  and  alliance  that  he 
was  again  making  to  the  governor,  even  while  he  was 
employing  all  sorts  of  stratagems  to  injure  our  allies; 
and  that  it  was  very  well  known  that  the  Hurons  in- 
tended to  go  with  the  Iroquois  to  Saint  Joseph  River  to 
destroy  the  Miamis.  On  both  sides  there  were  long  ex- 
planations. The  Hurons  acknowledged  their  design; 
but,  as  they  felt  piqued,  they  told  the  Outaouaks  that  if 
they  would  accompany  them  they  would  together  attack 
the  Iroquois,  for  whom  they  cared  very  little  to  show 
any  consideration.  They  also  said  that,  in  order  that  the 
Outaouaks  might  not  think  that  they  intended  to  sacri- 


fice  them,  they  would  give  up  their  women  and  children 
to  them,  and  the  Outaoiiaks  should  be  masters  of  these 
in  case  there  were  any  treachery;  they  departed,  accord- 
ingly, in  equal  numbers.  In  the  middle  of  Lake  Herier 
they  found  three  canoes  of  Sakis,  who  were  seeking 
refuge  from  a  defeat  which  they  had  suffered  from  the 
Iroquois-who  had  slain  their  chief,  with  two  of  his 
brothers  and  one  of  his  cousins,  while  the  Iroquois  had 
lost  on  their  side  eight  men.  The  Sakis  joined  the  Hu- 
rons  and  Outaoiiaks;  they  fired  several  gunshots,  in 
order  to  notify  the  Iroquois  [of  their  coming]  ;  and,  hav- 
ing descried  a  great  cloud  of  smoke,  they  sent  four  men 
to  reconnoiter,  who  marched  through  the  woods.  When 
they  were  on  the  shore,  nearly  where  they  could  catch  a 
glimpse  of  any  one,  they  saw  four  men  who  were  walk- 
ing on  the  edge  of  the  lake;  they  went  back  into  the 
woods,  from  which  they  fired  a  volley  at  these  Iroquois, 
and  then  immediately  gained  their  own  canoes.  The 
Iroquois,  who  were  at  work  making  canoes  of  elm-bark 
(of  which  they  had  at  the  time  only  five  made),  num- 
bered three  hundred;  they  rushed  into  these,  to  attack 
the  Outaouaks,  with  such  headlong  haste  that  they  broke 
asunder  two  of  the  canoes,  and  then  went  in  pursuit  with 
the  three  others;  the  first  contained  thirty  men,  the  sec- 
ond twenty-five,  and  the  third  sixteen.  The  Hurons, 
the  Sakis,  and  the  Outaouaks,  who  had  a  like.number  of 
men,  saw  that  they  were  on  the  point  of  being  captured, 
but  rallied,  and  resolved  to  endure  the  first  fire  of  their 
enemies.  The  war-chief  of  the  Outaouaks  and  a  Huron 
were  killed  at  the  outset,  but  the  others  steadily  ad- 
vanced until  they  were  close  up  to  the  Iroquois;  then 
they  fired  their  volley  at  the  canoe  of  thirty  men,  of 
whom  so  many  were  killed  that  the  dead  bodies  caused 
it  to  capsize,  so  that  all  the  thirty  perished -some  by 
drowning,  some  by  the  war-club,  some  by  arrows.  The 

134  LA  POTHERIE  [Vol. 

canoe  of  twenty[-five]  met  the  same  fate,  but  five  of 
the  braves  were  made  prisoners.  The  great  chief  of  the 
Tsonnontouans  was  mortally  wounded  in  this  encounter ; 
they  tomahawked  him,  and  carried  away  his  scalp.  At 
last  these  prisoners  arrived  at  Michilimakinak,  and  they 
appeared  deeply  hurt  because  their  people  had  been 
duped  by  the  Hurons,  whom  they  were  regarding  as 
their  best  friends;  see  in  what  manner  they  complained 
of  it: 

"The  Hurons  have  killed  us.  Last  autumn  they  in- 
vited us  by  collars  to  be  on  hand  near  the  Saint  Joseph 
River,  where  they  were  to  assemble.  They  had  prom- 
ised to  give  us  the  village  of  the  Miamis  there  to  eat; 
and  after  this  expedition  they  were  to  take  us  to  Michili- 
makinak to  deliver  to  us  the  Outaouaks,  and  even  their 
own  people  who  might  be  there.  For  this  purpose  our 
chiefs  raised  the  war-party  that  you  have  seen ;  but  the 
Hurons  have  betrayed  us.  Believe  us,  we  are  among 
your  friends.  We  know  well  that  it  is  the  Pouteouate- 
mis  who  have  drawn  you  in  with  them  to  attack  us,  when 
you  have  defeated  us,  ten  cabins  in  all.  We  do  not  blame 
you,  but  them;  and  we  have  never  plotted  against  you." 
This  defeat  of  the  Iroquois  confirmed  the  Hurons  and 
all  our  allies  on  our  side.  [End  of  volume  II.] 

[Volume  iv36  contains  four  letters,  which  are  occu- 

36  La  Potherie,  before  publishing  his  Histoire,  desired  for  it  the  approval 
of  Jacques  Raudot,  intendant  of  New  France  during  1705-1711;  the  latter  re- 
quested one  Father  Bobe  —  a  secular  priest,  who  was  greatly  interested  in  the 
Canadian  colony,  and  wrote  various  memoirs  regarding  its  affairs  — to  read 
the  manuscript  and  give  him  an  opinion  as  to  its  quality  and  merit.  At  the 
end  of  vol.  iv  of  the  Histoire  appears  a  letter  from  Bobe  to  Raudot,  making 
the  desired  report  on  the  book,  which  this  priest  warmly  commends.  The  fol- 
lowing passages  in  the  letter  are  of  special  interest,  as  indicating  La  Potherie's 
methods,  and  his  sources  of  information: 

"Having  read  it  very  attentively,  I  have  been  surprised  that  it  has  so  well 
fulfilled  a  project  which,  as  it  seemed  to  me,  was  very  difficult  to  carry  out 
successfully.  He  certainly  must  have  taken  much  pains  to  inform  himself  of 
all  that  was  necessary  to  disentangle  the  numerous  intrigues  of  so  many  savage 


pied  with  the  relations  existing  between  the  French  and 
Iroquois-and,  more  or  less,  those  of  the  western  tribes 

peoples,  in  relation  to  both  their  own  interests  and  those  of  the  French.  He 
has  assured  me  that  after  he  had  personally  obtained  a  knowledge  of  the 
government  of  Canada  in  detail  —  of  which  he  has  written  a  history,  which  he 
has  had  the  honor  of  dedicating  to  his  royal  Highness  Monseigneur  the  Due 
d'Orleans  —  he  had  intended  to  penetrate  [the  wilderness]  to  a  distance  six 
hundred  leagues  beyond;  but  as  his  health  and  his  occupations  had  not  per- 
mitted him  to  go  through  that  vast  extent  of  territory,  he  had  contented  himself 
with  forming  friendships  with  most  of  the  prominent  chiefs  of  the  peoples 
allied  with  New  France  who  came  down  to  Montreal  every  year  to  conduct 
their  trade  in  peltries.  At  the  outset,  he  had  made  a  plan  of  the  present 
history;  he  has  therefore  had  no  trouble,  in  all  the  conversations  that  he  has 
held  with  them,  in  gaining  a  knowledge  of  their  manners,  their  laws,  their 
customs,  their  maxims,  and  of  all  the  events  of  special  importance  which  have 
occurred  among  them. 

"Sieur  Joliet  has  contributed  not  a  little  to  this  end ;  for  during  the  lessons 
in  geometry  which  he  gave  to  the  author  he  informed  him  of  all  that  he  had 
seen  and  known  among  those  peoples.  The  Jesuit  fathers,  who  were  excel- 
lent friends  of  his,  have  been  very  helpful  to  him.  Sieur  Perrot,  who  is  the 
principal  actor  in  all  that  has  occurred  among  those  peoples  during  more  than 
forty  years,  has  given  the  author  the  fullest  information,  and  with  the  utmost 
exactness,  regarding  all  that  he  narrates.  Monsieur  de  la  Potherie,  to  whom 
I  expressed  my  surprise  that  he  had  been  able  to  obtain  so  clear  a  knowledge 
of  so  great  a  number  of  facts,  and  reduce  to  order  so  many  matters  that  were 
so  entangled,  avowed  to  me  that  all  these  persons  had  been  of  the  utmost 
assistance  to  him.  He  said  that  he  questioned  them  in  order  [of  events],  in 
accordance  with  his  plan  [for  the  book],  and  that  he  immediately  set  down  in 
writing  what  the  savages  had  told  him,  and  then  he  read  to  them  these  notes 
in  order  to  make  proper  corrections  therein;  and  that  it  was  by  these  careful 
means  that  he  escaped  from  the  labyrinth. 

"I  assure  you,  Monsieur,  that  I  have  read  this  manuscript  with  pleasure; 
and  that  I  have  learned  from  it  things  which  I  had  not  found  in  Lahontan,  in 
Father  Hennepin,  or  in  all  the  others  who  have  written  about  New  France. 
I  believe  that  every  one  will  read  it  with  the  same  satisfaction.  .  .  In  it 
we  shall  see  the  attachment  of  all  those  peoples  for  the  French  nation;  and 
we  shall  admire  the  prudence  and  adroitness  of  the  French  in  managing  the 
minds  of  those  savages,  and  retaining  them  in  alliance  with  us  despite  all  the 
intrigues  of  the  English,  and  of  their  emissaries  the  Iroquois  —  who  exerted 
every  effort  to  render  them  our  enemies  — or  in  persuading  them  to  wage  war 
against  those  nations,  and  by  that  means  to  secure  them  in  their  own  interests. 
We  shall  be  surprised  at  the  boldness  and  intrepidity  of  the  French  who  lived 
among  those  barbarians,  who  were  continually  threatening  to  burn  them  at  the 
stake  or  to  murder  them.  We  shall  recognize  that  those  peoples  whom  we 
treat  as  savages  are  very  brave,  capable  leaders,  good  soldiers,  very  discreet 
and  subtle  politicians,  shrewd,  given  to  dissimulation,  understanding  perfectly 
their  own  interests,  and  knowing  well  how  to  carry  out  their  purposes.  In 


with  both  peoples -during  the  years  1695-1701.  The 
record  is  mainly  one  of  hostilities  with  the  Iroquois 
(who  are,  as  usual,  fierce  and  treacherous),  varied  by 
negotiations  for  peace,  which  is  finally  concluded  in  the 
summer  of  1701.  Much  space  is  given  to  detailed  re- 
ports of  the  various  conferences  held  by  Frontenac  and 
his  successor  Callieres  with  the  deputations  of  Indians 
who  come  to  Quebec  to  settle  their  affairs  with  the  gov- 
ernor; and  the  speeches  on  both  sides  are  given  in  ex- 
tenso.  At  one  of  these  (in  1695)  a  Sioux  chief  named 
Tioskatin  participated;  he  was  the  first  of  his  tribe  to 
visit  Canada,  conducted  thither  by  Pierre  C.  La  Sueur, 
who  afterward  made  explorations  on  the  Upper  Mis- 
sissippi. At  the  great  conference  of  all  the  tribes  held 
at  Montreal,  beginning  July  25,  1701,  the  most  noted  of 
their  chiefs  were  present  and  made  speeches -including 
the  Ottawa  Outoutaga  (also  known  as  Le  Talon,  and  as 
Jean  le  Blanc)  ;  Chingouessi,  another  Ottawa;  the  Hu- 
ron Le  Rat;  Ounanguice,  a  Potawatomi,  who  spoke  for 
all  the  Wisconsin  tribes;  Quarante-Sols,  a  Huron; 
Chichikatalo,  a  Miami;  Noro  (or  "the  Porcupine"),  of 
the  Outagamis;  Ouabangue,  head  of  the  Chippewas  of 
the  Sault;  Tekaneot,  Tahartakout,  and  Aouenano,  from 
the  various  Iroquois  tribes.  A  general  peace  was  con- 
cluded, after  long  discussion  and  much  giving  of  pres- 
ents, on  August  7 -an  event  which  crowned  the  long 
efforts  of  Frontenac  to  end  the  Iroquois  Wars,  which  had 
so  long  wasted  the  resources  and  population  of  the 
French  settlements,  paralyzed  their  industries,  and  in- 
terrupted the  trade  with  the  Indians  on  which  almost 
their  life  depended.  This  peace  was  negotiated  by  Cal- 
lieres, Frontenac  having  died  on  Nov.  28,  1698. -ED.] 

short,  the  French  and  the  English  have  need  of  all  their  cleverness  and  intel- 
lect to  deal  with  the  savages." 


Letter  to  Reverend  Dr.  Jedidiah  Morse, 
by  Major  Morrell  Marston,  U.S.A., 
commanding  at  Fort  Armstrong,  111.; 
November,  1820. 

From  original  manuscript  in  the  library  of  the 
Wisconsin  Historical  Society. 

"Account  of  the  Manners  and  Customs  of 
the  Sauk  and  Fox  nations  of  Indians 
Traditions."  A  report  on  this  subject, 
sent  to  General  William  Clark,  Super- 
intendent of  Indian  Affairs,  by  Thomas 
Forsyth,  Indian  agent  for  the  U.S.  Gov- 
ernment; St.  Louis,  January  15,  1827. 

From  the  original  and  hitherto  unpublished 
manuscript  in  the  library  of  the  Wisconsin  His- 
torical Society. 

Letter  of  Major  Marston  to  Reverend  Doctor 


Fort  Armstrong,  November,  1820. 
SIR:  Your  letter  dated  "Mackinaw,  June  20,  1820," 
requesting  me  to  give  you  the  names  of  the  Indian  tribes 
around  me  within  as  large  a  circle  as  my  information 
can  be  extended  with  convenience  and  accuracy -the 
extent  of  the  territories  they  respectively  occupy,  with 
the  nature  of  their  soil  and  climate -their  mode  of  life, 
customs,  laws  and  political  institutions -the  talents  and 
character  of  their  chiefs  and  other  principal  and  influ- 
ential men,  and  their  disposition  in  respect  to  the  intro- 
duction and  promotion  among  them,  of  education  and 
civilisation;  what  improvements  in  the  present  system 
of  Indian  trade  could  in  my  opinion  be  made,  which 
would  render  this  commercial  intercourse  with  them 
more  conducive  to  the  promotion  of  peace  between  them 
and  us,  and  contribute  more  efficiently  to  the  improve- 
ment of  their  moral  condition ;  together  with  a  number 
of  particular  questions  to  be  put  to  the  Indians  for  their 
answers  or  to  be  otherwise  answered  according  to  cir- 
cumstances, came  to  hand  in  due  time  and  would  have 
been  answered  immediately,  had  it  been  in  my  power  to 
have  done  so  as  fully  as  I  wished. 8T 

37  Early  in  1820  Rev.  Jedidiah  Morse,  D.D.,  held  commissions  from  the 
Society  in  Scotland  for  Propagating  Christian  Knowledge,  and  from  the 
Northern  Missionary  Society  of  New  York,  to  visit  the  Indian  tribes  of  the 
United  States  and  ascertain  their  condition,  and  devise  measures  for  their 
benefit  and  advancement.  He  suggested  to  the  United  States  government  the 
desirability  of  its  cooperation  in  this  undertaking,  and  was  authorized  to  carry 
it  out  as  an  accredited  agent  of  the  government,  which  paid  his  expenses  and 


Soon  after  the  receipt  of  your  communication,  I  in- 
vited four  of  the  principal  chiefs  of  the  Sauk  and  Fox 
nations  to  my  quarters,  with  a  view  of  gaining  all  the 
information  wished  or  expected  from  them,  three  of 
whom  accordingly  attended,  when  I  made  known  to 
them  that  you  as  an  agent  of  the  President  had  requested 
certain  information  relating  to  their  two  nations,  which 
1  hoped  they  would  freely  communicate  to  the  best  of 
their  knowledge  and  belief,  as  their  great  father  the 
President  was  anxious  to  be  made  acquainted  with  their 
situation  in  order  to  be  enabled  to  relieve  their  wants 
and  give  them  such  advice  from  time  to  time  as  they 
might  need.  They  replied,  that  they  were  willing  and 
ready  to  communicate  all  the  information  in  their  power 
to  give  relative  to  their  two  nations;  but  I  soon  found 
that  when  the  questions  were  put  to  them  they  became 
suspicious  and  unwilling  to  answer  to  them,  and  that 

directed  him  to  make  a  report  of  his  work  in  this  field ;  this  appears  from  the 
letter  written  to  him  by  the  then  secretary  of  war,  J.  C.  Calhoun,  dated  Feb.  7, 
1820.  He  left  New  Haven  on  May  10  following,  and  returned  home  on 
August  30,  this  period  having  been  devoted  to  visiting  the  Indian  tribes  as 
far  west  as  Detroit,  Mackinaw,  and  Green  Bay.  His  report  to  the  war  de- 
partment, dated  November,  1821,  was  published  at  New  Haven  in  1822,  under 
the  title  "A  Report  to  the  Secretary  of  War  of  the  United  States,  on  Indian 
Affairs,  comprising  a  narrative  of  a  tour  performed  in  the  summer  of  1820, 
under  a  commission  from  the  President  of  the  United  States,  for  the  purpose  of 
ascertaining,  for  the  use  of  the  Government,  the  actual  state  of  the  Indian 
Tribes  in  our  country."  The  greater  part  of  this  book  is  in  the  form  of  appen- 
dices, in  which  Dr.  Morse  incorporated  a  vast  mass  of  information  regarding 
the  Indian  tribes  at  that  time,  including  reports,  interviews,  etc.,  from  Indian 
agents,  missionaries,  army  officers,  traders,  Indian  chiefs,  and  others.  He  also 
gives  statistical  tables  of  the  tribes  and  their  population,  residence,  etc.;  the 
annuities  paid  to  them  by  the  government;  the  lands  purchased  from  them; 
and  schools  established  among  them.  At  the  end  of  the  report  proper,  Dr. 
Morse  presents  his  views  as  to  the  policy  which  the  government  should  adopt 
in  dealing  with  the  Indians,  with  plans  for  civilizing  and  educating  them, 
and  for  the  conduct  of  the  Indian  trade.  The  report  by  Major  Marston 
(which  the  present  editor  has  reproduced  from  that  officer's  original  manu- 
script) was  printed  in  Dr.  Morse's  report  (pages  120-140),  with  some  slight 
editorial  changes  intended  to  give  it  better  form  for  publication  —  mainly  in 
spelling,  the  correct  form  of  sentences,  etc.  -  ED. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES  141 

many  of  their  answers  were  evasive  and  foreign  to  the 
questions.38  Such  information,  however,  I  was  able  to 
obtain,  by  putting  your  questions  to  them  follows : 

Question  to  Mas-co,  a  Sauk  chief- What  is  the  name 
of  your  nation?  Answer-  Since  we  can  remember  we 
have  never  had  any  other  name  than  Saukie  or  Saukie- 

Question  to  Mas-co-What  its  original  name?  An- 
swer-Since the  Great  Spirit  made  us  we  have  had  that 
name  and  no  other. 

Question  to  Mas-co-What  the  names  by  which  it  has 
been  known  among  Europeans?  Answer -The  French 
called  us  by  that  name ;  they  were  the  first  white  people 

38  Gov.  Ninian  Edwards  of  Illinois  wrote  to  Thomas  Forsyth  (from  Kas- 
kaskia,  Jan.  28,  1813):     "The  truth  is  that  all  the  different  tribes  of  Indians 
view  our  increase  of  population  and  approximation  to  their  villages  and  hunt- 
ing grounds  with  a  jealous  eye,  are  predisposed  to  hostility  and  are  restrained 
only  by  fear  from  committing  aggressions.     I  make  no  calculations  upon  their 
friendship,  nor  upon  anything  else  but  the  terror  with  which  our  measures  may 
inspire  them  and  therefore  I  am  now  and  long  have  been  opposed  to  temporiz- 
ing with  them.     I  am  very  glad  you  contradicted  the  report  of  my  having 
sent  a  Pipe,  etc.,  to  the  Pottowattomies,  for  nothing  can  be  more  false  than 
that  report.     There  is  in  my  opinion  only  one  of  two  courses  that  ought  to  be 
pursued  with  the  Sacs.     If  there  be  just  grounds  to  believe  that  a  part  of  them 
are  friendly  they  should  be  brought  into  the  interior  of  the  country,  furnished 
with  provisions,  and  some  ground  to  make  their  sweet  corn,  etc.,  which  they 
would  want  when  they  should  retire  to  their  own  country.    This  proposition 
wd  test  their  sincerity  —  if  they  accepted  it,  it  would  be  advantageous  to  us 
by  withdrawing  so  much  force  from  the  hostile  confederacy  whilst  we  are 
waging  war  against  it  —  if  they  refused  I  wd  consider  them  all  as  enemies  and 
treat  them  accordingly,  making  the  whole  tribe  responsible  for  the  conduct  of  all 
its  members.     No  other  plan  of  separating  the  hostile  from  the  friendly  part 
or  discriminating  between  them  can  succeed.    .    .    The  Kickapoos  are  among 
the  Sacs  —  and  most  certainly  if  they  wish  to  harbor  our  enemies  they  can  not 
be  considered  nor  ought  they  to  be  treated  as  our  friends  —  under  the  circum- 
stances the  only  line  I  shall  prescribe  to  them  will  be  to  keep  out  of  the  way  of 
my  rangers.     I   should  however  be  glad  to  send  them  a  talk  first  requiring 
them  to  drive  the  Kickapoos  from  among  them  —  and  I  wish  to  procure  some 
person  to  go  on  this  business."     (Forsyth  Papers,  vol.  i,  doc.  13.)  —  ED. 

39  Saukie  is  the  singular  and  Saukieuck  the  plural:  the  plural  number  of 
most  names  in  the  Sauk  and  Fox  language  is  formed  by  the  addition  of  the 
syllable  uck.  —  MARSTON. 


we  had  ever  seen;  since,  the  white  people  call  us  Sauks. 

Question  to  Wah-bal-lo40  the  principal  chief  of  the 
Fox  nation -What  is  the  name  of  your  nation?  ^f/i- 
jie^r-Mus-quak-kie  or  Mus-quak-kie-uck. 

Question  to  Wah-bal-lo -What  its  original  name? 
Answer-  Since  the  Great  Spirit  made  us  we  have  had 
that  name  and  no  other. 

Question  to  Wah-bal-lo -What  the  names  by  which 
it  has  been  known  among  Europeans?  Answer -The 
French  called  us  Renards,  and  since,  the  white  people 
have  called  us  Foxes. 

Question- Are  any  portion  of  your  tribes  scattered  in 
other  parts?  Answer-  Yes. 

Question- Where?  Answer -There  are  some  of  our 
people  on  the  Mifsouri,  some  near  Fort  Edwards41  and 
some  among  the  Pottawattanies. 

Question-To  what  nations  are  you  related  by  lan- 
guage? Answer -The  Sauk,  Fox  and  Kickapoo  nations 
are  related  by  language. 

Question- Manners  and  customs?  Answer -The 
Sauk,  Fox  and  Kickapoo's  manners  and  customs  are 
alike  except  those  who  have  had  intercourse  with  the 

One  of  the  chiefs  added  that  the  Shawnees  descended 
from  the  Sauk  nation:  that  at  a  bears-feast  a  chief  took 
the  feet  of  the  animal  for  his  portion  who  was  not  en- 
titled to  them  (which  were  esteemed  the  greatest  luxury) 
and  that  a  quarrel  ensued,  in  consequence  of  which  he 

40  Waa-pa-laa,  Wah-bal-lo,   Wapello,  Waupella,   are   all   variants  of  the 
same  name,  which  means  "He  who  is  painted  white."    This  chief  was  a  signer 
of  four  treaties  (1822  to  1836)  ;  he  took  no  part  in  the  Black  Hawk  War,  but 
seems  to  have  been  a  prisoner  with  Black  Hawk  in  1832.     See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls., 
vol.  v,  305,  and  vol.  x,  154,  217.  —  ED. 

41  Fort  Edwards  was  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  (a  little  above  the 
mouth  of  Des  Moines  River),  fifty  miles  above  Quincy,  111.    In  1822  Marston 
was  in  command  of  this  fort.     See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  vi,  190,  273-279.  —  ED. 

WAA-PA-LAA  (Fox) 

MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          145 

and  his  band  withdrew  and  have  ever  since  been  called 
the  Shawnee  nation. 

They  acknowledge  that  the  Sauks,  Foxes,  Kickapoos 
and  lowas  are  in  close  alliance,  but  observed  that  the 
reason  for  being  in  alliance  with  the  lowas  was,  because 
they  were  a  bad  people,  and  therefore  it  was  better  to 
have  their  friendship  than  enmity. 

Question -With  what  tribes  can  you  converse,  and 
what  is  the  common  language  in  which  you  converse 
with  them?  Answer- There  are  only  three  nations  with 
which  we  can  [talk,]  the  Sauk,  Fox  and  Kickapoo  na- 
tions, by  being  with  [any]  other  nation  we  might  learn 
their  language,  but  if  we  [don't]  see  them  how  can  we 
speak  to  them  or  they  to  us?  Is  [it]  not  the  same  with 
you  white  people? 

Question -What  tribe  do  you  call  Grandfather? 
Answer-The  Delawares  call  us  and  all  other  Indians 
Grandchildren,  and  we  in  return  call  them  Grandfather ; 
but  we  know  of  no  relationship  subsisting  between  them 
and  us. 

Question -What  tribes  are  Grandchildren?  An- 
swer-There are  no  tribes  or  other  nations  we  call  grand- 

Question- Where  is  the  great  council  fire  for  all  the 
tribes  connected  with  your  own  tribes?  Answer -We 
have  no  particular  place,  when  we  have  any  businefs  to 
transact  it  is  done  at  some  one  of  our  villages. 

Question-Do  you  believe  that  the  soul  lives  after  the 
body  is  dead?  Answer -How  should  we  know,  none  of 
our  people  who  have  died,  have  ever  returned  to  inform 

No  other  questions  were  put  to  the  chiefs  as  they  ap- 
peared to  be  determined  to  give  no  further  information. 
In  conversation  with  one  of  them  afterwards  upon  the 


subject,  they  give  as  a  reason  for  declining  to  answer  the 
remainder  of  the  questions,  that  Govr  Clark42  had  not 
treated  them  with  that  attention  they  were  entitled  to 
when  last  at  Sl  Louis.  This  plea  however,  was  prob- 
ably without  foundation.  It  is  the  character  of  these 
people  to  conceal  as  much  as  possible  their  history,  re- 
ligion and  customs  from  the  whites,  it  is  only  when  they 
are  off  their  guard  that  any  thing  upon  these  subjects 
can  be  obtained  from  them. 

I  have  since  been  informed  by  some  of  the  old  men 
of  the  two  nations  that  the  Sauk  and  Fox  nations  emi- 
grated from  a  great  distance  below  Detroit  and  estab- 
lished themselves  at  a  place  called  Saganaw43  in 
Michigan  Territory,  that  they  have  since  built  villages 
and  lived  on  the  Fox  River  of  the  Illenois,  at  Mil-wah- 
kee44  near  Lake  Michigan,  on  the  Fox  River  of  Green 
Bay  and  on  the  Ouesconsen :  that  about  fifty  years  since 
they  removed  to  this  vicinity,  where  they  lived  for  some 
time,  and  then  went  down  to  the  Iowa  River  and  built 
large  villages;  that  the  principal  part  of  both  nations 

42  Referring  to  Gen.  William  Clark,  companion  of  Meriwether  Lewis  in 
their  famous  exploring  expedition  to  the  Pacific  coast  in  1803-1806.     He  was 
born  on  Aug.  i,  1770,  near  Charlottesville,  Va. ;  and  in  1784  his  family  removed 
to  the  vicinity  of  Louisville,  Ky.     From  his  nineteenth  year  until  1796,  Clark 
was  in  the  United  States  military  service,  and  became  a  brave  and  able  officer. 
During  the  period  from  July,  1803,  to  September,  1806,  Clark  was  engaged  in 
the  famous  expedition  to  the  Pacific  coast  under  direction  of  Meriwether  Lewis 
and  himself.     Soon  after  his  return  (March,  1807)    Clark  was  made  superin- 
tendent of  Indian  affairs  and  brigadier-general  of  militia.     From  1813  to  1820 
he   was  governor   of   Missouri,   and   during  the   next  two  years   was   again 
superintendent  of  Indian  affairs.     In  1822  he  was  appointed  surveyor-general 
for   Illinois,    Missouri,    and    Arkansas    Territory.     Clark    died    at    St.    Louis, 
Sept.  i,  1838,  aged  sixty-nine.     He  was  twice  married,  and  left  six  children. 
See  detailed  account  of  his  life  in  Thwaites's  Original  Journals  of  the  Lewis 
and  Clark  Expedition  (N.Y.,  1904),  vol.  i,  pp.  xxvii-xxxiii,  liv.  —  ED. 

43  Saganaw  is  probably  derived  from  Sau-kie-nock   (Saukie-town). 

44 Milwahkee  is  said  to  be  derived  from  Man-na-*wah-kee  (good  land). 


two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          147 

remained  on  this  river  until  about  sixteen  years  ago, 
when  they  returned  to  their  present  situation.  This  is 
all  the  information  I  have  been  able  to  collect  from 
themselves  relating  to  the  rise  and  progress  of  their  two 
nations.  At  present  their  villages  are  situated  on  a  point 
of  land  formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Rock  and  Mif- 
sifsippi  Rivers,  which  they  call  Sen-i-se-po  Ke~be-sau- 
kee  (Rock  River  Peninsula)  this  land  as  well  as  all  they 
ever  claimed  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mifsifsippi  was  sold 
by  them  to  our  government  in  1805.  The  agents  of 
government  have  been  very  desirious  for  some  time  to 
effect  their  removal,  but  they  appear  unwilling  to  leave 

I  recently  spoke  of  one  of  the  principal  Fox  chiefs 
upon  this  subject  and  he  replied  that  their  people  were 
not  willing  to  leave  Ke-be-sau-kee  in  consequence  of  a 
great  number  of  their  chiefs  and  friends  being  buryed 
there,  but  that  he  wished  them  to  remove,  as  they  would 
do  much  better  to  be  farther  from  the  Mifsifsippi  where 
they  would  have  lefs  intercourse  with  the  whites.  They 
claim  a  large  tract  of  country  on  the  west  of  the  Mif- 
sifsippi: it  commences  at  the  mouth  of  the  upper  Iowa 
River,  which  is  above  Prairie  du  Chien  and  follows  the 
Mifsifsippi  down  as  far  as  Des  Moine  River  and  ex- 
tending back  towards  the  Mifsouri  as  far  as  the  divid- 
ing ridge,  and  some  of  them  say  quite  to  that  River -a 
large  proportion  of  this  tract  is  said  to  be  high  prairie; 
that  part  of  it  which  lies  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Iowa  and 
Des  Moine  Rivers  is  said  to  be  valuable;  their  hunting 
grounds  are  on  the  head  waters  of  these  rivers,  and  are 
considered  the  best  in  any  part  of  the  Mifsifsippi  coun- 
try. I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  the  extent  of  Ter- 
ritory claimed  by  any  other  nations. 

The  Sauk  village  is  situated  on  the  bank  of  the  Rock 


River  and  about  two  miles  from  its  mouth,  and  contains 
[blank  in  Ms.]  lodges,  the  principal  Fox  village  is  on 
the  bank  of  the  Mifsifsippi  opposite  Fort  Armstrong,  it 
contains  thirty  five  permanent  lodges.  There  is  also  a 
small  Sauk  village  of  five  or  six  lodges  on  the  left  bank 
of  the  Mifsifsippi  near  the  mouth  of  des  Moine  and  be- 
low Fort  Edwards,  and  a  Fox  village  near  the  lead 
mines  (about  hundred  miles  .above  this  place)  of  about 
twenty  lodges,  and  another  near  the  mouth  of  the  Wapsi- 
pinica  [River]  45  of  about  ten  lodges.  The  Sauk  and 
Fox  nations  according  to  their  own  account,  which  I 
believe  to  be  nearly  correct,  can  muster  eight  hundred 
warriors,  and  including  their  old  men,  women  and  chil- 
dren, I  think  they  do  not  fall  short  of  five  thousand  souls ; 
of  this  number  about  two  fifths  are  Foxes,  but  they  are 
so  much  mixed  by  intermarries  and  living  at  each  others 
villages,  it  would  be  difficult  to  ascertain  the  proportion 
of  each  with  any  great  precision.  These  two  nations 
have  the  reputation  of  being  better  hunters  than  any 
other  that  are  to  be  found  inhabiting  the  borders  of 
either  the  Mifsouri  or  Mifsifsippi. 

They  leave  their  villages  as  soon  as  their  corn,  beans, 
etc.,  is  ripe  and  taken  care  of,  and  their  traders  arrive 
and  give  out  their  credits  (or  their  outfits  on  credit- 
Morse)  and  go  to  their  wintering  grounds;  it  being 
previously  determined  on  in  council  what  particular 
ground  each  party  shall  hunt  on.  The  old  men,  women, 

45  Wap-si-pin-i-ca.  So  called  from  a  root  of  that  name  which  is  found  in 
great  plenty  on  its  shores  and  which  they  use  as  a  substitute  for  bread. 


Wapsipinica  (the  same  as  wdpisipinik,  plural  of  zudpisipin,  meaning  "swan- 
root")  is  the  tuber  of  the  arrowhead  (Sagittaria  variabilis).  The  tubers  are 
generally  as  large  as  hens'  eggs,  and  are  greatly  relished  when  raw ;  but  they 
have  a  bitter  milky  juice,  not  agreeable  to  the  palates  of  civilized  men.  This, 
however,  is  destroyed  by  boiling,  and  the  roots  are  thus  rendered  sweet  and 
palatable.  They  afford  nourishment  to  the  swans  and  other  aquatic  birds  that 
congregate  in  great  numbers  about  the  lakes  of  the  northwest.  —  WM.  R.  GERARD. 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          149 

and  children  embark  in  canoes,  the  young  men  go  by 
land  with  their  horses ;  on  their  arrival  they  immediately 
commence  their  winter's  hunt,  which  last  about  three 
months.  Their  traders  follow  them  and  establish  them- 
selves at  convenient  places  in  order  to  collect  their  dues 
and  supply  them  with  such  goods  as  they  need.  In  a 
favorable  season  most  of  these  Indians  are  able  not  only 
to  pay  their  traders,  and  will  supply  themselves  and  fam- 
ilies with  blankets, 46  strouding,  amunition,  etc.,  during 

46  "In  the  popular  mind  the  North  American  Indian  is  everywhere  asso- 
ciated with  the  robe  or  the  blanket.  The  former  was  the  whole  hide  of  a 
large  mammal  made  soft  and  pliable  by  much  dressing;  or  pelts  of  foxes, 
wolves,  and  such  creatures  were  sewed  together;  or  bird,  rabbit,  or  other 
tender  skins  were  cut  into  ribbons,  which  were  twisted  or  woven.  The  latter 
were  manufactured  by  basketry  processes  from  wool,  hair,  fur,  feathers,  down, 
bark,  cotton,  etc.,  and  had  many  and  various  functions.  They  were  worn  like 
a  toga  as  protection  from  the  weather,  and,  in  the  best  examples,  were  con- 
spicuous in  wedding  and  other  ceremonies;  in  the  night  they  were  both  bed 
and  covering;  for  the  home  they  served  for  hangings,  partitions,  doors,  awn- 
ings, or  sunshades;  the  women  dried  fruit  on  them,  made  vehicles  and  cradles 
of  them  for  their  babies,  and  receptacles  for  a  thousand  things  and  burdens; 
they  even  then  exhausted  their  patience  and  skill  on  them,  producing  their 
finest  art  work  in  weaving  and  embroidery;  finally,  the  blanket  became  a 
standard  of  value  and  a  primitive  mechanism  of  commerce.  .  .  After  the 
advent  of  the  whites  the  blanket  leaped  into  sudden  prominence  with  tribes 
that  had  no  weaving  and  had  previously  worn  robes,  the  preparation  of  which 
was  most  exhausting.  The  European  was  not  slow  in  observing  a  widespread 
want  and  in  supplying  the  demand.  When  furs  became  scarcer  blankets  were 
in  greater  demand  everywhere  as  articles  of  trade  and  standards  of  value. 
Indeed,  in  1831  a  home  plant  was  established  in  Buffalo  for  the  manufacture 
of  what  was  called  the  Mackinaw  blanket.  .  .  In  our  system  of  educating 
them,  those  tribes  that  were  unwilling  to  adopt  modern  dress  were  called 
'blanket  Indians.' "  The  manufacture  of  blankets  still  continues  among  some 
of  the  southwestern  tribes,  and  many  of  their  products  are  highly  valued  by 
white  people. —  OTis  T.  MASON  and  WALTER  HOUGH,  in  Handbook  Amer. 

R.  R.  Elliott  says  (U.S.  Cath.  Hist.  Mag.,  vol.  iv,  312) :  "Blankets  marked 
with  'points'  were  formerly  manufactured  in  Europe  especially  for  the  north- 
western American  trade,  and  during  the  present  century  were  distinguished 
commercially  as  'Mackinac  blankets.'  They  were  made  of  good,  honest  wool, 
half-inch  thick,  with  two  black  stripes  at  each  end.  The  size  was  marked  by 
a  black  line  four  inches  long  and  about  half  an  inch  wide,  woven  in  a  corner 
of  the  blanket."  Strouding  is  defined  by  the  Standard  Dictionary  as  "a  coarse, 
warm  cloth  or  blanketing,  formerly  used  in  the  Indian  trade."  A  blanket  made 


the  winter,  but  to  leave  considerable  of  the  proceeds  of 
their  hunt  on  hand;  the  surplus  which  generally  consists 
of  the  most  valuable  peltries,  such  as  beaver,  otter,  etc., 
they  take  home  with  them  to  their  Villages,  and  dispose 
of  for  such  articles  as  they  may  find  necessary.  In  the 
winter  of  1819-1820  these  two  nations  had  five  traders. 
This  number  of  traders  employed  nine  clerks  and  inter- 
preters, with  annual  salaries  of  from  two  hundred  to 
twelve  hundred  dollars  each  (the  average  about  four 
hundred  dollars),  and  forty-three  labourers  whose  pay 
was  from  one  hundred  to  two  hundred  dollars  each  pr 
annum.  These  traders  including  the  peltries  received 
at  the  United  States  factory47  near  Fort  Edwards,  col- 

of  this  goods  was  called  a  "stroud."  The  name  is  said  to  be  derived  from  a 
place  in  Gloucestershire,  Eng.,  named  Stroud.  -  ED. 

47  During  the  eighteenth  century  "trade  was  mostly  by  barter  or  in  the 
currency  of  the  colonies  or  the  government.  The  employment  of  liquor  to 
stimulate  trade  began  with  the  earliest  venture  and  was  more  and  more  used  as 
trade  increased.  The  earnest  protests  of  Indian  chiefs  and  leaders  and  of  philan- 
thropic persons  of  the  white  race  were  of  no  avail,  and  not  until  the  United 
States  government  prohibited  the  sale  of  intoxicants  was  there  any  stay  to  the 
demoralizing  custom.  Smuggling  of  alcohol  was  resorted  to,  for  the  companies 
declared  that  'without  liquor  we  cannot  compete  in  trade.'  To  protect  the 
Indians  from  the  evil  effects  of  intoxicants  and  to  insure  them  a  fair  return 
for  their  pelts,  at  the  suggestion  of  President  Washington  the  act  of  April  18, 
1796,  authorized  the  establishment  of  trading  houses  under  the  immediate 
direction  of  the  president.  In  1806  the  office  of  Superintendent  of  Indian  Trade 
was  created,  with  headquarters  at  Georgetown,  D.C."  In  1810  there  were 
fourteen  of  these  trading  establishments,  among  them  the  following:  At  Ft. 
Wayne,  on  the  Miami  of  the  Lakes,  Indiana  T. ;  at  Detroit,  Michigan  T. ;  at 
Belle  Fontaine,  mouth  of  the  Missouri,  Louisiana  T.;  at  Chicago,  on  L.  Mich- 
igan, Indiana  T.;  at  Sandusky,  L.  Erie,  Ohio;  at  the  island  of  Michilimacki- 
nac,  L.  Huron,  Michigan  T. ;  at  Ft.  Osage,  on  the  Missouri,  Louisiana  T. ;  at 
Ft.  Madison,  on  the  upper  Mississippi,  Louisiana  T.  "At  that  time  there 
were  few  factories  in  the  country  where  goods  required  for  the  Indian  trade 
could  be  made,  and,  as  the  government  houses  were  restricted  to  articles  of 
domestic  manufacture,  their  trade  was  at  a  disadvantage,  notwithstanding 
their  goods  were  offered  at  about  cost  price,  for  the  Indian  preferred  the 
better  quality  of  English  cloth  and  the  surreptitiously  supplied  liquor.  Finally 
the  opposition  of  private  traders  secured  the  passage  of  the  act  of  May  6,  1822, 
abolishing  the  government  trading  houses,  and  thus  'a  system  fraught  with 
possibilities  of  great  good  to  the  Indian'  came  to  an  end.  The  official  records 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          151 

lected  of  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  during  this  season 
nine  hundred  and  eighty  packs. 

They  consisted  of  2760  beaver  skins;  922  Otter; 
13,440  Raccoon;  12,900  Musk  Rat  skins;  500  Mink; 
200  Wildcat;  680  Bear  skins;  28,680  Deer;  whole  num- 
ber-60,082.  The  estimated  value  of  which  is  fifty  eight 
thousand  and  eight  hundred  dollars. 

The  quantity  of  tallow  presumed  to  be  collected  from 
the  Deer  is  286,800  pounds.  The  traders  also  collected 
during  the  same  time  from  these  savages  at  least:  3,000 
Ibs.  of  feathers;  1,000  Ibs.  of  bees  wax. 

They  return  to  their  villages  in  the  month  of  April 
and  after  putting  their  lodges  in  order,  commence  pre- 
paring the  ground  to  receive  the  seed.  The  number  of 
acres  cultivated  by  that  part  of  the  two  nations  who  re- 
side at  their  villages  in  this  vicinity  is  supposed  to  be 
upwards  of  three  hundred.  They  usually  raise  from 
seven  to  eight  thousand  bushels  of  corn,  besides  beans, 
pumpkins,  melons,  etc.  About  one  thousand  bushels  of 
the  corn  they  annually  sell  to  traders  and  others.  The 
remainder  (except  about  five  bushels  for  each  family, 
which  is  taken  along  with  them)  they  put  into  bags,  and 
bury  in  holes  dug  in  the  ground  for  their  use  in  the 
Spring  and  Summer. 

The  labor  of  agriculture  is  confined  principally  to 
the  women,  and  this  is  done  altogether  with  the  hoe. 48 

show  that  until  near  the  close  of  its  career,  in  spite  of  the  obstacles  it  had  to 
contend  with  and  the  losses  growing  out  of  the  War  of  1812,  the  government 
trade  was  self-sustaining."  —  ALICE  C.  FLETCHER,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

See  Draper's  "Fur  Trade  and  Factory  System  at  Green  Bay,  1816-21," 
with  sketch  of  the  factory  there,  Matthew  Irwin,  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  vii, 
269-288;  F.  J.  Turner's  "Character  and  Influence  of  the  Indian  Trade  in 
Wisconsin,"  in  Johns  Hopkins  University  Studies,  vol.  ix  (1891),  543-615  ;  H.  M. 
Chittenden's  American  Fur  Trade  of  the  Far  West  (N.Y.,  1902) ;  C.  Larpen- 
teur's  Fur  Trade  on  the  Upper  Missouri,  1833-1872  (N.Y.,  1898).  — ED. 

48  There  has  been  a  widely  prevalent  popular  notion  that  before  and  after 
the  coming  of  Europeans  to  America  nearly  all  the  Indians  north  of  Mexico 


In  June  the  greatest  part  of  the  young  men  go  out  on 
a  summer  hunt,  and  return  in  August.  While  they  are 
absent  the  old  men  and  women  are  collecting  rushes  for 
mats,  and  bark  to  make  into  bags  for  their  corn,  etc. 

The  women  usually  make  about  three  hundred  floor 

were  virtually  nomads,  and  hence  practiced  agriculture  to  a  very  limited 
extent.  But  this  is  certainly  a  misconception  regarding  most  of  the  tribes  in 
the  temperate  regions;  for  the  earlier  writers  "almost  without  exception  notice 
the  fact  that  the  Indians  were  generally  found,  from  the  border  of  the  western 
plains  to  the  Atlantic,  dwelling  in  settled  villages  and  cultivating  the  soil." 
Moreover,  the  early  white  colonists  in  all  the  European  settlements  "de- 
pended at  first  very  largely  for  subsistence  on  the  products  of  Indian  culti- 
vation." Of  these,  Indian  corn  was  the  chief  and  universal  staple,  and 
according  to  Brinton  (Myths  of  the  New  World^  22)  "was  found  in  cultiva- 
tion from  the  southern  extremity  of  Chile  to  the  soth  parallel  of  north  lati- 
tude." The  amount  of  corn  destroyed  by  Denonville  in  his  expedition  of  1687 
against  the  Iroquois  was  estimated  at  1,000,000  bushels.  "If  we  are  indebted 
to  Indians  for  the  maize,  without  which  the  peopling  of  America  would  prob- 
ably have  been  delayed  for  a  century,  it  is  also  from  them  that  the  whites 
learned  the  methods  of  planting,  storing,  and  using  it.  .  .  Beans,  squashes, 
pumpkins,  sweet  potatoes,  tobacco,  gourds,  and  the  sunflower  were  also  culti- 
vated to  some  extent,  especially  in  what  are  now  the  Southern  States,"  and 
Coronado  even  found  the  Indians  of  New  Mexico  cultivating  cotton.  Among 
those  southwestern  tribes  irrigation  was  practiced  by  the  natives  before  white 
men  came  to  America;  and  some  of  the  eastern  tribes  used  fertilizers  on  their 
land.  Primitive  tools  for  cultivating  the  soil  were  made  of  stone  or  wood,  and 
sometimes  sharp  shells  or  flat  bones  were  fastened  into  wooden  handles  for 
this  purpose.  "It  was  a  general  custom  to  burn  over  the  ground  before  plant- 
ing, in  order  to  free  it  from  weeds  and  rubbish.  In  the  forest  region  patches 
were  cleared  by  girdling  the  trees,  thus  causing  them  to  die,  and  afterward 
burning  them  down."  As  a  rule,  the  field  work  was  done  by  the  women; 
later,  as  the  tribes  became  more  or  less  civilized,  this  work  was  shared  by  the 
men.  "Though  the  Indians  as  a  rule  have  been  somewhat  slow  in  adopting 
the  plants  and  methods  introduced  by  the  whites,  this  has  not  been  wholly 
because  of  their  dislike  of  labor,  but  in  some  cases  has  been  due  largely  to 
their  removals  by  the  government  and  to  the  unproductiveness  of  the  soil  of 
many  of  the  reservations  assigned  them.  Where  tribes  or  portions  of  tribes, 
as  parts  of  the  Cherokee  and  Iroquois,  were  allowed  to  remain  in  their  original 
territory,  they  were  not  slow  in  bringing  into  use  the  introduced  plants  and 
farming  methods  of  the  whites,  the  fruit  trees,  live  stock,  plows,  etc." 

-  CYRUS  THOMAS,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

See  B.  H.  Hibbard's  "Indian  Agriculture  in  Southern  Wisconsin,"  in  Pro- 
ceedings of  Wisconsin  Historical  Society,  1904,  pp.  145-155;  and  C.  E.  Brown's 
"Wisconsin  Garden  Beds,"  in  Wis.  Archeologist,  vol.  viii,  no.  3,  97-105.  Sec 
references  to  Wis.  Hist.  Colls,  in  note  254  to  this  book,  for  mention  of  lead 
mining  by  Indians.  —  ED. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          153 

mats  every  summer;  these  mats  are  as  handsome  and  as 
durable  as  those  made  abroad.  The  twine  which  con- 
nects the  rushes  together  is  made  either  of  bafswood  bark 
after  being  boiled  and  hammered,  or  the  bark  of  the 
nettle ;  the  women  twist  or  spin  it  by  rolling  it  on  the  leg 
with  the  hand.  Those  of  the  able  bodied  men  who  do 
not  go  out  to  hunt  are  employed  in  digging  and  smelting 
lead  at  the  mines  on  the  Mifsifsippi :  in  this  businefs  a 
part  of  the  women  are  also  employed,  from  four  to  five 
hundred  thousand  weight  of  this  mineral  is  dug  by  them 
during  a  season :  the  lofs  in  smelting  of  which  is  about 
25  pr  cent;  most  of  it  however  is  disposed  of  by  them  in 
the  state  that  it  is  dug  out  of  the  mine,  at  about  two  dol- 
lars pr  hundred. 

I  now  proceed  to  give  such  further  information  as  a 
year's  residence  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Sauk,  Fox,  and  a 
part  of  the  Kickapoo  nations  (about  two  hundred  souls 
of  which  built  a  village  last  season  near  the  mouth  of 
Rock  River)  and  considerable  intercourse  with  several 
other  nations  has  enabled  me  to  collect. 

In  the  first  place  it  is  no  more  than  justice  for  me  to 
acknowledge  that  I  am  greatly  indebted  for  much  of  the 
information  contained  in  this  letter  to  Thomas  Forsyth 
Esqr  Indian  Agent,  Mr.  George  Davenport,  and  Dr. 
Muir49  Indian  traders;  from  the  first  mentioned  gentle- 
man I  am  principally  indebted  for  an  account  of  the 

49  Dr.  Muir  was  a  physician,  a  Scotchman,  educated  at  Edinburgh;  he 
came  to  this  country,  and  in  1814-1815  was  connected  with  the  U.S.  army.  At 
this  time  some  Indians  conspired  to  kill  him,  but  his  life  was  saved  by  a 
young  Sauk  girl.  In  gratitude  for  this  he  took  her  as  his  wife,  and  settled  in 
Galena,  where  he  had  several  children  by  her.  Afterward,  he  was  one  of  the 
first  settlers  of  Keokuk,  la.,  where  he  engaged  in  the  Indian  trade.  After  his 
death,  his  family  joined  the  Indians.  —  L.  C.  DRAPER,  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls., 
vol.  ii,  224. 

The  Blondeau  here  mentioned  was  evidently  Maurice,  son  of  Nicholas 
Blondeau  and  a  Fox  woman ;  they  resided  at  Portage  des  Sioux.  Maurice  was 
born  about  1780,  and  died  probably  near  1830;  he  married  a  Sauk  half-breed 
woman  and  had  two  children.  —  ED. 


manners  and  customs  of  the  Chippewa,  Ottawa,  and 
Pottawattamie  nations,  which  are  similar,  if  not  the 
same  as  those  of  the  Sauks,  Foxes,  and  Kickapoos.  In 
addition  to  the  information  furnished  by  these  gentle- 
men, I  have  long  been  in  expectation  of  receiving  from 
Mr.  Blondeau  late  a  Sub.  I.  Agent  and  a  man  of  intel- 
ligence in  the  religion,  manners,  and  customs  of  the  Sauk 
and  Fox  nations ;  he  was  born  with  the  Sauks,  his  mother 
being  a  woman  of  that  nation,  and  is  probably  more 
competent  to  give  a  correct  account  of  them  than  any 
other  man ;  this  however,  I  have  been  disappointed  as 
yet  in  receiving;  the  expectation  of  receiving  this  docu- 
ment has  been  the  principal  cause  of  delay  in  answering 
your  communication. 

Among  your  queries  are  the  following. -What  are 
your  terms  for  father,  mother,  Heaven,  Earth;  the  pro- 
nouns If  thou,  he?  In  what  manner  do  you  form  the 
genitive  case  and  plural  number?  How  do  you  distin- 
guish present,  past  and  future  time? 

In  the  Sauk  tongue:  No-sah,  is  my  father;  Co-sah, 
your  father ;  Oz-son,  his  father ;  Na-ke-ah,  is  my  mother ; 
Ke-ke-ah,  your  mother;  O-chan-en-e,  his  mother; 
Heaven  is  che-pah-nock;  Earth,  Ar-kee\  I  is  Neen; 
thou,  keen]  you  (in  the  plural),  Keen-a-wa'  he,  Ween; 
us,  Ne-non;  they,  We-ne-wa.  I  have  not  been  able  to 
afcertain  the  manner  they  form  the  genitive  case.  The 
plural  number  of  most  nouns  is  formed  by  the  addition 
of  the  syllable  uck  as  Sau-kie,  Sau-kie-uck.  The  plural 
of  personal  pronouns  is  generally  formed  by  the  addi- 
tion of  the  syllable  <wah. 

The  name  of  the  principal  chief  of  the  Sauks  is  Nan- 
nah-que,  he  is  about  forty  years  of  age,  rather  small  in 
stature,  unassuming  in  his  deportment,  and  disposed  to 
cultivate  the  friendship  of  the  whites ;  but  he  does  not 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          155 

appear  to  pofsefs  any  extraordinary  capacity.  The  two 
next  chiefs  in  rank  are  Mus-ke-ta-bah  (red  head)  and 
Mas-co ;  the  latter  is  a  man  of  considerable  intelligence 
but  rather  old,  and  too  fond  of  whiskey  to  have  much 
influence  with  his  nation.  These  chiefs  are  all  decidedly 
opposed  to  a  change  of  their  condition.  About  a  year 
since  this  nation  met  with  a  heavy  lofs  in  the  death  of 
Mo-ne-to-mack,  the  greatest  chief  that  they  have  had  for 
many  years.  Among  other  things  which  he  contem- 
plated accomplishing  for  the  good  of  his  people,  was  to 
have  their  lands  surveyed  and  laid  off  into  tracts  for 
each  family  or  tribe.  He  has  left  a  son,  but  as  yet  he  is 
too  young  to  afsume  any  authority. 

The  principal  chief  of  the  Fox  nation  is  Wah-bal-lo; 
he  appears  to  be  about  thirty.  He  is  a  man  of  consider- 
able capacity  and  very  independent  in  his  feelings,  but 
rather  unambitious  and  indolent.  The  second  chief  of 
this  nation  is  Ty-ee-ma  (Strawberry)  ;  he  is  about  forty. 
This  man  seems  to  be  more  intelligent  than  any  other  to 
be  found  either  among  the  Foxes  or  Sauks,  but  he  is 
extremely  unwilling  to  communicate  any  thing  relative 
to  the  history,  manners  and  customs  of  his  people.  He 
has  a  variety  of  maps  of  different  parts  of  the  world  and 
appears  to  be  desirous  of  gaining  geographical  informa- 
tion; but  is  greatly  attached  to  the  savage  state.  I  have 
frequently  endeavored  to  draw  from  him  his  opinion 
with  regard  to  a  change  of  their  condition  from  the  sav- 
age to  the  civilised  state.  He  one  day  informed  me  when 
conversing  upon  this  subject,  that  the  Great  Spirit  had 
put  Indians  on  the  earth  to  hunt  and  gain  a  living  in  the 
wildernefs;  that  he  always  found  that  when  any  of  their 
people  departed  from  this  mode  of  life,  by  attempting 
to  learn  to  read,  write  and  live  as  white  people  do,  the 
Great  Spirit  was  displeased,  and  they  soon  died;  he  con- 


eluded  by  observing  that  when  the  Great  Spirit  made 
them  he  gave  them  their  medicine  bag  and  they  in- 
tended to  keep  it. 

I  have  not  had  an  opportunity  of  becoming  much  ac- 
quainted with  that  part  of  the  Kickapoo  nation  living 
in  this  vicinity.  There  are  two  principal  chiefs  among 
them,  Pah-moi-tah-mah  (the  swan  that  cries)  and  Pe- 
can (the  Nut)  the  former  is  an  old  man;  the  latter  ap- 
pears to  be  about  forty;  this  nation  has  had  considerable 
intercourse  with  the  whites,  but  they  do  not  appear  to 
have  profited  much  from  it.  They  appear  to  be  more 
apt  to  learn  and  practice  their  vices,  than  their  virtues. 

The  males  of  each  nation  of  the  Sauks  and  Foxes  are 
divided  into  two  grand  divisions,  called  kish-co-qua  and 
osh-kosh :  to  each  there  is  a  head  called,  war  chief.  As 
soon  as  the  first  male  child  of  a  family  is  born  he  is 
arranged  to  the  first  band,  and  when  a  second  is  born  to 
the  second  band,  and  so  on. 50 

The  name  of  the  Chief  of  the  first  band  of  Sauks,  is 

50  "There  is  abundant  evidence  that  the  military  code  was  as  carefully 
developed  as  the  social  system  among  most  of  the  tribes  north  of  Mex- 
ico. .  .  East  of  the  Mississippi,  where  the  clan  system  was  dominant,  the 
chief  military  functions  of  leadership,  declaration,  and  perhaps  conclusion  of 
war,  seem  to  have  been  hereditary  in  certain  clans,  as  the  Bear  clan  of  the 
Mohawk  and  Chippewa,  and  the  Wolf  or  Munsee  division  of  the  Delawares. 
It  is  probable  that  if  their  history  were  known  it  would  be  found  that  most  of 
the  Indian  leaders  in  the  colonial  and  other  early  Indian  wars  were  actually 
the  chiefs  of  the  war  clans  or  military  societies  of  their  respective  tribes.  .  . 
Among  the  confederated  Sauk  and  Foxes,  according  to  McKenney  and  Hall, 
nearly  all  the  men  of  the  two  tribes  were  organized  into  two  war  societies 
which  contested  against  each  other  in  all  races  or  friendly  athletic  games  and 
were  distinguished  by  different  cut  of  hair,  costume,  and  dances.  .  .  Through- 
out the  plains  from  north  to  south  there  existed  a  military  organization  so 
similar  among  the  various  tribes  as  to  suggest  a  common  origin,  although  with 
patriotic  pride  each  tribe  claimed  it  as  its  own."  In  these  societies  (four  to 
twelve  in  each  tribe)  were  enrolled  practically  all  the  males  from  boys  of  ten 
years  old  to  the  old  men  retired  from  active  service.  "Each  society  had  its 
own  dance,  songs,  ceremonial  costume,  and  insignia,  besides  special  tabus  and 
obligations.  .  .  At  all  tribal  assemblies,  ceremonial  hunts,  and  on  great 
war  expeditions,  the  various  societies  took  charge  of  the  routine  details  and 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          157 

Ke-o-kuck ;  when  they  go  to  war  and  on  all  public  occa- 
sions, his  band  is  always  painted  white,  with  pipe  clay. 
The  name  of  the  second  war  chief  is  Na-cal-a-quoik: 
his  band  is  painted  black.  Each  of  these  chiefs  is  en- 
titled to  one  or  two  aid-de-camps,  selected  by  themselves 
from  among  the  braves  of  their  nation,  who  generally 
accompany  them  on  all  public  occasions  and  whenever 
they  go  abroad.  These  two  chiefs  were  raised  to  their 
present  rank  in  consequence  of  their  succefs  in  opposing 
the  wishes  of  the  majority  of  the  nation  to  flee  from  their 
village  on  the  approach  of  a  body  of  American  troops 
during  the  late  war;  they  finally  persuaded  their  nation 
to  remain  on  the  condition  of  their  engaging  to  take  the 
command  and  sustain  their  position.  Our  troops  from 
some  cause  or  other  did  not  attack  them,  and  they  of 
course  remained  unmolested.  In  addition  to  these,  there 
are  a  great  number  of  petty  war  chiefs  or  partizans,  who 
frequently  head  small  parties  of  volunteers  and  go 
against  their  enemies ;  they  are  generally  those  who  have 
lost  some  near  relative  by  the  enemy.  An  Indian  in- 
tending to  go  to  war  will  commence  by  blacking  his 
face,  permitting  his  hair  to  grow  long,  and  neglecting 
his  personal  appearance,  and  also,  by  frequent  fastings, 
some  times  for  two  or  three  days  together,  and  refrain- 
acted  both  as  performers  and  police."  —  JAMES  MOONEY,  in  Handbook  Amer. 

The  term  Oshkushi  "is  the  animate  form  of  an  inanimate  word  referring 
to  'hoof,'  'claw,'  'nail;'  applied  to  a  member  of  the  social  divisions  of  the 
Sauk,  Foxes,  and  Kickapoo.  The  division  is  irrespective  of  clan  and  is  the 
cause  of  intense  rivalry  in  sport.  Their  ceremonial  color  is  black." 

—  WILLIAM  JONES,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

The  name  Oshkosh  was  borne  by  a  chief  of  the  Menominee,  born  in  1795, 
died  Aug.  31,  1850.  He,  with  a  hundred  of  his  tribesmen,  fought  under  the 
British  in  the  capture  of  Ft.  Mackinaw  from  the  Americans  in  July,  1812. 
At  the  treaty  of  Butte  des  Morts  (Aug.  u,  1827)  he  represented  his  tribe, 
being  named  chief  at  that  time  for  this  purpose.  A  portrait  of  him,  painted 
by  Samuel  M.  Brookes,  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  State  Historical 
Society.  The  city  of  Oshkosh,  in  Wisconsin,  bears  his  name.  —  ED. 


ing  from  all  intercourse  with  the  other  sex;  if  his  dreams 
are  favorable  he  thinks  that  the  Great  Spirit  will  give 
him  succefs;  he  then  makes  a  feast,  generally  of  dog's 
meat  (it  being  the  greatest  sacrifice  that  he  can  make  to 
part  with  a  favorite  dog)  ;  when  all  those  who  feel  in- 
clined to  join  him  will  attend  the  feast ;  after  this  is  con- 
cluded they  immediately  set  off  on  their  expedition.  It 
frequently  happens  that  in  consequence  of  unfavorable 
dreams  or  some  trifling  accident  the  whole  party  will 
return  without  meeting  with  the  enemy.  When  they  are 
succefsful  in  taking  prisoners  or  scalps,  they  return  to 
their  villages  with  great  pomp  and  ceremony.  The  party 
will  halt  several  miles  from  a  village  and  send  a  mefsen- 
ger  to  inform  the  nation  of  their  succefs,  and  of  the  time 
that  they  intend  to  enter  the  village ;  when  all  the  female 
friends  of  the  party  will  drefs  themselves  in  their  best 
attire  and  go  out  to  meet  them;  on  their  arrival  it  is  the 
privilege  of  these  women  to  take  from  them  all  their 
blankets,  trinkets,  etc.,  that  they  may  pofsefs;  the  whole 
party  then  paint  themselves  and  approach  the  village 
with  the  scalps  stretched  on  small  hoops  and  suspended 
to  long  poles  or  sticks,  dancing,  singing,  and  beating  the 
drum,  in  this  manner  they  enter  the  village.  The  chiefs 
in  council  will  then  determine  whether  they  shall  dance 
the  scalps  (as  they  term  it)  or  not,  if  this  is  permitted, 
the  time  is  fixed  by  them,  when  the  ceremony  shall  com- 
mence, and  when  it  shall  end.  In  these  dances51  the 
women  join  the  succefsful  warriors.  I  have  seen  myself 

51  "The  dance  of  the  older  time  was  fraught  with  symbolism  and  mystic 
meaning  which  it  has  lost  in  civilization  and  enlightenment.  It  is  confined 
to  no  one  country  of  the  world,  to  no  period  of  ancient  or  modern  time,  and  to 
no  plane  of  human  culture.  Strictly  interpreted,  therefore,  the  dance  seems 
to  constitute  an  important  adjunct  rather  than  the  basis  of  the  social,  military, 
religious,  and  other  activities  designed  to  avoid  evil  and  to  secure  wel- 
fare. .  .  The  dance  is  only  an  element,  not  the  basis,  of  the  several  festi- 
vals, rites,  and  ceremonies  performed  in  accordance  with  well-defined  rules 

KEOKUCK  (Sauk) 

MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          161 

more  than  a  hundred  of  them  dancing  at  once,  all 
painted,  and  clad  in  their  most  gaudy  attire.  The  fore- 
going manner  of  raising  a  war  party,  etc.,  is  peculiar  to 
the  Sauks,  Foxes  and  Kickapoos;  with  the  Chippewas, 
Ottawas,  and  Pottawattamies  it  is  some  what  different. 
A  warrior  of  these  nations  wishing  to  go  against  his 
enemies,  after  blacking  his  face,  fasting,  etc.,  prepares 
a  temporary  lodge  out  of  the  village  in  which  he  seats 
himself  and  smokes  his  pipe;  in  the  middle  of  his  lodge 
hangs  a  belt  of  wampum  or  piece  of  scarlet  cloth,  orna- 
mented ;  a  young  Indian  wishing  to  accompany  him  goes 
into  the  lodge  and  draws  the  belt  of  wampum  or  piece 
of  cloth  thro7  his  left  hand  and  sits  down  and  smokes  of 
the  tobacco  already  prepared  by  the  partizan.  After  a 
sufficient  number  is  collected  in  this  manner,  the  whole 
begin  to  compare  their  dreams  daily  together;  if  their 
dreams  are  favorable,  they  are  anxious  to  march  imme- 
diately; otherwise  they  will  give  up  the  expedition  for 
the  present  saying,  that  it  will  not  please  the  Great  Spir- 

and  usages,  of  which  it  has  become  a  part.  The  dance  was  a  powerful  im- 
pulse to  their  performance,  not  the  motive  of  their  observance.  .  .  The  word 
or  logos  of  the  song  or  chant  in  savage  and  barbaric  planes  of  thought  and 
culture  expressed  the  action  of  the  orenda,  or  esoteric  magic  power,  regarded 
as  immanent  in  the  rite  or  ceremony  of  which  the  dance  was  a  dominant  ad- 
junct and  impulse.  In  the  lower  planes  of  thought  the  dance  was  inseparable 
from  the  song  or  chant,  which  not  only  started  and  accompanied  but  also 
embodied  it.  .  .  There  are  personal,  fraternal,  clan  or  gentile,  tribal,  and 
inter-tribal  dances;  there  are  also  social,  erotic,  comic,  mimic,  patriotic,  mili- 
tary or  warlike,  invocative,  offertory,  and  mourning  dances,  as  well  as  those 
expressive  of  gratitude  and  thanksgiving.  Morgan  (League  of  the  Iroquois, 
1904,  vol.  i,  278)  gives  a  list  of  thirty-two  leading  dances  of  the  Seneca  Iro- 
quois,  of  which  six  are  costume  dances,  fourteen  are  for  both  men  and  women, 
eleven  for  men  only,  and  seven  for  women  only.  Three  of  the  costume  dances 
occur  in  those  exclusively  for  men,  and  the  other  three  in  those  for  both  men 
and  women.  .  .  The  ghost  dance,  the  snake  dance,  the  sun  dance,  the  scalp 
dance,  and  the  calumet  dance,  each  performed  for  one  or  more  purposes,  are  not 
developments  from  the  dance,  but  rather  the  dance  has  become  only  a  part  of 
the  ritual  of  each  of  these  important  observances,  which  by  metonymy  have 
been  called  by  the  name  of  only  a  small  but  conspicuous  part  or  element  of  the 
entire  ceremony."  —  J.  N.  B.  HEWITT,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


it  for  them  to  go,  or  that  their  medicine  is  not  good  or, 
that  their  partizan  has  cohabited  with  his  wife.  If 
every  thing  goes  right  the  whole  will  meet  at  their 
leader's  lodge,  where  they  will  beat  the  drums  and  pray 
the  Great  Spirit  to  make  them  succefsful  over  their 
enemies.  When  the  party  consists  of  twenty  or  upwards, 
its  leader  will  appoint  a  confidential  man,  to  carry  the 
great  medicine  bag.  After  they  are  afsembled  at  the 
place  of  rendezvous  and  in  readinefs  to  march,  the  parti- 
zan will  make  a  speech  in  which  he  will  inform  them 
that  they  are  now  about  to  go  to  war;  that  when  they 
meet  their  enemies  he  hopes  they  will  behave  like  men, 
and  not  fear  death;  that  the  Great  Spirit  will  deliver 
their  enemies  into  their  hands,  and  that  they  shall  have 
liberty  to  do  as  they  please  with  them ;  but  at  the  same 
time  if  there  are  any  among  them  who  are  fearful  of 
anything  whatever,  such  had  better  remain  at  home  and 
not  set  out  on  such  a  hazardous  expedition. 

Among  the  Ottawas  the  partizan  leads  when  they 
march  out  but  the  warrior  who  first  delivers  him  a  scalp 
or  prisoner  leads  the  party  homeward  and  receives  the 
belt  of  wampum.  On  the  arrival  of  the  party  at  the 
village,  they  distribute  the  prisoners  to  those  who  have 
lost  relations  by  the  enemy;  or  if  the  prisoners  are  to  be 
killed,  their  spirits  are  delivered  over  to  some  particular 
person's  relations  who  have  died  and  are  now  in  the 
other  world. 

Among  the  Pottawattamies  it  is  different;  all  prison- 
ers or  scalps  belong  to  the  partizan,  and  he  disposes  of 
them  as  he  may  think  proper:  he  will  some  times  give 
a  prisoner  to  a  family  who  has  lost  a  son  and  the  pris- 
oner will  be  adopted  by  the  family  and  considered  the 
same  as  though  he  was  actually  the  person  whose  place 
he  fills.  This  latter  practice  is  also  observed  among  the 
Sauks  and  Foxes. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          163 

In  addition  to  the  grand  divisions  of  the  males,  each 
nation  is  subdivided  into  a  great  number  of  families  or 
tribes.  Among  the  Sauks  there  are  no  less  than  fourteen 
tribes;  each  of  them  being  distinguished  by  a  particular 
name  (generally  by  the  name  of  some  animal)  some  of 
which  are  as  follows -The  bear  tribe,  wolf  tribe,  dog 
tribe,  elk  tribe,  eagle  tribe,  partridge  tribe,  sturgeon 
tribe,  sucker  tribe,  and  the  thunder  tribe.  Except  in 
particular  cases  all  the  Indian  nations  mentioned  in  the 
foregoing  are  governed  almost  altogether  by  the  advice 
of  their  chiefs  and  the  fear  of  punishment  from  the  evil 
spirit  not  only  in  this,  but  in  the  other  world.  The  only 
instances  wherein  I  have  ever  known  any  laws  enforced 
or  penalties  exacted  for  a  disobedience  of  them  by  the 
Sauks  and  Foxes,  are  when  they  are  returning  in  the 
spring  from  their  hunting  grounds  to  their  village.  The 
village  chiefs  then  advise  the  war  chiefs  to  declare  the 
martial  law  to  be  in  force,  which  is  soon  proclaimed  and 
the  whole  authority  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  war 
chiefs.52  Their  principal  object  in  so  doing  appears  to 

52  "Among  the  North  American  Indians  a  chief  may  be  generally  defined 
as  a  political  officer  whose  distinctive  functions  are  to  execute  the  ascertained 
will  of  a  definite  group  of  persons  united  by  the  possession  of  a  common  terri- 
tory or  range  and  of  certain  exclusive  rights,  immunities,  and  obligations,  and 
to  conserve  their  customs,  traditions,  and  religion.  He  exercises  legislative, 
judicative,  and  executive  powers  delegated  to  him  in  accordance  with  custom 
for  the  conservation  and  promotion  of  the  public  weal.  The  wandering  band 
of  men  with  their  women  and  children  contains  the  simplest  type  of  chief- 
taincy found  among  the  American  Indians,  for  such  a  group  has  no  perma- 
nently fixed  territorial  limits,  and  no  definite  social  and  political  relations  exist 
between  it  and  any  other  body  of  persons.  The  clan  or  gens  embraces  several 
such  chieftaincies,  and  has  a  more  highly  developed  internal  political  structure 
with  definite  land  boundaries.  The  tribe  is  constituted  of  several  clans  or 
gentes  and  the  confederation  of  several  tribes."  In  the  course  of  social  pro- 
gress and  the  advance  of  political  organization,  multiplied  and  diversified 
functions  also  required  various  kinds  and  grades  of  officials,  or  chiefs;  there 
were  civil  and  war  chiefs,  and  the  latter  might  be  permanent  or  temporary,  the 
former  existing  where  the  civil  structure  was  permanent,  as  among  the  Iro- 
quois.  "Where  the  civil  organization  was  of  the  simplest  character  the 
authority  of  the  chiefs  was  most  nearly  despotic;  even  in  some  instances  where 


be  to  prevent  one  family  from  returning  before  another 
whereby  it  might  be  exposed  to  an  enemy ;  or  by  arriving 
at  the  village  before  the  others,  dig  up  its  neighbours' 
corn.  It  is  the  businefs  of  the  war  chiefs  in  these  cases 
to  keep  all  the  canoes  together;  and  on  land  to  regulate 
the  march  of  those  who  are  mounted  or  on  foot.  One  of 
the  chiefs  goes  ahead  to  pitch  upon  the  encamping 
ground  for  each  night,  where  he  will  set  up  a  painted 
pole  or  stake  as  a  signal  for  them  to  halt;  any  Indian 
going  beyond  this  is  punished,  by  having  his  canoe,  and 
whatever  else  he  may  have  along  with  him,  destroyed. 
On  their  arrival  at  their  respective  villages,  sentinels  are 
posted,  and  no  one  is  allowed  to  leave  his  village  until 
every  thing  is  put  in  order;  when  this  is  accomplished 
the  martial  law  ceases  to  be  in  force.  A  great  deal  of 
pains  appears  to  be  taken  by  the  chiefs  and  principal 
men  to  imprefs  upon  the  minds  of  the  younger  part  of 
their  respective  nations  what  they  conceive  to  be  their 
duty  to  themselves  and  to  each  other.  As  soon  as  day 
light  appears  it  is  a  practice  among  the  Sauks  and  Foxes 
for  a  chief  or  principal  man  to  go  through  their  respec- 
tive villages,  exhorting  and  advising  them,  in  a  very  loud 
voice,  what  to  do,  and  how  to  conduct  themselves.  Their 
families  in  general  appear  to  be  well  regulated,  all  the 
laborious  duties  of  the  lodge,  and  of  the  field,  however, 
are  put  upon  the  women,  except  what  little  afsistance  the 
old  men  are  able  to  afford.  The  children  appear  to  be 
particularly  under  the  charge  of  their  mother;  the  boys 
until  they  are  of  a  suitable  age  to  handle  the  bow  or  gun. 

the  civil  structure  was  complex,  as  among  the  Natchez,  the  rule  of  the  chiefs 
at  times  became  in  a  measure  tyrannical,  but  this  was  due  largely  to  the  recog- 
nition of  social  castes  and  the  domination  of  certain  religious  beliefs  and  con- 
siderations. The  chieftainship  was  usually  hereditary  in  certain  families  of 
the  community,  although  in  some  communities  any  person  by  virtue  of  the 
acquisition  of  wealth  could  proclaim  himself  a  chief.  Descent  of  blood,  prop- 
erty, and  official  titles  were  generally  traced  through  the  mother." 

-J.  N.  B.  HEWITT,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          165 

Corporal  punishment  is  seldom  resorted  to  for  their  cor- 
rection ;  if  they  commit  any  fault,  it  is  common  for  their 
mother  to  black  their  faces,  and  send  them  out  of  the 
lodge,  when  this  is  done  they  are  not  allowed  to  eat  until 
it  is  washed  off ;  sometimes  they  are  kept  a  whole  day  in 
this  situation  as  a  punishment  for  their  misconduct. 

When  the  boys  are  six  or  seven  years  of  age  a  small 
bow  is  put  into  their  hands  and  they  are  sent  out  to  hunt 
birds  about  the  lodge  or  village ;  this  they  continue  to 
do  for  five  or  six  years,  when  their  father  purchases  them 
shot  guns,  and  they  begin  to  hunt  ducks,  geese,  etc. 
Their  father  (particularly  in  winter  evenings)  will  re- 
late to  them  the  manner  of  approaching  a  Deer,  Elk,  or 
Buffaloe,  also  the  manner  of  setting  a  trap,  and  when 
able,  he  will  take  them  a  hunting  with  him,  and  show 
them  the  tracks  of  different  animals,  all  of  which  the  boy 
pays  the  greatest  attention  to. 

The  girls  as  a  matter  of  course  are  under  the  direction 
of  their  mother,  and  she  will  show  them  how  to  make 
moggazins,  leggins,  mats,  etc.  She  is  very  particular  to 
keep  them  continually  employed,  so  that  they  may  have 
the  reputation  of  being  industrious  girls,  and  therefore 
the  more  acceptable  or  more  sought  after  by  the  young 

Most  of  the  Indians  marry  early  in  life,  the  men  from 
sixteen  to  twenty  generally,  and  the  girls  from  fourteen 
to  eighteen.  There  appears  to  be  but  little  difficulty  in 
a  young  Indians  procuring  himself  a  wife,  particularly 
if  he  is  a  good  hunter,  or  has  distinguished  himself  in 
battle.  There  are  several  ways  for  a  young  Indian  to 
get  himself  a  wife;  sometimes  the  match  is  made  by  the 
parents  of  the  young  man  and  girl  without  his  knowl- 
edge, but  the  most  common  mode  of  procuring  a  wife 
is  as  follows: 

A  young  man  will  see  a  young  woman  that  he  takes  a 


fancy  to;  he  will  commence  by  making  a  friend  of 
some  young  man,  a  relation  of  hers  (perhaps  her 
brother)  ;  after  this  is  done  he  will  disclose  his  inten- 
tions to  his  friend,  saying,  that  he  is  a  good  hunter  and 
has  been  several  times  to  war,  etc.,  appealing  to  him  for 
the  truth  of  his  assertions,  and  conclude  by  saying,  if 
your  parents  will  let  me  have  your  sister  for  a  wife  I 
will  serve  them  faithfully,  that  is  to  say,  according  to 
custom,  which  is  until  she  has  a  child;  after  which  he 
can  take  her  away  to  his  own  relations  or  live  with  his 
wife's.  During  the  servitude  of  a  young  Indian  neither 
he  nor  his  wife  has  any  thing  at  their  disposal,  he  is  to 
hunt,  and  that  in  the  most  industrious  manner,  his  wife 
is  continually  at  work,  dressing  skins, 53  making  mats, 
planting  corn,  etc.  The  foregoing  modes  of  procuring 

53  "In  the  domestic  economy  of  the  Indian  skins  were  his  most  valued  and 
useful  property,  as  they  became  later  his  principal  trading  asset;  and  a  mere 
list  of  the  articles  made  of  this  material  would  embrace  nearly  half  his  earthly 
possessions.  Every  kind  of  skin  large  enough  to  be  stripped  from  the  carcass 
of  beast,  bird,  or  fish  was  used  in  some  tribe  or  other,  but  those  in  most  general 
use  were  those  of  the  buffalo,  elk,  deer,  antelope,  beaver"  [in  the  region  covered 
in  the  present  book].  Among  the  chief  articles  made  from  skins  were  tipis, 
boxes,  bed-covers,  pouches,  and  bags,  blankets,  harness  for  animals,  the  boats 
used  by  the  upper  Missouri  tribes,  clothing  of  all  kinds,  shields,  cradles,  fishing 
lines  and  nets.  "The  methods  employed  for  dressing  skins  were  very  much  the 
same  everywhere  north  of  Mexico,  the  difference  being  chiefly  in  the  chemicals 
used  and  the  amount  of  labor  given  to  the  task.  Among  the  plains  tribes,  with 
which  the  art  is  still  in  constant  practice  nearly  according  to  the  ancient 
method,  the  process  consists  of  six  principal  stages,  viz,  fleshing,  scraping, 
braining  [anointing  the  skin  with  a  mixture  of  cooked  brains,  etc.],  stripping, 
graining,  and  working,  for  each  of  which  a  different  tool  is  required.  .  .  Ac- 
cording to  Schoolcraft  (Narr.  Jour.,  323;  1821)  the  eastern  Sioux  dressed  their 
buffalo  skins  with  a  decoction  of  oak  bark,  which  he  surmises  may  have  been 
an  idea  borrowed  from  the  whites."  Various  kinds  of  skins,  and  those  for 
special  purposes,  receive  special  kinds  of  treatment,  according  to  varying  cir- 
cumstances. "It  is  doubtful  if  skin  dyeing  was  commonly  practiced  in  former 
times,  although  every  tribe  had  some  method  of  skin  painting.  The  process  as 
described  in  practice  by  the  plains  tribes  refers  more  particularly  to  the  north- 
ern and  western  tribes  of  the  United  States;  those  dwelling  south  of  the  Al- 
gonquian  tribes,  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Atlantic,  had  a  somewhat  different 
method.  This  is  described,  as  seen  among  the  Choctaw."  —  JAMES  MOONEY,  in 
Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          167 

a  wife  apply  particularly  to  the  Sauk,  Fox,  and  Kicka- 
poo  nations ;  with  the  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  and  Potta- 
wattamies, a  wife  is  sometimes  purchased  by  the  parents 
of  the  young  man,  when  she  becomes  at  once  his  own 
property;  but  the  most  common  mode  of  procuring  a 
wife  in  all  these  nations  is  by  servitude.  It  frequently 
happens  that  when  an  Indians  servitude  for  one  wife  has 
expired  he  will  take  another  (his  wife's  sister  perhaps) 
and  again  serve  her  parents  according  to  custom.  Many 
of  these  Indians  have  two  or  three  wives,  the  greatest 
number  that  I  have  known  any  man  to  have  at  one  time 
was  five.  When  an  Indian  wants  more  than  one  wife, 
he  generally  prefers  that  they  should  be  sisters,  as  they 
are  more  likely  to  agree  and  live  together  peaceable.  An 
old  man  of  fifty  or  sixty  will  frequently  marry  a  girl  of 
sixteen  and  who  already  has  two  or  three  wives.  It 
seldom  happens  that  a  man  separates  from  his  wife,  it 
sometimes  does  however  happen,  and  then  she  is  at 
liberty  to  marry  again.  The  crime  of  adultery  is  gen- 
erally punished  by  the  Pottawattamies,  by  the  husband's 
biting  off  the  woman's  nose  and  afterwards  separating 
from  her. 

There  appears  to  be  no  marriage  ceremony  among 
these  Indians  at  the  present  day. 

The  Pottawattamies  have  a  ceremony  in  naming  their 
children ; 54  which  is  generally  performed  when  they  are 
about  a  month  old;  it  is  as  follows.  The  parents  of  the 

54  "Among  the  Indians  personal  names  were  given  and  changed  at  the 
critical  epochs  of  life,  such  as  birth,  puberty,  the  first  war  expedition,  some 
notable  feat,  elevation  to  chieftainship,  and,  finally,  retirement  from  active 
life  was  marked  by  the  adoption  of  the  name  of  one's  son.  In  general,  names 
may  be  divided  into  two  classes:  (i)  True  names,  corresponding  to  our  per- 
sonal names;  and  (2)  names  which  answer  rather  to  our  titles  and  honorary 
appellations.  The  former  define  or  indicate  the  social  group  into  which  a  man 
is  born,  whatever  honor  they  entail  being  due  to  the  accomplishments  of  an- 
cestors, while  the  latter  mark  what  the  individual  has  done  himself.  There  are 
characteristic  tribal  differences  in  names,  and  where  a  clan  system  existed  each 


child  invite  some  old  and  respectable  man  to  their  lodge 
in  the  evening,  and  inform  him,  that  they  wish  him  to 
name  their  child  the  day  following.  The  old  man  then 
engages  two  or  more  young  men  to  come  to  the  lodge 
early  in  the  next  morning  to  cook  a  feast;  this  feast 
must  be  cooked  by  young  men  in  a  lodge  by  themselves, 
no  other  person  is  permitted  to  enter  until  it  is  ready  for 
the  guests  who  are  then  and  not  before  invited.  After 
the  feast  is  over  the  old  man  then  rises  and  informs  the 
company  the  object  of  their  being  together,  and  gives 
the  child  its  name,  and  then  goes  on  to  make  a  long 
speech,  by  saying,  that  he  hopes  the  Great  Spirit  will 
preserve  the  life  of  the  child,  make  a  good  hunter  and 
a  succefsful  warrior,  etc.  With  the  Sauks,  Foxes,  and 
Kickapoos  this  ceremony  is  not  always  attended  to ;  they 
however,  in  common  with  the  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  and 
Pottawattamies,  have  a  great  number  of  feasts.  They 
all  make  a  feast  of  the  first  Dear,  Bear,  Elk,  Buffaloe, 

clan  had  its  own  set  of  names,  distinct  from  those  of  all  other  clans,  and,  in  the 
majority  of  cases,  referring  to  the  totem  animal,  plant,  or  object.  At  the 
same  time  there  were  tribes  in  which  names  apparently  had  nothing  to  do  with 
totems,  and  some  such  names  are  apt  to  occur  in  clans  having  totemic 
names.  .  .  Names  of  men  and  women  were  usually,  though  not  always, 
different.  When  not  taken  from  the  totem  animal,  they  were  often  grandilo- 
quent terms  referring  to  the  greatness  and  wealth  of  the  bearer,  or  they  might 
commemorate  some  special  triumph  of  the  family,  while,  as  among  the  Navaho, 
nicknames  referring  to  a  personal  characteristic  were  often  used.  .  .  Often 
names  were  ironical,  and  had  to  be  interpreted  in  a  manner  directly  opposite 
to  the  apparent  sense.  .  .  Names  could  often  be  loaned,  pawned,  or  even 
given  or  thrown  away  outright;  on  the  other  hand,  they  might  be  adopted  out 
of  revenge  without  the  consent  of  the  owner.  The  possession  of  a  name  was 
everywhere  jealously  guarded,  and  it  was  considered  discourteous  or  even  in- 
sulting to  address  one  directly  by  it.  This  reticence,  on  the  part  of  some 
Indians  at  least,  appears  to  have  been  due  to  the  fact  that  every  man,  and 
every  thing  as  well,  was  supposed  to  have  a  real  name  which  so  perfectly 
expressed  his  inmost  nature  as  to  be  practically  identical  with  him.  This  name 
might  long  remain  unknown  to  all,  even  to  its  owner,  but  at  some  critical 
period  in  life  it  was  confidentially  revealed  to  him.  .  .  In  recent  years  the 
Office  of  Indian  Affairs  has  made  an  effort  to  systematize  the  names  of  some 
of  the  Indians  for  the  purpose  of  facilitating  land  allotments,  etc." 

—  JOHN  R.  SWANTON,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          169 

etc.,  a  young  man  kills;  even  the  first  small  bird,  that  a 
boy  kills,  is  preserved  and  makes  a  part  of  the  next  feast. 
There  appears  to  be  a  great  deal  of  secrecy  and  cere- 
mony in  preparing  these  feasts. 

Other  feasts  to  the  Great  Spirit  are  frequently  made 
by  these  Indians,  sometimes  by  one  person  alone;  but  it 
is  oftener  the  case,  that  several  join  in  making  them. 
They  repair  to  the  lodge  where  the  feast  is  to  be  made, 
shut  themselves  up,  and  commence  beating  the  drum, 
shaking  the  che-che-quon  (a  gourd  shell  with  a  handful 
of  corn  in  it),55  singing  and  smoking;  this  is  alternately 
continued  during  the  whole  time  that  the  feast  is  pre- 
paring, which  generally  continues  from  twelve  to 
eighteen  hours.  When  everything  is  in  readinefs  the 
guests  are  invited  by  sending  to  each  a  small  stick  or 
reed;  as  soon  as  they  arrive,  they  seat  themselves  in  a 
circle  on  the  ground  in  the  middle  of  the  lodge,  when 
one  of  the  guests  places  before  each  person  a  wooden 
bowl  with  his  proportion  of  the  feast,  and  they  imme- 

55  The  rattle  is  "an  instrument  for  producing  rhythmic  sound,  used  by  all 
Indian  tribes  except  the  Eskimo.  It  was  generally  regarded  as  a  sacred  ob- 
ject, not  to  be  brought  forth  on  ordinary  occasions,  but  confined  to  rituals, 
religious  feasts,  shamanistic  performances,  etc.  This  character  is  emphasized 
in  the  sign  language  of  the  plains,  where  the  sign  for  rattle  is  the  basis  of  all 
signs  indicating  that  which  is  sacred.  Early  in  the  i6th  century  Esfevan,  the 
negro  companion  of  Cabeza  de  Vaca,  traversed  with  perfect  immunity  great 
stretches  of  country  occupied  by  numerous  different  tribes,  bearing  a  cross  in 
one  hand,  and  a  gourd  rattle  in  the  other.  .  .  Rattles  may  be  divided  into 
two  general  classes,  those  in  which  objects  of  approximately  equal  size  are 
struck  together,  and  those  in  which  small  objects,  such  as  pebbles,  quartz  crys- 
tals, or  seeds,  are  inclosed  in  a  hollow  receptacle.  The  first  embraces  rattles 
made  of  animal  hoofs  or  dewclaws,  bird  beaks,  shells,  pods,  etc.  These  were 
held  in  the  hand,  fastened  to  blankets,  belts,  or  leggings,  or  made  into  neck- 
laces or  anklets  so  as  to  make  a  noise  when  the  wearer  moved.  .  .  The 
second  type  of  rattle  was  made  of  a  gourd,  of  the  entire  shell  of  a  tortoise,  of 
pieces  of  rawhide  sewed  together,  or,  as  on  the  N.W.  coast,  of  wood.  It  was 
usually  decorated  with  paintings,  carvings,  or  feathers  and  pendants,  very 
often  having  a  symbolic  meaning.  The  performer,  besides  shaking  these  rattles 
with  the  hand,  sometimes  struck  them  against  an  object."  —  JOHN  R.  SWANTON, 
in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


diately  commence  eating.  When  each  man's  proportion 
is  eaten,  the  bones  are  all  collected  and  put  into  a  bowl 
and  afterwards  thrown  into  the  river  or  burnt. 56  The 
whole  of  the  feast  must  be  eaten ;  in  case  a  man  can  not 
eat  his  part  of  it  he  pafses  his  dish  with  a  piece  of  to- 
bacco to  his  neighbor  and  he  eats  it  and  the  guests  then 
retire.  Those  who  make  a  feast  never  eat  any  part  of 
it  themselves,  they  say,  they  give  their  part  of  it  to  the 
Great  Spirit,  they  always  have  some  consecrated  tobac- 
co, which  they  afterwards  bury,  and  then  the  feast  is 
concluded.  The  women  of  these  nations  are  very  par- 
ticular to  remove  from  their  lodges,  to  one  erected  for 
that  particular  purpose,  when  their  menstrual  term  ap- 
proaches;57 no  article  of  furniture  that  is  used  in  this 

56  Cf.  allusions  to  the  superstitious  burning  of  bones,  in  Jesuit  Relations, 
vol.  ix,  299,  vol.  xx,  199,  vol.  xli,  301,  303   (and  others,  for  which  see  Index, 
vol.  Ixxii,   323).    This  belief  is  thus  explained  by  Brinton    (Myths  of  New 
World,   first  edition,   257-261) :     "The  opinion  underlying  all  these    [burial] 
customs  was,  that  a  part  of  the  soul,  or  one  of  the  souls,  dwelt  in  the  bones; 
that  these  were  the  seeds,  which,  planted  in  the  earth,  or  preserved  unbroken 
in  safe  places,  would  in  time  put  on  once  again  a  garb  of  flesh,  and  germinate 
into   living  human  beings.     .    .     Even  the  lower  animals  were  supposed  to 
follow  the  same  law.     Hardly  any  of  the  hunting  tribes,  before  their  original 
manners  were  vitiated  by  foreign  influence,  permitted  the  bones  of  game  slain 
in  the  chase  to  be  broken,  or  left  carelessly  about  the  encampment.     They  were 
collected  in  heaps,  or  thrown  into  the  water."    Also  (144,  145) :     "As  the  path 
to  a  higher  life  hereafter,  the  burning  of  the  dead  was  first  instituted.     .     . 
Those  of  Nicaragua  seemed  to  think  it  the  sole  path  to  immortality,  holding 
that  only  such  as  offered  themselves  on  the  pyre  of  their  chieftain  would  escape 
annihilation  at  death;  and  the  tribes  of  upper  California  were  persuaded  that 
such  as  were  not  burned  to  death  were  liable  to  be  transformed  into  the  lower 
orders  of  brutes."    See  also  Long's  Expedition  (Phila.,  1823),  vol.  i,  278.  —  ED. 

57  For  this  clause  is  substituted  in  Morse's  Report,  obviously  by  that  learned 
doctor,  the  following  words,  "at  such  seasons  as  were  customarily  observed  by 
Jewish  women,  according  to  the  law  of  Moses."    For  further  mention  of  this 
seclusion  of  women,  and  superstitions  connected  with  it,  see  Jesuit  Relations, 
vol.  iii,  105,  vol.  ix,  123,  308,  309,  vol.  xiii,  261 ;  also  Report  of  Bureau  of 
Amer.  Ethnology,  1881-1882,  263,  267,  and  1892-1893,  175.    The  same  custom 
was  connected  with  childbirth;   see  Report  of  1883-1884,  497;   of  1884-1885, 
610;  and  1887-1888,  415.  -  ED. 

This  was  a  form  of  taboo,  "a  Polynesian  term  (tabu]  applied  to  a  sacred 
interdiction  proper  to  or  laid  upon  a  person,  place,  day,  name,  or  any  conceiv- 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          171 

lodge  is  ever  used  in  any  other,  not  even  the  steel  and 
flint  with  which  they  strike  fire.  No  Indian  ever  ap- 
proaches this  lodge  while  a  woman  occupies  it,  and 

able  thing  which  is  thereby  rendered  sacred  and  communication  with  it  except 
to  a  few  people  or  under  certain  circumstances  forbidden.  It  was  formerly 
such  a  striking  institution,  and  was  in  consequence  so  frequently  mentioned  by 
explorers  and  travelers,  that  the  word  has  been  adopted  into  English  both  as 
applying  to  similar  customs  among  other  races  and  in  a  colloquial  sense.  Its 
negative  side,  being  the  more  conspicuous,  became  that  attached  to  the  adopted 
term;  but  religious  prohibitions  among  primitive  races  being  closely  bound  up 
with  others  of  a  positive  character,  it  is  often  applied  to  the  latter  as  well ;  and 
writers  frequently  speak  of  the  taboos  connected  with  the  killing  of  a  bear  or 
a  bison,  or  the  taking  of  a  salmon,  meaning  thereby  the  ceremonies  then  per- 
formed, both  positive  and  negative.  In  colloquial  English  usage,  it  has 
ceased  to  have  any  religious  significance.  Whether  considered  in  its  negative 
or  in  its  positive  aspect  this  term  may  be  applied  in  North  America  to  a  num- 
ber of  regulations  observed  at  definite  periods  of  life,  in  connection  with  im- 
portant undertakings,  and  either  by  individuals  or  by  considerable  numbers  of 
persons.  Such  were  the  regulations  observed  by  boys  and  girls  at  puberty;  by 
parents  before  the  birth  of  a  child;  by  relatives  after  the  decease  of  a  relative; 
by  hunters  and  fishermen  in  the  pursuit  of  their  occupations;  by  boys  desiring 
guardian  spirits  or  wishing  to  become  shamans;  by  shamans  and  chiefs  desiring 
more  power,  or  when  curing  the  sick,  prophesying,  endeavoring  to  procure  food 
by  supernatural  means,  or  'showing  their  power'  in  any  manner;  by  novitiates 
into  secret  societies,  and  by  leaders  in  society  or  tribal  dances  in  preparation 
for  them.  .  .  In  tribes  divided  into  totemic  clans  or  gentes  each  individual 
was  often  called  upon  to  observe  certain  regulations  in  regard  to  his  totem 
animal,"  which  sometimes  took  the  form  of  an  absolute  prohibition  against 
killing  that  animal ;  "but  at  other  times  it  merely  involved  an  apology  to  the 
animal  or  abstinence  from  eating  certain  parts  of  it.  The  negative  prohi- 
bitions, those  which  may  be  called  the  taboos  proper,  consisted  in  abstinence 
from  hunting,  fishing,  war,  women,  sleep,  certain  kinds  of  work,  etc.,  but 
above  all  abstinence  from  eating;  while  among  positive  accompaniments  may 
be  mentioned  washing,  sweat-bathing,  flagellation,  and  the  taking  of  emetics 
and  other  medicines.  In  the  majority  of  American  tribes,  the  name  of  a  dead 
man  was  not  uttered  —  unless  in  some  altered  form  — for  a  considerable  period 
after  his  demise;  and  sometimes,  as  among  the  Kiowa,  the  custom  was  carried 
so  far  that  names  of  common  animals  or  other  terms  in  current  use  were  en- 
tirely dropped  from  the  language  because  of  the  death  of  a  person  bearing  such 
a  name.  Frequently  it  was  considered  improper  for  a  man  to  mention  his  own 
name,  and  the  mention  of  the  personal  name  was  avoided  by  wives  and  hus- 
bands in  addressing  each  other,  and  sometimes  by  other  relatives  as  well.  But 
the  most  common  regulation  of  this  kind  was  that  which  decreed  that  a  man 
should  not  address  his  mother-in-law  directly,  or  vice  versa;  and  the  prohi- 
bition of  intercourse  often  applied  to  fathers-in-law  and  daughters-in-law 
also."  Anything  desired  or  feared  by  man  might  occasion  these  prohibitions  or 


should  a  white  man  approach  it  and  wish  to  light  his 
pipe  by  the  fire  of  a  woman  while  in  this  situation,  she 
will  not  allow  him  by  any  means  to  do  so,  saying,  that 
it  will  make  his  nose  bleed  and  his  head  ache ;  that  it 
will  make  him  sick. 

When  an  Indian  dies,  his  relations  put  on  him  his  best 

regulations;  misfortunes  might  result  from  their  non-fulfilment,  or  they  might 
bring  good  fortune  — more  or  less  as  the  regulation  was  more  or  less  strictly 
observed.  The  taboo  "is  one  aspect  of  religious  phenomena  known  by  many 
other  names ;  and,  at  least  among  the  lower  races,  is  almost  as  broad  as  religion 

"The  significance  of  a  girl's  entrance  into  womanhood  was  not  only  appre- 
ciated by  all  American  tribes,  but  its  importance  was  much  exaggerated.  It 
was  believed  that  whatever  she  did  or  experienced  then  was  bound  to  affect 
her  entire  subsequent  life,  and  that  she  had  exceptional  power  over  all  persons 
or  things  that  came  near  her  at  that  period.  For  this  reason  she  was  usually 
carefully  set  apart  from  other  people  in  a  small  lodge  in  the  woods,  in  a 
separate  room,  or  behind  some  screen.  There  she  remained  for  a  period  vary- 
ing from  a  few  days,  preferably  four,  to  a  year  or  even  longer -the  longer 
isolation  being  endured  by  girls  of  wealthy  or  aristocratic  families— and  pre- 
pared her  own  food  or  had  it  brought  to  her  by  her  mother  or  some  old 
woman,  the  only  person  with  whom  she  had  anything  to  do.  Her  dishes, 
spoons,  and  other  articles  were  kept  separate  from  all  others,  and  had  to  be 
washed  thoroughly  before  they  could  be  used  again,  or,  as  with  the  Iroquois,  an 
entirely  new  set  was  provided  for  her.  For  a  long  period  she  ate  sparingly 
and  took  but  little  water,  while  she  bathed  often.  Salt  especially  was  tabooed 
by  the  girl  at  this  period."  Many  other  taboos  were  in  vogue,  among  the  dif- 
ferent tribes,  and  the  girl  was  made  the  subject  of  various  ceremonies  peculiar 
to  this  period  of  her  life;  and  many  superstitions  regarding  her  and  her  con- 
dition were  current  among  the  savages.  "The  whole  period  of  isolation  and 
fast  usually  ended  with  a  feast  and  public  ceremonies  as  a  sign  that  the  girl 
was  now  marriageable  and  that  the  family  was  now  open  to  offers  for  her 
hand.  .  .  Although  not  so  definitely  connected  with  the  puberty,  certain 
ordeals  were  undergone  by  a  boy  at  about  that  period  which  were  supposed 
to  have  a  deep  influence  on  his  future  career.  Among  these  are  especially 
to  be  noted  isolation  and  fasts  among  the  mountains  and  woods,  sweat  bathing 
and  plunging  into  cold  water,  abstinence  from  animal  food,  the  swallowing  of 
medicines  sometimes  of  intoxicating  quality,  and  the  rubbing  of  the  body  with 
fish  spines  and  with  herbs.  As  in  the  case  of  the  girl,  numbers  of  regulations 
were  observed  which  were  supposed  to  affect  the  boy's  future  health,  happi- 
ness, and  success  in  hunting,  fishing,  and  war.  .  .  The  regulations  of  a  boy 
were  frequently  undergone  in  connection  with  ceremonies  introducing  him 
into  the  mysteries  of  the  tribe  or  of  some  secret  society.  They  were  not  as 
widespread  in  North  America  as  the  regulations  imposed  upon  girls,  and  varied 
more  from  tribe  to  tribe.  It  has  also  been  noticed  that  they  break  down  sooner 
before  contact  with  whites."  —  JOHN  R.  SWANTON,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          173 

clothes,  and  either  bury  him  in  the  ground  or  put  him  on 
a  scaffold ;  but  the  former  is  the  most  common  mode  of 
disposing  of  the  dead.  As  soon  as  an  Indian  dies  his 
relations  engage  three  or  four  persons  to  bury  the  body; 
they  usually  make  a  rough  coffin  of  a  piece  of  a  canoe 
or  some  bark,  the  body  is  then  taken  to  the  grave  in  a 
blanket  or  buffaloe  skin,  and  placed  in  the  coffin,  to- 
gether with  a  hatchet,  knife,  etc.,  and  then  covered  over 
with  earth.  Some  of  the  near  relations  usually  follow 
the  corps;  the  women  on  these  occasions  appear  to  be 
much  affected.  If  the  deceased  was  a  warrior,  a  post 
is  usually  erected  at  his  head,  on  which  is  painted  red 
crofses  of  different  sizes,  to  denote  the  number  of  men, 
women,  and  children  he  has  killed  of  the  enemy  during 
his  life  time,  and  which  they  say  he  will  claim  as  his 
slaves  now  that  he  has  gone  to  the  other  world.  It  is 
frequently  the  case  that  some  of  his  friends  will  strike 
a  post,  or  tree,  and  say  I  will  speak;  he  then  in  a  loud 
voice  will  say  at  such  a  place  I  killed  an  enemy,  I  give 
his  spirit  to  our  departed  friend;  and  sometimes  he  may 
give  a  greater  number  in  the  same  manner.  The  friends 
of  the  deceased  will  afterwards  frequently  take  victuals, 
.tobacco,  etc.,  to  his  grave  and  there  leave  it,  believing 
that  whatever  they  present  to  him  in  this  manner,  he 
will  have  in  the  other  world. 

An  Indian  always  mourns  for  the  lofs  of  near  relations 
from  six  to  twelve  months,  by  neglecting  his  personal 
appearance,  blacking  his  face,  etc.  A  woman  will 
mourn  for  the  lofs  of  a  husband,  at  least  twelve  months, 
during  which  time  she  appears  to  be  very  solitary  and 
sad,  never  speaking  to  any  one  unlefs  necefsary,  and  al- 
ways wishing  to  be  alone;  at  the  expiration  of  their 
mourning  she  will  paint  and  drefs  as  formerly,  and  en- 
deaver  to  get  another  husband. 

The  belief  of  these  Indians  relative  to  their  creation 


is  not  very  dissimilar  to  our  own.  Masco,  one  of  the 
chiefs  of  the  Sauks  informed  me  that  they  believed,  that 
the  Great  Spirit  in  the  first  place  created  from  the  dirt 
of  the  earth  two  men ;  but  finding  that  these  alone  would 
not  answer  his  purpose,  he  took  from  each  man  a  rib 
and  made  two  women,  from  these  four  he  says  sprang  all 
red  men;  that  the  place  where  they  were  created  was 
Mo-ne-ac  (Montreal).  That  they  were  all  one  nation 
until  they  behaved  so  badly  that  the  Great  Spirit  came 
among  them,  and  talked  different  languages  to  them, 
which  caused  them  to  separate,  and  form  different  na- 
tions :  he  said  that  it  was  at  this  place  that  Indians  first 
saw  white  men,  that  they  then  thought  they  were  spirits. 
I  asked  him  how  they  supposed  white  men  were  made ; 
he  replyed  that  Indians  supposed  the  Great  Spirit  made 
them  of  the  fine  dust  of  the  earth  as  they  knew  more  than 
they  did.  They  appear  to  entertain  a  variety  of  opin- 
ions with  regard  to  a  future  state;  a  Fox  Indian  told  me 
that  their  people  generally  believed  that  as  soon  as  an 
Indian  left  this  world,  he  commenced  his  journey  for 
the  habitation  provided  for  him  by  the  Great  Spirit  in 
the  other  world;  that  those  who  had  conducted  them- 
selves well  in  this  life,  met  with  but  little  difficulty  in 
finding  the  road  which  leads  to  it;  but  that  those  who 
had  behaved  badly  always  got  into  the  wrong  road, 
which  was  very  crooked  and  very  difficult  to  travel  in; 
that  they  frequently  met  with  broad  rivers  which  they 
had  to  ford  or  swim ;  and  in  this  manner  they  were  pun- 
ished, until  the  Great  Spirit  thought  proper  to  put  them 
into  the  good  road,  and  then  they  soon  reached  their 
friends,  and  the  country  of  their  future  residence,  where 
all  kinds  of  game  was  plenty,  and  where  they  had  but 
little  to  do,  but  to  dance  by  night,  and  sleep  by  day;  he 
further  observed  that  when  young  children  died  they 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          175 

did  not  at  first  fare  so  well.  That  originally  there  were 
two  Great  Spirits  who  were  brothers,  and  equally  good, 
that  one  of  them  died  and  went  to  another  world  and 
has  ever  since  been  called  Mach-i-Man-i-to  (the  Evil 
Spirit)  that  this  Spirit  has  a  son  who  makes  prisoners 
of  all  the  children  that  die  too  young  to  find  the  good 
path,  and  takes  them  to  his  own  town,  where  they  were 
formerly  deprived  by  him  of  their  brains,  in  order  that 
when  they  grew  up  they  might  not  have  sense  enough  to 
leave  him.  That  the  Good  Spirit  seeing  this,  sent  an 
eagle  to  peck  a  hole  in  the  head  of  every  young  child  as 
soon  as  it  dies  and  makes  its  appearance  in  the  other 
world,  and  to  deprive  it  of  its  brain  and  conceal  the 
same  in  the  ground ;  that  the  child  is  always  immediate- 
ly after  taken  as  a  prisoner  by  the  Evil  Spirit  and  kept 
until  of  a  suitable  age  to  travel,  when  the  eagle  returns 
its  brain;  and  then,  it  having  sense  enough,  immediately 
leaves  the  Bad  Spirit  and  finds  the  good  road. 

Most  of  these  Indians  say  that  their  deceased  friends 
appear  occasionally  to  them  in  the  shape  of  birds  and 
different  kinds  of  beasts.  A  Fox  Indian  observed  one 
morning  last  summer  that  the  spirit  of  a  certain  Indian 
(who  was  buryed  the  day  before)  appeared  last  night 
near  his  grave  in  the  shape  of  a  Turkey,  and  that  he 
heard  the  noise  of  him  almost  all  night.  I  enquired  of 
another  Indian  (quite  an  old  man)  if  any  of  their  people 
had  ever  returned  from  the  dead,  he  replyed,  that  he 
had  heard  of  only  one  or  two  instances  of  the  kind ;  but 
that  he  believed  they  knew  what  they  were  about  in  this 

I  do  not  at  the  present  time  think  of  anything  further 
relative  to  the  history,  manners,  religion  and  customs 
of  the  Indians  worthy  of  notice.  No  part  of  what  I  have 
written  is  taken  from  books,  but  almost  every  thing  has 


been  drawn  from  either  the  Indians  themselves  or  from 
persons  acquainted  with  their  language,  manners,  cus- 
toms, etc.,  on  this  account  I  presume  that  it  will  be  the 
more  acceptable. 

I  will  now  proceed  agreeably  to  your  request  to  give 
you  my  ideas  relative  to  the  Indian  trade,  etc.58 

In  the  first  place  I  have  to  observe,  that  the  Factory 
System  for  supplying  the  Indians  with  such  articles  as 
they  may  need,  does  not  appear  to  me  to  be  productive 
of  any  great  advantage,  either  to  the  savages,  themselves, 
or  to  the  government.  But  very  few,  if  any  of  the  In- 
dians have  sufficient  forecast  to  save  enough  of  the  pro- 
ceeds of  their  last  hunt  to  equip  themselves  for  the  next; 
the  consequence  is,  that  when  the  hunting  season  ap- 
proaches they  must  be  dependant  upon  some  one  for  a 
credit.  An  Indian  family  generally  consists  of  from 
five  to  ten  persons,  his  wife,  children,  children-in-law, 
and  grandchildren,  all  of  whom  look  to  its  head  for 
their  supplies;  and  the  whole  of  the  proceeds  of  the 
hunt  goes  into  one  common  stock,  which  is  disposed  of 
by  him  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole.  When  cold  weather 
approaches  they  are  generally  destitute  of  many  articles, 
which  are  necefsary  for  their  comfort  and  convenience; 
besides  guns,  traps,  and  ammunition;  some  kettles,  blan- 
kets, strouding,  etc.,  are  always  wanting;  for  these 
articles  they  have  no  one  to  look  to  but  the  private 
trader;  as  it  is  well  known  that  the  United  States  Fac- 
tors give  no  credit;  but  even  if  they  did,  the  number  of 
these  establishments  is  too  limited  to  accommodate  any 
considerable  number  of  Indians,  as  but  few  of  them  will 
travel  far  to  get  their  supplies  if  it  can  be  avoided:  and 
farther,  the  Indians  (who  are  good  judges  of  the  quality 
of  the  articles  they  are  in  want  of)  are  of  the  opinion 

58  The  rest  of  Marston's  letter  (except  the  last  two  paragraphs)  was  printed 
by  Morse  on  pages  56-59  of  the  Report.  —  ED. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          177 

that  the  Factor's  goods  are  not  so  cheap,  taking  into  con- 
sideration their  quality,  as  their  private  trader's;  in  this 
I  feel  pretty  well  convinced,  from  my  own  observation, 
and  the  acknowledgment  of  one  of  the  most  respectable 
Factors  of  our  government,  Judge  Johnson,  of  Prairie 
du  Chien,  that  they  are  correct;  this  gentleman  informed 
me  but  a  few  months  ago  that  the  goods  received  for  his 
establishment  were  charged  at  least  25  pc*  higher  than 
their  current  prices,  and  that  he  had  received  many 
articles  of  an  inferior  and  unsuitable  quality  for  Indian 
trade. 59  If  you  speak  to  an  Indian  upon  the  subject  of 
their  great  father,  the  President,  supplying  them  with 
goods  from  his  factories,  he  will  say  at  once  you  are  a 
pash-i-pash-i-to  (a  fool),  our  great  father  is  certainly 
no  trader,  he  has  sent  these  goods  to  be  given  to  us  as 
presents,  but  his  agents  are  endeavoring  to  cheat  us  by 
selling  them  for  our  peltries. 

The  amount  of  goods  actually  disposed  of  by  the 
United  States  Factors  at  Green  Bay,  Chicago,  Prairie 
du  Chien,  and  Fort  Edwards,  if  I  am  rightly  informed 
is  very  inconsiderable.  The  practice  of  selling  goods  to 
the  whites  and  of  furnishing  outfits  to  Indian  traders, 

69  "A  similar  complaint  was  made  by  the  Six  Nations  at  Buffalo  the  last 
August,  when  I  was  present  A  member  of  Congress,  I  was  told,  had  been 
invited  to  inspect  the  goods  and  to  witness  the  fact  of  their  inferiority.  It  was 
asserted  to  me  that  much  better  goods,  and  at  a  less  price  than  those  which 
were  distributed  at  this  time  (an  annuity  payment)  by  the  Indian  agent,  could 
have  been  purchased  at  New  York.  Had  the  amount  due  these  Indians  been 
judiciously  expended  in  that  city,  the  Indians,  it  was  said,  might  have  been 
benefited  by  it,  in  the  quality  of  their  goods,  several  hundred  dollars.  It  was 
added,  that  the  Indians  are  good  judges  of  the  quality  of  goods,  and  know 
when  they  were  well  or  ill  treated.  But  they  had,  in  this  case,  no  means  of 
redress."  —  REV.  J.  MORSE. 

"John  W.  Johnson,  a  native  of  Maryland,  was  United  States  factor  at 
Prairie  du  Chien,  in  1816,  and  afterwards.  In  his  manners,  he  was  a  real 
gentleman,  and  a  very  worthy  man ;  but  unfortunately,  he  was  quite  deaf. 
He  married  a  Sauk  woman,  and  raised  several  children,  and  educated  them; 
and  finally  retired  to  St.  Louis,  wealthy,  where  he  resided  the  last  I  heard  of 
him."  — JOHN  SHAW,  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  x,  222. 


are  the  principal  causes  of  their  sales  being  so  great  as 
they  actually  are. 

In  my  opinion  the  best  plan  of  supplying  the  natives 
is  by  private  American  traders  of  good  character,  if 
they  could  be  placed  under  proper  restrictions. 

In  the  first  place  it  is  for  their  interest  to  please  the 
Indians  and  prevent  their  having  whiskey  (particularly 
when  they  are  on  their  hunting  grounds)  and  to  give 
them  good  advice. 

Secondly.  They  always  give  them  a  credit  sufficient 
to  enable  them  to  commence  hunting. 

Thirdly.  They  winter  near  their  hunting  grounds 
and  agreeably  to  the  suggestion  of  a  late  secretary  of 
war,  take  to  themselves  uhelp  mates"  from  the  daughters 
of  the  forest,  and  thereby  do  much  towards  civilizing 

Fourthly.  They  always  have  comfortable  quarters 
for  the  Indians  when  they  visit  them,  and  by  the  fre- 
quent intercourse  which  subsists  between  them  become 
acquainted  with  us  and  imperceptibly  imbibe  many  of 
our  ideas,  manners,  and  customs. 

Fifthly.  From  interested  motives,  if  from  no  other, 
traders  will  always  advise  the  Indians  to  keep  at  peace 
among  themselves  and  with  the  whites. 

There  are  some  changes  which  I  think  might  be  made 
to  advantage  in  the  regulations  for  Indian  traders.  In 
the  first  place  with  a  view  to  do  away  the  imprefsion 
which  almost  universally  prevails  in  the  minds  of  the 
Indians  in  this  part  of  the  country,  that  the  traders, 
clerks,  interpreters,  boatmen,  and  laborers,  and  also 
their  goods  are  almost  all  British  (which  unfortunately 
happens  to  be  nearly  the  truth,  for  their  is  scarcely  a 
single  boatman  or  laborer  employed  by  the  traders  who 
is  not  a  British  subject,  their  goods  it  is  well  known  are 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          179 

almost  altogether  of  British  manufacture),  I  would 
recommend,  that  no  clerk,  interpreter,  boatman  or  la- 
borer be  employed  by  them  who  is  not  a  citizen  of  the 
United  States;  and  further,  that  every  trader  be  obliged 
to  display  the  American  flag  on  his  boat  when  travel- 
ling, and  at  his  tent  or  hut  when  encamped. 

The  best  and  most  succefsful  means  which  could  be 
employed  by  government  to  civilize  the  Indians  or 
render  them  lefs  savage  than  they  now  are,  in  my  opin- 
ion would  be  for  the  agent  of  each  nation  to  reside  at 
or  near  one  of  their  principal  villages,  there  to  have  a 
comfortable  habitation  and  a  council  room  sufficiently 
large  to  accommodate  all  who  might  wish  to  attend  his 
councils.  To  employ  a  blacksmith  and  a  carpenter, 
and  of  course  have  shops  and  suitable  tools  for  them; 
every  nation  has  a  great  deal  for  a  blacksmith  to  do; 
there  would  probably  be  lefs  for  a  carpenter  to  attend 
to,  but  he  might  be  advantageously  employed  in  mak- 
ing agricultural  implements,  etc.  For  him  to  cultivate 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  village,  with  the  consent  of  the 
nation  a  small  farm  and  to  keep  a  small  stock  of  horses, 
oxen  and  cows.  It  should  be  understood  among  the 
Indians  that  the  farming  establishment  is  solely  for  the 
benefit  of  the  agent,  should  it  be  known  among  them 
that  the  object  was  to  learn  them  to  cultivate  the  soil 
as  the  whites  do,  they  would  most  certainly  object  to  it; 
but  if  this  is  not  known,  they  will  soon  see  the  advan- 
tages of  employing  the  plough,  harrow,  etc.,  and  be 
induced  to  imitate  our  examples;  and  thus  get  on  the 
road  which  leads  to  civilization  before  they  are  aware 
of  it. 

If  an  agent  of  government  should  go  among  them,  as 
has  sometimes  been  the  case,  and  inform  them  that  he 
had  been  sent  by  their  great  father,  the  president,  to 


learn  them  how  to  cultivate  the  soil,  spin,  weave  cloth 
and  live  like  white  people,  they  would  be  sure  to  set 
their  faces  against  him  and  his  advice,  and  say  that  he 
is  a  fool;  that  Indians  are  not  like  white  people,  the 
Great  Spirit  has  not  made  them  of  the  same  color, 
neither  has  he  made  them  for  the  same  occupations. 

The  next  step  towards  their  civilization  would  prob- 
ably be,  that  some  of  their  old  people  would  remain  at 
their  respective  villages,  if  [they]  could  be  afsured  of 
their  being  secure  from  their  enemies,  while  the  others 
are  on  their  hunting  grounds :  thus  they  would  go  on 
from  step  to  step  until  they  would  become  not  only  civi- 
lized beings,  but  Christians. 

I  consider  it  important  that  government  should  ex- 
change as  soon  as  practicable  all  British  flags  and 
medals  which  the  Indians  may  have  in  their  pofsefsion 
for  American  ones. 60  The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  have 
no  American  flags  at  present  and  but  few  American 
medals;  if  you  speak  to  them  of  the  impropriety  of  their 
displaying  British  flags  and  wearing  British  medals, 

60  Presents  of  various  kinds  were  made  by  European  governments,  and  later 
by  that  of  the  United  States,  to  Indian  chiefs  as  rewards  for  loyalty.  These 
were  often  military  weapons,  especially  brass  tomahawks;  also  were  given 
hat- bands,  gorgets,  and  belt- buckles  of  silver,  often  engraved  with  the  royal 
arms,  or  with  emblems  of  peace.  "The  potency  of  the  medal  was  soon 
appreciated  as  a  means  of  retaining  the  Indian's  allegiance,  in  which  it  played 
a  most  important  part.  While  gratifying  the  vanity  of  the  recipient,  it  ap- 
pealed to  him  as  an  emblem  of  fealty  or  of  chieftainship,  and  in  time  had  a 
place  in  the  legends  of  the  tribe.  The  earlier  medals  issued  for  presentation 
to  the  Indians  of  North  America  have  become  extremely  rare  from  various 
causes,  chief  among  which  was  the  change  of  government  under  which  the 
Indian  may  have  been  living,  as  each  government  was  extremely  zealous  in 
searching  out  all  medals  conferred  by  a  previous  one  and  substituting  medals 
of  its  own.  Another  cause  has  been  that  within  recent  years  Indians  took  their 
medals  to  the  nearest  silversmith  to  have  them  converted  into  gorgets  and 
amulets.  After  the  Revolution  the  United  States  replaced  the  English  medals 
with  its  own,  which  led  to  the  establishment  of  a  regular  series  of  Indian  peace 
medals.  Many  of  the  medals  presented  to  the  North  American  Indians  were 
not  dated,  and  in  many  instances  were  struck  for  other  purposes.  Medals  were 
also  given  to  the  Indians  by  the  fur  companies,  and  by  missionaries  (these 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          181 

they  will  reply,  we  have  no  others,  give  us  American 
flags  and  medals  and  you  then  will  see  them  only.  The 
flags  given  to  them  ought  to  be  made  of  silk,  their  Brit- 
ish flags  being  made  of  that  material,  and  besides  they 
are  more  durable  as  well  as  more  portable  than  the 
worsted  ones.  One  of  each  nation  should  be  of  a  large 
size,  for  them  to  display  at  their  villages  on  public  occa- 
sions: they  have  at  present  British  flags  considerably 
larger  than  the  American  Army  standards.  The  prac- 
tice of  painting  these  flags  causes  them  to  break  and  soon 
wear  out,  they  should  be  made  in  the  same  manner  that 
navy  flags  are. 

The  annuities  paid  by  government  to  the  Sauk  and 
Fox  nations61  appears  to  be  a  cause  of  dissatisfaction 

latter  usually  religious  in  character).  — PAUL  E.  BECKWITH,  in  Handbook  Amer. 

The  article  here  cited  contains  a  description,  with  several  illustrations,  of 
the  known  Spanish,  French,  British,  and  United  States  medals  given  to  In- 
dians. —  ED. 

61  In  Morse's  Report  is  a  table,  occupying  pages  376-382,  391,  showing  the 
annuities  paid  (1820-1821)  to  every  tribe  in  the  United  States.  Some  of  these 
were  limited,  but  most  of  them  were  permanent;  a  few  were  granted  to  indi- 
vidual chiefs.  The  total  annual  amount  of  these  payments  was  $154,575, 
representing  a  total  capital  of  $2,876,250.  Among  the  tribes  receiving  them 
are  the  following:  Piankeshaws,  $50x5;  Kaskaskias,  $500;  Six  Nations  (Iro- 
quois),  $4,500;  Sauks,  $600;  Foxes,  $400;  Ottawas,  $4,300;  Chippewas,  $3,800; 
Miamis,  $17,300;  and  to  those  on  Eel  River  $1,100  more;  Pottawatamies, 
$57,666,6623;  Weas,  $3,000;  Kickapoos,  $4,000;  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  and 
Pottawatamies  residing  on  the  Illinois  and  Melwakee  Rivers,  etc.,  $1,000;  the 
remnant  of  the  Illinois  (five  tribes),  $300;  Wyandots,  $5,900,  besides  $825  paid 
to  them  and  to  eastern  tribes  living  with  them.  Besides  these,  a  permanent 
annuity  of  salt  was  paid  to  a  number  of  western  tribes.  Another  table  (pages 
383-390)  gives  an  "estimate  of  the  quantity  of  land  that  has  been  purchased 
from  the  Indians,"  showing  the  amount  sold  by  each  tribe,  with  place  and 
date  of  treaty  therefor,  and  remarks  on  these.  The  total  amount  of  lands  thus 
acquired  (1784-1821)  is  191,998,776  acres,  besides  several  tracts  of  "unknown" 
extent.  In  vol.  ix  of  the  Forsyth  Mss.  is  an  account  by  Forsyth  of  the  original 
causes  of  the  Black  Hawk  War,  in  which  he  relates  the  circumstances  of  the 
alleged  cession  by  the  Sauk  and  Foxes  of  their  lands  by  the  treaty  of  1804  at 
St.  Louis  (an  agreement  which  he  pronounces  worthless,  as  well  as  most 
unjust)  ;  he  thus  mentions  the  annuities  given  them  on  account  of  it:  "When 
the  annuities  were  delivered  to  the  Sauk  and  Fox  nations  of  Indians  according 


among  them,  in  consequence  of  their  not  being  able  to 
divide  and  subdivide  the  articles  received  so  as  to  give 
every  one  a  part.  I  believe  that  powder,  flints,  and  to- 
bacco would  be  much  more  acceptable  to  them  than  the 
blankets,  strouding,  etc.,  which  they  have  been  in  the 
habit  of  receiving. 

I  enclose  a  list  of  ten  nations  of  Indians  who  inhabit 
the  upper  Mifsifsippi  [and]  the  borders  of  the  great 
lakes,  showing  the  names  given  them  by  Europeans  and 
by  each  other.  The  latter  information  I  have  obtained 
principally  from  the  Indians  themselves.62 

I  have  the  honor  to  remain  with  great  respect  your 
Ob'  Ser*  M.  MARSTON,  Bl  Maj.  5  Infy,  Command'g, 
To  the  REV.  Dr  MORSE,  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

to  the  treaty  (amounting  to  $1,000  per  annum)  the  Indians  always  thought 
that  they  were  presents  ( as  the  annuities  of  the  first  twenty  years  were  always 
paid  in  goods,  sent  on  from  George  Town  District  of  Columbia  and  poor  sort 
of  merchandise  they  were  [see  note  289],  very  often  damaged,  and  not  suitable 
for  Indians)  until  I  as  their  agent  convinced  them  to  the  contrary  in  the 
summer  of  1818.  When  the  Indians  heard  that  the  goods  were  delivered  to 
them  as  annuities,  for  lands  sold  by  them  to  the  United  States,  they  were 
astonished,  and  refused  to  accept  the  goods,  denying  that  they  ever  sold  the 
land  as  stated  by  me."  -  ED. 

62  This  list  is  found  in  vol.  ii  of  the  Forsyth  Papers  in  the  Draper  Col- 
lection (pressmark  "2,T") ;  by  some  oversight  in  arranging  the  documents  for 
binding,  it  was  separated  from  Marston's  letter  to  Morse,  which  is  found  in 
vol.  i.  The  list  of  tribes  is  printed  in  the  Report,  397.  -  ED. 

An  account  of  the  Manners  and  Customs  of 

the  Sauk  and  Fox  Nations  of 

Indians  Tradition 

The  original  and  present  name  of  the  Sauk  Indians, 
proceeds  from  the  compound  word  Sakie  alias,  A-saw- 
we-kee  literally  Yellow  Earth. 

The  Fox  Indians  call  themselves  Mefs-qua-kee  alias 
Mefs-qua-we-kee  literally  Red  Earth,  thus  it  is  natural 
to  suppose,  that  those  two  nations  of  Indians  were  once 
one  people,  or  part  of  some  great  nation  of  Indians,  and 
were  called  after  some  place  or  places  where  they  then 
resided,  as  yellow  banks,  and  red  banks,  etc.  Both  the 
Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  acknowledge,  that  they  were  once 
Chipeways,  but  intestine  quarrels,  and  wars  which  en- 
sued separated  one  band  or  party  from  another,  and  all 
became  different  in  manners,  customs  and  language. 
The  Sauk  Indians,  are  more  immediately  related  to  the 
Fox  Indians  than  any  other  nation  of  Indians,  whose 
language  bears  an  affinity  to  theirs,  such  as  the  Kica- 
poos  and  Shawanoes  to  whom  they  (the  Sauks  and 
Foxes)  claim  a  relationship  by  adoption.  The  Kica- 
poos  and  Shawanoes  call  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  their 
Younger  Brothers,  the  Sauks  call  the  Foxes  (and  the 
Foxes  call  them)  their  kindred. 

The  earliest  tradition  of  a  particular  nature  among 
them,  is  the  landing  of  the  whites  on  the  shores  of  the 
Atlantic,  somewheres  about  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence. 
The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  have  been  at  war  formerly 

1 84  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

with  the  Iroquois,  and  Wyandotts, 63  who  drove  the 
Sauks  up  the  St.  Lawrence  to  the  lakes,  and  the  Foxes 
up  the  Grand  River,  and  at  Green  Bay  they  formed  a 
coalition  and  renewed  their  former  relations  to  each 
other,  since  then  (in  alliance  with  the  Chipeways,  Ot- 
tawas,  and  Pottawatimies),  they  have  been  engaged  in  a 
war  with  the  Illinois  Indians,  which  ended  in  their 
final  extermination:  afterwards  the  Sauks  and  Foxes  in 
alliance  with  other  nations  of  Indians,  made  war  against 
the  Ofsage  Indians,  and  on  settlement  of  their  differ- 
ences they  allied  themselves  to  the  Ofsage  Indians, 
against  the  Pawnee  Indians,  with  whom  in  alliance  with 
the  Of  sages  they  had  a  severe  fight  in  1814  on  the  head 
waters  of  the  Arkansas  River,  where  the  Sauks  lost  the 
Blue  Chief  who  was  then  celebrated  among  them.  Thro 
the  interference  of  the  government  that  war  was 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  repeatedly  told  me  that 
from  depredations  continually  committed  on  them  by 
the  Sioux  Indians  of  the  interriour  (the  Yanctons  and 
Scifsitons  [i.e.,  Sisseton]  bands)  they  (the  Sauk  and 
Fox  Indians)  thro  the  solicitations  of  their  young  men, 
they  commenced  a  war  against  the  above  mentioned 
Sioux  Indians  in  the  Spring  of  the  year  1822,  but  the 
General  Council  held  at  Pirarie  du  Chiens  in  August 
1825  put  a  final  stop  to  that  war,  otherwise,  not  a  Sioux 
Indian  would  have  been  seen  south  of  St.  Peters  River, 

63  Up  to  1650  the  tribe  called  Tionontati  (or  by  the  French,  Nation  du 
Petun,  "Tobacco  Nation,"  from  their  cultivation  of  and  trade  in  tobacco)  were 
living  in  the  mountains  south  of  Nottawasaga  Bay,  on  the  eastern  coast  of 
Lake  Huron ;  but  they  were  then  forced  to  abandon  their  country,  by  a  sudden 
murderous  incursion  of  the  Iroquois,  and  they  fled  to  the  region  southwest  of 
Lake  Superior.  Eight  years  later  they  were  with  the  Potawatomi  near  Green 
Bay;  soon  afterward  they  joined  the  Hurons  who  also  had  been  driven  west- 
ward by  the  Iroquois,  and  about  1670  both  tribes  were  at  Mackinaw,  and 
later  in  the  vicinity  of  Detroit.  From  that  time  they  were  practically  the  same 
people,  and,  thus  blended,  became  known  by  the  modernized  name  of  Wyan- 
dot- JAMES  MOONEY,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          185 

in  twelve  months  after  the  termination  of  that  council. 

Belts f  Alliances,  etc. 

The  wampum  belts  are  woven  together  by  thread 
made  of  the  deer's  sinews, 64  the  thread  is  pafsed  through 
each  grain  of  wampum  and  the  grains  lay  in  the  belt 
parallel  to  each  other,  the  Belts  are  of  various  sizes, 
some  more  than  two  yds  in  length,  if  for  peace  or  friend- 
ship the  Belts  are  composed  solely  of  white  grained 
wampum,  if  for  war,  they  are  made  of  the  blue  grained 
wampum  painted  red  with  vermillion,  the  greater  the 
size  of  the  Belt,  the  more  force  of  exprefsion  is  meant 
by  it  to  convey.  In  forming  alliances  other  Belts  are 
made  of  white  wampum  interspersed  with  diamond  like 
figures  of  blue  wampum,  representing  the  various  na- 
tions with  whom  they  are  in  alliance  or  friendship.65 

64  "Sinew  is  the  popular  term  for  the  tendonous  animal  fiber  used  by  the 
Indians  as  thread  for  sewing  purposes"  —  not,  as  is  commonly  supposed,  the 
tendon  from  the  legs,  but  the  large  tendon,  about  two  feet  in  length,  lying  along 
each  side  of  the  backbone  of  the  buffalo,  etc.,  just  back   of  the  neck  joint. 
"The  tendons  were  stripped  out  and  dried,  and  when  thread  was  needed  were 
hammered  to  soften  them  and  then  shredded  with  an  awl  or  a  piece  of  flint. 
Sometimes  the  tendon  was  stripped  of  long  fibers   as  needed,   and  often  the 
tendons  were  shredded  fine  and  twisted.     .     .     Practically  all  the  sewing  of 
skins  for  costume,  bags,  pouches,  tents,  boats,  etc.,  was  done  with  sinew,  as 
was  embroidery  with  beads  and  quills."     It  was  also  used  for  bowstrings,  and 
to  render  the  bow  itself  more  elastic;  also  in  feathering  and  pointing  arrows, 
and  in  making  fishing  lines,  cords,  etc. —  WALTER  HOUGH,  in  Handbook  Amer. 

65  The  early  white  explorers  found  everywhere  among  the  natives  shells, 
or  beads  made  from  them,  in  use  as  currency,  and  for  personal  adornment; 
and  the  English  colonists  adopted  the  name  for  this  article  that  was  current 
among  the   New   England   Indians,    "wampum,"     This   term   was   afterward 
extended  to  the  glass  or  porcelain  beads  brought  from  Europe  by  traders.    The 
beads  were  strung  upon  cords  or  sinews,  and  when  woven  into  plaits  about  as 
broad  as  the  hand  formed  "wampum  belts;"  these  constituted  practically  the 
official  form  of  presents  sent  by  one  tribe  or  one  village  to  another,  and  were 
used  in  negotiating  and  in  recording  treaties.     Wampum  also  was  the  mark 
of  a  chiefs  authority,  and  was  sent  with  an  envoy  as  his  credentials.     See 
Holmes's  account  of  beads,  wampum,  etc.,  in  Report  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Eth- 
nology, 1880-1881,  230-254;  R.  E.  C.  Stearns's  "Ethno-Conchology,"  in  Report 



The  Sauk  and  Fox  nations  of  Indians  are  governed 
by  hereditary  chiefs,  their  power  descending  to  the  old- 
est male  of  the  family,  which  on  refusal  extends  to  the 
brothers  or  nephews  of  the  chief  and  so  on  thro  the  male 
relations  of  the  family.  They  have  no  war  chiefs,  any 
individual  of  their  nations  may  lead  a  party  to  war,  if 
he  has  enfluence  to  raise  a  party  to  redrefs  any  real  or 
supposed  grievance. 

The  chiefs  interfere  and  have  the  sole  management  in 
all  their  national  affairs,  but  they  are  enfluenced  in  a 
great  measure  by  their  braves  or  principal  men  in  mat- 
ters of  peace  or  war.  The  province  of  the  chief  is  to 
direct,  the  braves  or  warriors  to  act.  The  authority  of 
the  chiefs  is  always  supreme  in  peace  or  war.  There  are 
no  female  chiefs  among  the  Sauk  and  Fox  nations  of 
Indians,  a  boy  (if  a  chief)  is  introduced  into  the  coun- 
cils of  the  nation,  accompanied  by  some  older  branch  of 
the  family  capable  of  giving  him  instructions.  When 
the  chiefs  direct  the  head  or  principal  brave  of  the  na- 
tion to  plant  centinels  for  any  particular  purpose,  if 
they  neglect  their  duty  or  fail  to  effect  the  purpose,  they 
are  flogged  with  rods  by  the  women  publicly.  There  is 
no  such  thing  as  a  summary  mode  of  coercing  the  pay- 
ment of  debts,  all  contracts  are  made  on  honor,  for  re- 
drefs of  civil  injuries  an  appeal  is  made  to  the  old  people 
of  both  parties  and  their  determination  is  generally  ac- 
ceded to.  In  case  of  murder,  it  is  determined  by  the 
relations  of  the  deceased,  they  say,  that  by  killing  the 
murderer,  it  will  not  bring  the  dead  to  life,  and  it  is 
better  to  receive  the  presents  offered  by  the  relations  of 
the  murderer  than  want  them.  Horses,  merchandise 

of  U.S.  Natl.  Museum,  1887,  297-334;  IngersolPs  "Wampum  and  its  History," 
in  Amer.  Naturalist,  vol.  xvii  (1883),  467-479;  Jesuit  Relations,  vol.  viii, 
312-314.  -  ED. 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          187 

and  silver  works  sometimes  to  a  very  large  amount  are 
given  to  the  relations  of  a  murdered  person,  and  indeed 
in  some  instances  the  murderer  will  marry  or  take  to 
wife  the  widow  of  the  person  whom  he  has  killed. 

Sometimes  it  may  happen,  that  the  relations  of  the 
deceased  will  refuse  to  receive  any  thing  for  the  lofs  of 
a  murdered  relation,  the  chiefs  then  interfere,  who  never 
fail  to  settle  the  businefs.  There  is  nothing  that  I  know 
of  that  an  Indian  may  be  guilty  what  is  considered  a 
national  offence,  except  aiding  and  afsisting  their  ene- 
mies, such  a  person  if  taken  in  war  is  cut  to  pieces,  such 
things  rarely  happen. 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  are  not  thievish,  they  sel- 
dom steal  any  thing  from  their  traders,  they  sometimes 
steal  a  few  horses  from  a  neighboring  nation  of  Indians, 
and  formerly  they  used  to  steal  many  from  the  white 
settlements  and  their  excuse  is  always  that  they  were  in 
want  of  a  horse,  and  did  not  take  all  they  seen.  Steal- 
ing horses  from  their  enemies  is  accounted  honorable, 
the  women  will  sometimes  steal  trifling  articles  of 
drefs  or  ornament,  the  men  very  seldom.  The  traders 
feel  perfectly  safe  among  them,  so  much  so,  that  they 
seldom  or  ever  close  their  doors  at  night,  but  give  them 
free  accefs  to  come  in  and  go  out  at  all  hours  day  and 
night.  All  questions  relating  to  the  nations  are  settled 
in  council  by  the  Chiefs,  and  when  it  is  necefsary  that 
the  council  must  be  a  secret  one, 66  the  chiefs  apply  to  the 
principal  brave  for  centinels,  who  must  do  their  duty, 
or  they  are  punished  by  the  women  by  stripes  on  their 
bare  backs.  In  all  Indian  Councils  that  I  have  seen  and 
heard  of,  the  whole  number  of  chiefs  present  must  be 
of  the  same  opinion  otherwise  nothing  is  done. 

66  "I  never  was  at  more  than  one  secret  council  all  the  time  I  were  among 
the  Indians,  and  it  was  strictly  a  secret  council  to  all  intents  and  purposes." 


1 88  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

Council  Fire  at  Brownstown  in  Michigan  Territory 

It  is  hard  for  me  to  say  at  this  late  day  where  and  when 
the  council  fire  originated,  but  I  believe  it  to  have  origi- 
nated immediately  after  the  reduction  of  Canada  by 
the  British.  A  similar  one  is  supposed  to  have  existed 
on  the  Mohawk  River  at  Sir  William  Johnston's  place 
of  residence  previous  to  our  Revolution.  The  first 
knowledge  I  have  of  it,  is  when  it  existed  at  old  Chili- 
cothe  in  the  State  of  Ohios,  and  from  the  Indian  war 
that  took  place  subsequently  to  the  peace  of  1783  the 
council  fire  was  by  unanimous  consent  removed  to  Fort 
Wayne  thence  afterwards  to  the  foot  of  the  rapids  of  the 
Miamie  River  of  the  Lakes,  where  it  remained  until 
1796  when  it  was  removed  to  Brownstown  where  it  now 
is.  The  British  in  confederacy  with  the  Shawanoes, 
Delawars,  Mingoes,  Wyandots,  Miamies,  Chipeways, 
Ottawas  and  Pottawatimies  offensive  and  defensive  are 
the  members  of  the  council  fire.  The  first  nation  of 
Indians  who  joined  were  the  Shawanoes  and  Delawars 
and  the  other  nations  fell  in  or  joined  afterwards. 

The  British  as  head  of  the  confederacy  have  a  large 
belt  of  white  wampum  of  about  six  or  eight  inches  wide 
at  the  head  of  which  is  wrought  in  with  blue  grains  of 
a  diamond  shape,  which  means  the  British  Nation:  the 
next  diamond  in  the  belt  is  the  first  Indian  Nation  who 
joined  in  alliance  with  the  British  by  drawing  the  belt 
thro  their  hands  at  the  council  fire  and  so  on,  each  nation 
of  the  confederacy  have  their  diamond  in  the  belt,  those 
diamonds  are  all  of  the  same  size  and  are  placed  in  the 
belt  at  equal  distances  from  each  other.  When  any 
businefs  is  to  be  done  that  concerns  the  confederacy  it 
must  be  done  at  this  council  fire  where  are  afsembled 
as  many  chiefs  as  can  be  conveniently  collected.  At  any 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          189 

meeting  at  this  council  fire,67  the  British  government  is 
always  represented  by  their  Indian  Agent,  and  most 
generally  accompanied  by  a  military  officer,  to  represent 
the  soldiers  or  braves.  By  consent  of  the  confederacy, 

67  "In  a  conversation  I  had  with  General  Clark  previous  to  my  giving  him 
a  copy  of  this  production,  I  told  him  about  this  council  fire  at  Brownstown  in 
Michigan  Territory:  he  observed  'no  other  agent  but  yourself  knows  anything 
about  this  Council  fire.'  There  is  more  besides  that,  that  the  Indian  agents  do 
not  know  said  I  to  him,  and  if  I  had  included  himself  I  would  have  done 
right,  for  in  Indian  affairs  he  is  a  perfect  ignoramus.  But  he  is  superintendant 
and  can  do  no  wrong."  —  T.  FORSYTH. 

Early  in  the  eighteenth  century  an  alliance  was  formed  by  the  Wyandotts, 
Chippewa,  Ottawas,  and  Potawatamies  for  their  mutual  protection  against  the 
incursions  of  hostile  western  tribes;  the  French  made  a  fifth  party  to  this 
alliance  —  which  before  many  years  fell  through.  About  1720  those  four 
tribes  made  an  arrangement  as  to  the  respective  territories  which  they  were 
to  occupy  — each  tribe,  however,  to  have  the  privilege  of  hunting  in  the  terri- 
tory of  the  others.  The  Wyandotts  were  made  the  keepers  of  the  international 
council-fire  (a  figurative  expression,  meaning  their  international  archives), 
and  arbiters,  in  their  general  council,  of  important  questions  that  concerned 
the  welfare  of  all  the  four  tribes.  "From  that  period  might  be  dated  the  first 
introduction  of  the  wampum  belt  system,  representing  an  agreement  among  the 
four  nations.  The  belt  was  left  with  the  keepers  of  the  council-fire.  From 
that  time  forward  until  the  year  1812  (when  the  council-fire  was  removed  from 
Michigan  to  Canada)  every  wampum  belt  representing  some  international 
compact  was  placed  in  the  archives  of  the  Wyandott  nation.  Each  belt  bore 
some  mark,  denoting  the  nature  of  a  covenant  or  contract  entered  into  between 
the  parties,  and  the  hidden  contents  of  which  was  kept  in  the  memory  of  the 
chiefs."  About  1842  part  of  the  Wyandotts  left  Canada,  to  join  their  tribes- 
men in  Ohio,  and  with  them  remove  to  Kansas,  to  which  territory  they  sent 
(1843)  their  archives;  but  when  these  were  desired  (about  1864)  by  the 
eastern  Wyandotts  it  was  found  that  most  of  the  belts  and  documents  were 
dispersed  and  lost.  The  last  general  council  of  those  tribes,  at  which  the 
belts  were  displayed  and  their  contents  recited,  was  held  in  Kansas  in  1846. 
Brownstown  (later  called  by  the  whites  Gibraltar)  was  thus  named  for  a 
noted  chief  of  the  Wyandotts,  Adam  Brown,  who  was  captured  in  Virginia 
by  one  of  their  scouting  parties  about  1755,  and  taken  to  their  village  near 
Detroit;  he  was  an  English  boy,  then  about  eight  years  old.  He  was  adopted 
by  a  Wyandott  family  belonging  to  one  of  the  ruling  clans,  and  afterward 
married  a  Wyandott  woman ;  he  was  finally  made  a  chief,  and  was  greatly 
esteemed  by  that  tribe,  and  died  after  the  War  of  1812.  He  was  a  compas- 
sionate and  honorable  man,  and  never  approved  the  attacks  made  by  Indian 
parties  on  the  whites  in  their  homes.  See  Origin  and  Traditional  History  of 
the  Wyandotts  (Toronto,  1870),  by  Peter  D.  Clarke,  himself  a  grandson  of 
Adam  Brown.  —  ED. 

igo  THOMAS  FORSYTE  [Vol. 

the  Shawanoe  nation  were  formerly  the  leading  nation, 
that  is  to  say,  the  Shawanoes  had  the  direction  of  the 
wars  that  the  parties  might  be  engaged  in,  the  power  of 
convening  the  allies,  etc.  Since  the  late  war,  the  Chipe- 
ways  are  at  the  head  of  those  affairs  and  no  doubt  re- 
ceive occasional  lefsons  from  their  British  father.  All 
Indians  in  forming  alliances  with  each  other,  select  a 
central  spot  to  meet  every  two  or  three  years,  to  com- 
memorate and  perpetuate,  their  alliances.  It  is  very 
well  known  that  for  many  years  an  alliance  has  existed 
between  the  Chipeways,  Ottawas  and  Pottawatimies, 
and  their  chiefs  encourage  intermarriages  with  each 
other,  for  the  purpose  of  linking  themselves  strongly 
together,  and  at  a  future  period  to  become  one  people. 
These  alliances  are  strictly  attended  to  by  all  the  parties 
concerned,  and  should  there  be  any  neglect  to  visit  the 
council  fire  (by  deputies  or  otherwise),  to  commemo- 
rate their  alliances,  it  is  considered  as  trifling  with  their 
allies.  In  1806  or  7,  the  Chipeway,  and  Ottawa  chiefs 
sent  a  speech  to  the  Pottawattimies  Indians,  saying  that 
for  many  years  they  had  not  sent  deputies  to  the  Island 
of  Mackinac  to  the  council  fire  according  to  custom,  and 
if  they  declined  sending  deputies  the  ensuing  summer, 
their  part  of  the  council  fire  would  be  extinguished: 
the  Pottawatimies  fearful  of  the  consequences  sent  depu- 
ties the  following  year  to  Mackinac  which  satisfied  all 

Names  and  Number  of  Tribes  \i.e.,  clani\  among  the 
Sank  Nation**  of  Indians 

1  Na-ma-wuck  or  Sturgeon  Tribe 

2  Muc-kis-sou  "  Bald  Eagle 

3  Puc-ca-hum-mo-wuck  Ringed  Perch 

68 The  Sauk  were  a  canoe  people  while  they  lived  near  the  Great  Lakes; 
they  practised  agriculture  on  an  extensive  scale.     "Despite  their  fixed  abode 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          191 


Mac-co.  Pen-ny-ack            or 

Bear  Potatoe 


Kiche  Cumme 

Great  Lake 















Black  Bafs 







and  villages  they  did  not  live  a  sedentary  life  altogether,  for  much  of  the  time 
they  devoted  to  the  chase,  fishing,  and  hunting  game  almost  the  whole  year 
round.  They  were  acquainted  with  wild  rice,  and  hunted  the  buffalo;  they 
did  not  get  into  possession  of  the  horse  very  much  earlier  than  after  the  Black 
Hawk  War  in  1832.  .  .  Their  abode  was  the  bark  house  in  warm  weather, 
and  the  oval  flag-reed  lodge  in  winter;  the  bark  house  was  characteristic  of 
the  village.  Every  gens  had  one  large  bark  house  wherein  were  celebrated 
the  festivals  of  the  gens.  In  this  lodge  hung  the  sacred  bundles  of  the  gens,  and 
here  dwelt  the  priests  that  watched  over  their  keeping.  It  is  said  that  some 
of  these  lodges  were  the  length  of  five  fires.  The  ordinary  bark  dwelling  had 
but  a  single  fire,  which  was  at  the  center." 

"In  the  days  when  the  tribe  was  much  larger  there  were  numerous  gentes. 
It  may  be  that  as  many  as  fourteen  gentes  are  yet  in  existence.  These  are: 
Trout,  Sturgeon,  Bass,  Great  Lynx  or  Water  monster,  Sea,  Fox,  Wolf,  Bear, 
Bear-Potato,  Elk,  Swan,  Grouse,  Eagle,  and  Thunder.  It  seems  that  at  one 
time  there  was  a  more  rigid  order  of  rank  both  socially  and  politically  than 
at  present.  For  example,  chiefs  came  from  the  Trout  and  Sturgeon  gentes,  and 
war  chiefs  from  the  Fox  gens ;  and  there  were  certain  relationships  of  courtesy 
between  one  gens  and  another,  as  when  one  acted  the  role  of  servants  to  another, 
seen  especially  on  the  occasion  of  a  gens  ceremony." 

These  were  two  great  social  groups:  Kishkoa  and  Oshkasha.  "A  person 
entered  into  a  group  at  birth,  sometimes  the  father,  sometimes  the  mother 
determining  the  group  into  which  the  child  was  to  enter.  The  division  was 
for  emulation  in  all  manner  of  contests,  especially  in  athletics.  The  Sauk  never 
developed  a  soldier  society  with  the  same  degree  of  success  as  did  the  Foxes, 
but  they  did  have  a  buffalo  society;  it  is  said  that  the  first  was  due  to  con- 
tact with  the  Sioux,  and  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  second  was  due 
to  influence  also  from  the  plains.  There  was  a  chief  and  a  council.  The  chiefs 
came  from  the  Trout  and  Sturgeon  gentes,  and  the  council  was  an  assembly  of 
all  the  warriors.  Politically  the  chief  was  nothing  more  than  figurehead,  but 
socially  he  occupied  first  place  in  the  tribe.  Furthermore,  his  person  was  held 
sacred,  and  for  that  reason  he  was  given  royal  homage."  —  WILLIAM  JONES,  in 
Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

The  sixth  in  Forsyth's  list  of  Fox  clans  is  called  by  Morgan  Na-na-mi- 
kew-uk  (Ancient  Society,  170).  He  also  mentions  the  buffalo  clan,  Na-nus- 
sus-so-uk,  as  among  the  Sauk  and  Foxes.  —  ED. 

i92  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

Names  and  Number  of  Tribes  among  the  Fox  Nation 

of  Indians 

1  Wah-go  or  Fox  Tribe 

2  Muc-qua  Bear 

3  Mow-whay  Wolf 

4  A-ha-wuck  Swan 

5  Puck-kee  Partridge    (drumming) 

6  Ne-nee-me-kee  Thunder 

7  Me-sha-way  Elk 

8  As-she-gun-uck  "  Black  Bafs 

War  and  its  Incidents 

The  warriours69  of  the  Sauk  Nation  of  Indians  are 
divided  into  two  bands  or  parties,  one  band  or  party  is 
called  Kees-ko-qui  or  long  hairs,  the  other  is  called 
Osh-cush  which  means  brave  the  former  being  con- 
sidered something  more  than  brave,  and  in  1819  each 
party  could  number  400  men,  now  (1826)  perhaps  they 

69  Among  the  aborigines  there  was  no  paid  war  force,  organized  police,  or 
body  of  men  set  aside  for  warfare;  but  all  these  duties  rested  in  the  tribe  on 
every  able-bodied  man,  who  from  his  youth  had  been  trained  in  the  use  of 
arms  and  taught  to  be  always  ready  for  the  defense  of  home  and  the  protection 
of  the  women  and  children.  "The  methods  of  fighting  were  handed  down  by 
tradition,  and  boys  and  young  men  gained  their  first  knowledge  of  the  war- 
rior's tactics  chiefly  from  experiences  related  about  the  winter  fire."  In  the 
lodge  the  young  men  were  placed  near  the  door  where  they  would  be  first  to 
meet  an  attack  by  enemies.  "There  was  however  a  class  of  men,  warriors  of 
approved  valor  [called  'soldiers'  by  some  writers],  to  whom  were  assigned 
special  duties,  as  that  of  keeping  the  tribe  in  order  during  the  annual  hunt  or 
at  any  great  ceremonial  where  order  was  strictly  to  be  enforced.  .  .  In  many 
tribes  warriors  were  members  of  a  society  in  which  there  were  orders  and  de- 
grees. The  youth  entered  the  lowest,  and  gradually  won  promotion  by  his 
acts.  Each  degree  or  order  had  its  insignia,  and  there  were  certain  public 
duties  to  which  it  could  be  assigned.  Every  duty  was  performed  without  com- 
pensation; honor  was  the  only  pay  received.  These  societies  were  under  the 
control  of  war  chiefs  and  exercised  much  influence  in  tribal  affairs.  In  other 
tribes  war  honors  were  won  through  the  accomplishment  of  acts,  all  of  which 
were  graded,  each  honor  having  its  peculiar  mark  or  ornament  which  the  man 
could  wear  after  the  right  had  been  publicly  accorded  him.  There  were 
generally  six  grades  of  honors.  It  was  from  the  highest  grade  that  the  'soldier' 
spoken  of  above  was  taken."  -  ALICE  C.  FLETCHER,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians, 
art.  "Soldier." 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          193 

can  number  500  men  each.  The  Kees-ko-quis  or  long 
hairs  are  commanded  by  the  hereditary  brave  of  the 
Sauk  Nation  named  Keeocuck70  and  whose  standard  is 
red.  The  head  man  of  the  Osh-cushes  is  named  Waa- 
cal-la-qua-uc  and  his  standard  is  blue :  him  and  his  party 
are  considered  inferiour  'in  rank  to  the  other  party. 
Among  the  Sauk  Indians  every  male  child  is  clafsed  in 
one  of  the  two  parties  abovementioned  in  the  following 
manner.  The  first  male  child  born  to  a  Kees-ko-qui,  is 
and  belongs  to  the  band  or  party  of  Kees-ko-quis.  The 
second  male  child  (by  the  same  father)  is  an  Osh-cush, 

70  Keeocuck  is  a  sterling  Indian  and  he  is  the  hinge  on  which  all  the  affairs 
of  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  turn  on,  he  is  a  very  smart  man,  his  manners  are 
very  prepossessing,  his  mother  was  a  half  breed,  and  much  attached  to  white 
people.  Keeocuck  is  about  46  years  old  now  in  1832.  —  T.  FORSYTH. 

Keokuk,  the  noted  Sauk  leader,  was  born  on  Rock  River,  111.,  about  1780. 
"He  was  not  a  chief  by  birth,  but  rose  to  the  command  of  his  people  through 
marked  ability,  force  of  character,  and  oratorical  power.  His  mother  is  said 
to  have  been  half  French."  He  was  ambitious  to  become  the  foremost  man  in 
his  tribe,  and  by  affability  and  diplomacy  gradually  attained  great  popularity 
among  them;  he  lost  much  of  this  prestige,  however,  by  his  passive  attitude 
regarding  the  St.  Louis  treaty  of  1804,  by  which  a  small  band  of  Sauk  who 
wintered  near  that  post  agreed  to  cede  the  Rock  River  country  to  the  U.S. 
government.  The  rest  of  the  tribe  refused  to  confirm  this  agreement,  and  part 
of  them  decided  to  take  up  arms  against  its  enforcement.  Not  finding  Keokuk 
favorable  to  this  action,  they  turned  to  Black  Hawk  as  their  leader;  and  he 
was  forced  to  begin  hostilities  with  a  much  smaller  force  than  he  had  expected, 
as  Keokuk  with  his  adherents  joined  the  Foxes  — whose  union  with  the  Sauk 
had  been  already  broken,  largely  through  the  intrigues  of  Keokuk.  After  the 
war  was  over,  Keokuk  was  made  chief  of  the  Sauk,  an  act  which  "has  always 
been  regarded  with  ridicule  by  both  the  Sauk  and  the  Foxes,  for  the  reason  that 
he  was  not  of  the  ruling  clan.  But  the  one  great  occasion  for  which  both  the 
Sauk  and  the  Foxes  honor  Keokuk  was  when,  in  the  city  of  Washington,  in 
debate  with  the  representatives  of  the  Sioux  and  other  tribes  before  govern- 
ment officials,  he  established  the  claim  of  the  Sauk  and  Foxes  to  the  territory 
comprised  in  what  is  now  the  state  of  Iowa.  He  based  this  claim  primarily 
on  conquest."  Keokuk  died  in  1848,  in  Kansas,  after  residing  there  three 
years;  in  1883  his  remains  were  removed  to  Keokuk,  Iowa,  and  a  monument 
was  erected  over  his  grave  by  the  citizens  of  that  town.  His  authority  as  chief 
passed  to  his  son,  Moses  Keokuk  — a  man  of  great  ability,  intellectual  force, 
eloquence,  and  strong  character,  who  won  high  esteem  from  his  tribe.  He  was 
converted  to  the  Christian  faith,  late  in  life;  and  died  near  Horton,  Kans.,  in 
1903.  —  WILLIAM  JONES,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

194  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

the  third  a  Kees-ko-qui  and  so  on.  The  first  male  child 
of  an  Osh-cush  is  also  an  Osh-cush  the  second  is  a  Kees- 
ko-qui  and  so  on  as  among  the  Kees-ko-qui's.  When 
the  two  bands  or  parties  turn  out  to  perform  sham  bat- 
tles, ball  playing,  or  any  other  diversion  the  Kees-ko- 
quis  paint  or  daub  themselves  all  over  their  bodies  with 
white  clay.  The  Osh-cushes  black  their  bodies  on  same 
occasions  with  charcoal.  The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians 
have  no  mode  of  declaring  war,  if  injured  by  another 
nation  they  wait  patiently  for  a  deputation  from  the 
nation  who  committed  the  injury,  to  come  forward  and 
settle  the  businefs,  as  a  Fox  Chief  told  me  some  years 
ago,  "the  Sioux  Indians  have  killed  of[f]  our  people 
four  different  times,  and  according  to  our  custom,  it  is 
time  for  us  to  prepare  for  war,  and  we  will  do  so,  as  we 
see  the  Sioux  chiefs  will  not  come  forward  to  settle 
matters."  Sometimes  a  nation  of  Indians  may  be  at 
peace  with  all  others  when  they  are  invited  by  a  neigh- 
bouring nation  to  afsist  them  in  a  war,  by  promising 
them  a  portion  of  the  enemy's  country  they  may  conquer. 
Young  Indians  are  always  fond  of  war,  they  hear  the 
old  warriours  boasting  of  their  war  exploits  and  it  may 
be  said,  that  the  principle  of  war  is  instilled  into  them 
from  their  cradles,  they  therefore  embrace  the  first  op- 
portunity to  go  to  war  even  in  company  with  strange 
nations  so  that  they  may  be  able  to  proclaim  at  the 
dance,  I  have  killed  such  a  person,  etc.  One  or  more 
Indians  of  the  same  nation  and  village  may  at  same  time 
fast,  pray,  consult  their  Munitos  or  Supernatural  Agents 
about  going  to  war.  The  dreams  they  may  have  during 
their  fasting,  praying,  etc.,  determine  every  thing,  as 
they  always  relate  in  public  the  purport  of  their  lucky 
dreams  to  encourage  the  young  Indians  to  join  them. 
Those  Indians  who  prepare  for  war  by  dreams,  etc., 
may  be  any  common  Indian  in  the  nation,  and  if  the 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          195 

warriours  believe  in  his  dreams,  etc.,  he  is  never  at  a 
lofs  for  followers,  that  is  to  say,  after  a  partizan  is  done 
fasting,  and  praying  to  the  great  Spirit,  and  that  he  con- 
tinues to  have  lucky  dreams,  he  makes  himself  a  lodge 
detached  from  the  village,  where  he  has  tobacco  pre- 
pared, and  in  this  lodge  a  belt  of  blue  wampum  painted 
red  with  vermillion,  or  a  stripe  of  scarlet  cloth  hanging 
up  in  his  lodge,  and  each  warriour  who  enters  the  lodge 
smokes  of  the  partizan's  tobacco  and  draws  the  wampum 
or  scarlet  cloth  thro  his  hands,  as  much  as  to  say,  he  is 
enlisted  in  his  service.  If  a  nation  of  Indians  or  a  vil- 
lage are  likely  to  be  attacked,  every  one  turns  out  for 
the  general  defence. 

Two  or  more  partizans  may  join  their  parties  together, 
and  may  or  may  not  divide  when  near  the  enemies'  coun- 
try. The  businefs  of  the  partizan  is  to  shew  his  follow- 
ers the  enemy,  and  they  are  to  act,  the  partizan  may  if 
he  pleases  go  into  the  fight.  In  going  to  war,  the  In- 
dians always  travel  slowly,  and  stop  to  hunt  occasionally, 
where  they  deposit  their  jerked  meat  for  their  return, 
in  going  off  the  partizan  leads  the  party,  carrying  his 
Mee-shome  or  medicine  sack  on  his  back,  and  on  leav- 
ing the  village  sings  the  She-go-dem  or  war  song,  i.e. 
the  partizan  takes  up  his  medicine  sack  and  sings  words 
to  the  following  effect:  "We  are  going  to  war,  we  must 
be  brave,  as  the  Great  Spirit  is  with  us."  The  warriours 
respond  by  singing  heugh!  heugh!  heugh!  in  quick  time 
dancing  round  the  partizan.  Sometimes  a  certain 
place  distant  from  the  villages  is  appointed  for  the 
party  to  rendevous  at,  in  this  case,  every  one  as  he  de- 
parts from  his  residence  sings  his  war  song,  and  on  the 
departure  of  the  whole  from  the  general  rendevous,  they 
sing  the  She-go-dem  or  general  war  song  as  described 

The  form  of  a  war  encampment  is  this,  small  forks 

ig6  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

the  size  of  a  mans  arm  are  planted  in  two  rows  about 
five  or  six  feet  a  part  and  about  four  feet  out  of  the 
ground,  on  which  are  laid  small  poles,  these  rows  ex- 
tend in  length  proportionate  to  the  number  of  war- 
riours,  and  the  rows  are  about  fifteen  feet  apart,  thro  the 
center  are  other  forks  set  up  on  which  other  poles  are 
placed,  these  forks  are  about  six  feet  out  of  the  ground, 
and  them  with  the  poles  are  stoughter  then  the  side  forks 
and  poles.  The  warriours  lay  side  by  side  with  their 
guns  laying  against  the  side  poles  if  the  weather  is  fair, 
if  wet  they  place  them  under  their  blankets. 

The  Indian  who  carries  the  kettle  is  the  cook  for  the 
party  and  when  encamped  the  warriours  must  bring  him 
wood  and  water,  furnish  meat,  etc.,  the  cook  divides  the 
vituals,  and  has  the  priviledge  of  keeping  the  best  morsel 
for  himself.  The  partizan  and  warriours  when  prepar- 
ing for  war,  are  very  abstemious,  never  eating  while  the 
sun  is  to  be  seen,  and  also  abstemious  from  the  company 
of  women,  after  having  accepted  the  wampum  or  scarlet 
cloth  before  spoken  of  the[y]  cease  to  cohabit  with  their 
wives,  and  they  consider  the  contrary  a  sacrilidge.  A 
woman  may  go  to  war  with  her  husband,  but  must  cease 
during  the  period  to  have  any  connection.  Before  mak- 
ing an  attack  they  send  forward  some  of  their  smartest 
young  men  as  spies,  the  attack  is  generally  made  a  little 
before  day  light,  the  great  object  is  to  surprise,  if  de- 
feated, every  one  makes  the  best  of  his  way  home  stop- 
ping and  taking  some  of  the  meat  jerked  and  burried  on 
the  way  out.  If  a  party  is  victorious  the  person  who 
killed  the  first  of  the  enemy  heads  the  party  back,  by 
marching  in  front,  the  prisoners  in  the  center  and  the 
partizan  in  the  rear.  On  the  arrival  of  a  victorious 
party  of  Indians  at  their  village  they  dance  round  their 
prisoners  by  way  of  triumph  after  which  the  prisoners 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          197 

are  disposed  of:  elderly  prisoners  are  generally  killed 
on  the  way  home,  and  their  spirits  sent  as  an  atonement 
to  that  of  their  deceased  friends.  Young  persons  taken 
in  war  are  generally  adopted  by  the  father  or  nearest 
relation  of  any  deceased  warriour  who  fell  in  the  battle 
or  child  who  died  a  natural  death  and  when  so  adopted, 
are  considered  the  representatives  of  the  dead,  prison- 
ers who  are  slaves  are  bought  and  sold  as  such.  When 
they  grow  up  the  males  are  encouraged  by  the  young 
men  of  the  nation  they  live  with,  to  go  to  war,  if  they 
consent  and  kill  one  of  the  enemy  the  slave  changes  his 
name  and  becomes  a  freeman  to  all  intents  and  purposes. 
The  female  slaves  are  generally  taken  as  concubines  to 
their  owners  and  their  offspring  if  any  are  considered 

Sometimes  an  owner  will  marry  his  female  slave,  in 
that  case,  she  becomes  a  f  reewoman,  but  whether  a  slave 
or  free,  the  Sauks  and  Fox  Indians  treat  their  prisoners 
with  greatest  humanity,  if  they  have  the  luck  to  get  to 
the  village  alive,  they  are  safe  and  their  persons  are  con- 
sidered sacred.  I  never  heard  except  in  the  war  with 
the  Ninneways71  of  the  Sauk  or  Fox  Indians  burning 
any  of  their  prisoners,  and  they  say,  that  the  Ninneways 
commenced  first,  I  remember  to  have  heard  sometime 
since  of  a  Sauk  Indian  dying  and  leaving  behind  him  a 
favorite  male  slave,  the  relations  of  the  deceased  killed 
the  slave  so  that  his  spirit  might  serve  on  the  spirit  of  his 
deceased  master  in  the  other  world.  The  young  Sauk 
and  Fox  Indians  generally  go  to  war  about  the  age  of 
from  1 6  to  18  and  some  few  instances  as  young  as  15 
and  by  the  time  they  are  40  or  45  they  become  stiff  from 
the  hardships  they  have  encountered  in  hunting  and 

71  Ninneways  so  called  by  the  Sauk,  Fox,  Chipeway,  Ottawa,  and  Potta- 
watimie  Indians:  but  they  called  themselves  Linneway,  i.e.,  men  from  which 
comes  the  word  Illinois.  -  T.  FORSYTH. 

i98  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

war,  they  are  apt  at  that  age  to  have  young  men  sons  or 
sons-in-law  to  provide  for  them:  they  pals  the  latter 
part  of  their  days  in  peace  (except  the  village  is  at- 
tacked). A  good  hunter  and  warriour  will  meet  with 
no  difficulty  in  procuring  a  wife  in  one  of  the  first  fam- 
ilies in  the  nation.  I  know  a  half-breed  now  living 
among  the  Sauk  Indians  who  had  the  three  sisters  for 
wives,  they  were  the  daughters  of  the  principal  chief  of 
the  Nation.  I  have  always  observed  that  the  half-breeds 
raised  among  the  Indians  are  generally  resolute,  re- 
markably brave  and  respectable  in  the  nation.72  The 
case  that  leads  to  war  are  many:  the  want  of  territory 
to  hunt,  depredations  committed  by  one  nation  against 
another,  and  also  the  young  Indians  to  raise  their  names, 
will  make  war  against  their  neighbors  without  any  cause 
whatever.  The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  have  for  many 
years  back  wished  much  for  a  war  with  the  Pawnees 
who  reside  on  the  heads  of  the  River  Platte,  they  know 
that  country  is  full  of  game  and  they  don't  fear  the  other 

72  "It  has  long  been  an  adage  that  the  mixed-blood  is  a  moral  degenerate, 
exhibiting  few  or  none  of  the  virtues  of  either,  but  all  the  vices  of  both  of  the 
parent  stocks.  In  various  parts  of  the  country  there  are  many  mixed-bloods 
of  undoubted  ability  and  of  high  moral  standing,  and  there  is  no  evidence  to 
prove  that  the  low  moral  status  of  the  average  mixed-blood  of  the  frontier  is 
a  necessary  result  of  mixture  of  blood,  but  there  is  much  to  indicate  that  it 
arises  chiefly  from  his  unfortunate  environment.  The  mixed-blood  often  finds 
little  favor  with  either  race,  while  his  superior  education  and  advantages,  de- 
rived from  association  with  the  whites,  enable  him  to  outstrip  his  Indian 
brother  in  the  pursuit  of  either  good  or  evil.  Absorption  into  the  dominant  race 
is  likely  to  be  the  fate  of  the  Indian,  and  there  is  no  reason  to  fear  that  when 
freed  from  his  environment  the  mixed-blood  will  not  win  an  honorable  social, 
industrial,  and  political  place  in  the  national  life. —  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW, 
in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians ',  art.  "Popular  fallacies." 

In  the  Forsyth  Mss.,  vol.  ii,  doc.  7  (pressmark  "2X7")  is  a  list  of  the  Sauk 
and  Fox  half-breeds  claiming  land  according  to  the  treaty  made  at  Washington, 
Aug.  4,  1824.  It  contains  thirty-eight  names.  Another  and  similar  list  (doc.  8) 
gives  thirty-one  names,  and  fourteen  others  which  are  considered  doubtful. 
Among  the  (presumably)  rightful  claimants  appears  Maurice  Blondeau,  men- 
tioned in  note  49.  —  ED. 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          199 

nations  who  live  in  the  way  such  as  the  Ottos, T3  Mahas, 
and  Kansez,  they  don't  consider  them  formidable.  The 
Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  would  long  ago  have  made  war 
against  the  Pawnees  if  they  thought  the  United  States 
government  would  allow  them,  they  are  well  acquainted 
with  the  geography  of  the  country  west  as  far  as  the 
mountains,  also  the  country  south  of  the  Mifsouri  River 
as  far  as  Red  River  which  falls  into  the  Mifsifsippi 
River  down  below. 7*  More  than  a  century  ago  all  the 
country  commencing  above  Rocky  River  and  running 
down  the  Mifsifsippi  to  the  mouth  of  Ohio  up  that 
river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Wabash,  thence  to  Fort  Wayne 

73  The  traditions  of  the  Siouan  tribe  called  Oto-who  resided  on  the  Mis- 
souri and  Platte  Rivers  successively,  and  went  to  Indian  Territory  in  1880- 
1882  — relate  that  before  the  arrival  of  the  white  people  they  dwelt  about  the 
Great  Lakes,  under  the  name  of  Hotonga   ("fish-eaters") ;  migrating  to  the 
southwest,  in  pursuit  of  buffalo,  they  reached  Green  Bay,  where  they  divided. 
A  part  of  them  remained  there,  and  were  called  by  the  whites  Winnebago; 
another  band  halted  at  the  mouth  of  Iowa  River,  and  formed  the  Iowa  tribe; 
and  the  rest  traveled  to  the  Missouri  River,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Grand,  after- 
ward  moving   farther   up   the    Missouri,    in   two    bands,    called    respectively 
Missouri  and  Oto.     Information  to  this  effect  was  given  to  Major  Long  and  to 
Prince  Maximilian  when  they  visited  these  people.     In   1880-1882,  they  re- 
moved to  Indian  Territory.  —  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

74  The  Arctic  peoples,  and  the  Algonquian  tribes  of  northern  Canada  were 
able  to  travel  rapidly  and  for  long  distances  on  account  of  their  using  dogs 
and  sleds  for  this  purpose;  but  the  tribes  south  of  them  were  obliged  to  travel 
on  foot  until  the  Spaniards  introduced   the  horse.    These  peoples,  however, 
accomplished  long  and  remote  journeys,  often  in  the  midst  of  great  hardships, 
in  which  they  often  showed  phenomenal  speed  and  endurance.    It  is  probable 
that  they  first  made  their  trails  in  the  search  for  food,  for  which  purpose  they 
needed  only  to  follow  those  already  made  by  the  wild  animals,  especially  the 
buffalo.     "The  portages  across  country  between  the  watersheds  of  the  different 
rivers  became  beaten  paths.    The  Athapascan  Indians  were  noted  travelers; 
so  also  were  the  Siouan  and  other  tribes  of  the  great  plains,  and  to  a  smaller 
degree  the  Muskhogean;  while  the  Algonquian  tribes  journeyed  from  the  ex- 
treme east  of  the  United  States  to  Idaho  and  Montana  in  the  west,  and  from 
the  headwaters  of  the  Saskatchewan   almost  to   New  Orleans.     Evidences  of 
such  movements  are  found  in  the  ancient  graves,  as  copper  from  Lake  Mich- 
igan, shells  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  stone  imple- 
ments from  various  quarters.    Pipes  of  catlinite  are  widely  distributed  in  the 
graves  and  mounds.    These  articles  show*  that  active  trade  was  going  on  over 


on  the  Miamie  River,  of  the  lakes  down  that  river  some 
distance,  thence  north  to  St.  Joseph  and  Chicago  also 
all  the  country  lying  south  of  River  de  Moine  down 
(perhaps)  to  Mifsouri  River  was  inhabited  by  a  nu- 
merous nation  of  Indians  who  called  themselves  Linne- 
way  and  called  by  other  Indians,  Ninneway  (literally 
men)  this  great  nation  of  Indians  were  divided  into 
several  bands  and  inhabited  different  parts  of  an  exten- 
sive country  as  follows.  The  Michigamians,  the  coun- 
try south  of  River  de  Moine ;  the  Cahokians,  the  country 
east  of  the  present  Cahokia  in  the  state  of  Illinois;  the 
Kaskaskias,  east  of  the  present  Kaskaskia;  the  Tamorois 
had  their  village  near  St.  Phillip,  nearly  central  be- 

a  wide  region.  There  is  good  evidence  that  the  men  engaged  in  this  trade 
had  certain  immunities  and  privileges.  They  were  free  from  attack,  and  were 
allowed  to  go  from  one  tribe  to  another  unimpeded."  —  O.  T.  MASON,  in  Hand- 
book Amer.  Indians. 

There  is  much  evidence  that  from  far  prehistoric  times  the  Indians  were 
familiar  with  vast  regions  of  territory  besides  these  of  their  own  abode,  and 
made  long  journeys  over  well-defined  routes  of  travel.  The  great  river-systems 
of  the  continent,  whose  headwaters  often  interlocked  together,  and  their  nu- 
merous tributaries  furnished  the  easiest  routes  in  the  extensive  forest  regions 
of  the  north  and  east,  which  were  penetrated  by  canoes  or  dugouts;  on  the 
plains  and  prairies  well-worn  trails  still  remain  to  indicate  the  lines  of  aborigi- 
nal travel  and  trade.  These  paths  also  existed  along  or  between  the  river 
routes,  many  of  them  originally  made  by  the  tracks  of  deer  or  buffalo  in  their 
seasonal  migrations  or  in  search  of  water  or  salt.  These  same  early  trails 
(which  generally  followed  the  lines  of  least  natural  resistance)  have  since  been 
utilized  in  many  cases  by  the  whites  as  lines  for  highways  and  railroads. 
"The  white  man,  whether  hunter,  trader,  or  settler,  blazed  the  trees  along  the 
Indian  trails  in  order  that  seasonal  changes  might  not  mislead  him  should  he 
return."  — J.  D.  McGuiRE,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

It  is  remarkable  how  the  old  plainsmen  who  laid  out  the  Santa  Fe  trail 
across  the  State  of  Kansas  and  on  into  New  Mexico,  were  able  to  follow  the 
grades  so  well  and  get  such  a  straight  road.  They  simply  used  their  eyes,  for 
in  those  days  there  were  no  engineers  on  the  western  plains.  "We  tried  to  best 
it  with  our  own  engineering,"  W.  B.  Strang  said,  "but  we  finally  ended  by 
following  the  old  trail  made  by  the  wheels  of  the  wagon  trains.  Eleven  times 
our  engineers  surveyed  other  lines,  but  they  finally  concluded  that  the  grades 
made  by  the  men  without  the  knowledge  of  mathematics  fifty  years  ago  were 
the  most  practical,  and  hence  we  are  keeping  very  near  the  old  Santa  Fe  trail 
in  the  building  of  our  line  to  the  west  from  Kansas  City."  —  Chicago  Record- 
Herald,  Jan.  2,  1910. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          201 

tween  Cahokia  and  Kaskaskia;  the  Piankishaws,  near 
Vincennes;  the  Weahs  up  the  Wabash;  the  Miamies,  on 
the  head  waters  of  the  Wabash  and  Miamie  of  the  lakes, 
on  St.  Joseph  River  and  also  at  Chicago;  the  Pianki- 
shaws, Weah,  and  Miamies  must  have  hunted  in  those 
days  south  towards  and  on  the  banks  of  the  Ohio  River. 
The  Peorias  (being  another  band  of  the  same  nation) 
lived  and  hunted  on  Illinois  River:  also  the  Masco  or 
Mascotins  called  by  the  French  Gens  des  Pirarie  lived 
and  hunted  in  the  great  Piraries  lying  between  the  Illi- 
nois River  and  the  Wabash.  All  those  different  bands 
of  the  Ninneway  Nation  spoke  the  language  of  the  pres- 
ent Miamies,  and  the  whole  considered  themselves  as 
one  and  the  same  people,  yet  from  the  local  situation  of 
the  different  bands  and  having  no  standard  to  go  by, 
their  language  afsumed  different  dialects,  as  at  present 
exists  among  the  different  bands  of  the  Sioux  and  Chipe- 
way  Indians.  Those  Indians  (the  Ninneways)  were 
attacked  by  a  general  confederacy  of  other  nations  of 
Indians  such  as  the  Sauks  and  Foxes  who  then  resided 
at  or  near  Green  Bay  and  on  Ouisconsin  River,  the 
Sioux  Indians  whose  frontiers  extended  south  and  on 
the  River  des  Moine,  the  Chipeways  and  Ottawas  from 
the  lakes  and  the  Pottawatimies  from  Detroit  as  also 
the  Cherrokees,  Chickashaws  and  Chactaws  from  the 
south.  This  war  continued  for  a  great  many  years,  un- 
til that  great  nation  (the  Ninneways)  were  destroyed 
except  a  few  Miamies  and  Weahs  on  the  Wabash  and  a 
few  who  are  now  s[c]attered  among  strangers.  Of  the 
Kaskaskia  Indians  from  their  wars,  their  great  fondnefs 
for  spirituous  liquor  and  frequent  killing  each  other 
in  drunken  frolics,  there  remains  but  a  few  of  them  say  30 
or  40  souls,  of  the  Peorias  near  St.  Geneveve  about  10  or 
15  souls,  of  the  Piankishaws  40  or  50  souls.  The  Mi- 
amies are  the  most  numerous  band.  They  did  a  few 

202  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

years  ago  consist  of  about  400  souls,  they  don't  exceed 
in  my  opinion  at  the  present  day  more  than  500  souls  of 
the  once  great  Ninneway  Nation  of  Indians.  Those 
Indians  (the  Ninneways)  were  said  to  be  very  cruel  to 
their  prisoners,  they  used  to  burn  them,  and  I  have 
heard  of  a  certain  family  among  the  Miamies  who  were 
called  man  eaters 7S  as  they  always  made  a  feast  of  human 
flesh  when  a  prisoner  was  killed,  that  being  part  of  their 
duty  so  to  do. 

From  enormities,  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians,  when 
they  took  any  of  the  Ninneways,  they  give  them  up  to 
the  women  to  be  buffeted  to  death.  They  speak  of  the 
Mascota  or  Mascotins  at  this  day  with  abhorance  for 
their  cruelties.  In  the  history  of  the  Sauks  and  Foxes, 
they  speak  of  a  severe  battle  having  been  fought  oppo- 
site the  mouth  of  Ihowai  River,  about  50  or  60  miles 
below  the  mouth  of  Rocky  River. 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  descended  the  Mifsif- 
sippi  River  in  canoes,  from  their  villages  on  Ouisconsin 
River,  and  landed  at  the  place  abovementioned,  and 
started  east  towards  the  enemy's  country,  they  had  not 
gone  far,  before,  they  were  attacked  by  a  party  of  Mas- 
cota or  Mascotins,  the  battle  continued  nearly  all  day, 
the  Sauks  and  Foxes  gave  way  for  want  of  amunition, 
and  fled  to  their  canoes.  The  Mascotins  pursued,  fought 
desperately  and  left  but  few  of  the  Sauks  and  Foxes  to 
return  home  to  tell  the  story.  The  Sauk  Indians  at- 

75  Cf.  this  interesting  allusion  to  cannibalism  among  the  Malays  in  early 
times,  referring  to  the  islands  of  Samar  and  Leyte  in  the  Philippines  (cited  in 
Blair  and  Robertson's  Philippine  Islands,  vol.  Hi,  331) :  "In  almost  every  large 
village  there  are  one  or  more  families  of  Asuans,  who  are  universally  feared 
and  avoided,  and  treated  as  outcasts,  and  who  can  marry  only  among  their 
own  number;  they  have  the  reputation  of  being  cannibals.  Are  they  perhaps 
descended  from  men-eaters?  The  belief  is  very  general  and  deeply  rooted. 
When  questioned  about  this,  old  and  intelligent  Indians  answered  that  certainly 
they  did  not  believe  that  the  Asuans  now  ate  human  flesh,  but  that  their  fore- 
fathers had  without  doubt  done  this."  _  ED. 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          203 

tacked  a  small  village  of  Peorias  about  40  or  50  years 
ago,  this  village  was  about  a  mile  below  Sl  Louis,  and 
has  been  said  by  the  Sauks  themselves  that  they  were 
defeated  in  that  affair.  At  a  place  on  the  Illinois  River 
called  the  Little  Rock  there  were  killed  by  the  Chipe- 
ways  and  Ottowas  a  great  number  of  men,  women  and 
children  of  the  Ninneway  Indians.  In  1800  the  Kicka- 
poos  made  a  great  slaughter  among  the  Kaskaskia  In- 
dians. The  celebrated  Main  Poque76  the  Pottawatimie 
jugler  in  1801  killed  a  great  many  of  the  Piankishaws 
on  the  Wabash.  It  does  not  appear  that  the  Kicapoos 
entered  into  the  war  against  the  Ninneway  Indians 

76  In  vol.  iv  of  the  Forsyth  Papers  ("Letter-book,  1814-1827")  is  a  sketch 
(evidently  composed  by  Forsyth)  of  the  Potawatomi  chief  Main  Poque  — a 
name,  probably  the  French  translation  of  his  Indian  name,  meaning  "swelled 
hand,"  doubtless  in  allusion  to  his  left  hand,  which  at  his  birth  was  destitute 
of  fingers  and  thumb.  "He  used  much  to  impose  on  the  Indians  by  telling 
them  that  it  was  a  mark  set  on  him  by  the  Great  Spirit,  to  know  him  from 
other  Indians  when  they  met."  He  was  a  great  orator,  few  surpassing  him 
in  eloquence.  His  father's  standing  as  head  military  chief  in  the  tribe  gave 
prestige  to  the  son,  who  added  to  this  his  own  renown  as  a  warrior.  Thus 
Main  Poque  gained  great  influence  among  not  only  his  own  tribe,  but  the 
Sauk,  Foxes,  and  others.  He  was  in  the  habit  of  retiring  alone  into  the  woods 
for  several  days  at  a  time,  on  his  return  home  professing  to  have  held  conver- 
sations with  the  Great  Spirit,  on  certain  plans  which  he  would  propose  to  the 
tribe.  It  was  rumored  that  this  man  had  obtained  arsenic  from  the  whites,  and 
had  used  it  to  cause  the  deaths  of  some  persons  in  his  tribe;  and  "at  one  time 
the  Indians  dreaded  him  as  if  he  was  a  real  deity,  and  thought  his  word  was 
sufficient  to  destroy  any  or  the  whole  of  them.  Indians  have  told  me  that  the 
Main  Poque  was  not  born  of  a  woman,  that  he  was  got  by  the  Great  Spirit 
and  sprung  out  of  the  ground,  and  that  the  Great  Spirit  marked  him  in  con- 
sequence" (alluding  to  his  hand).  They  thought  he  was  invulnerable  to  all 
weapons;  and  when  he  was  wounded  in  a  fight  with  the  Osages  (1810)  his 
people  said  that  it  was  done  by  "a  gun  that  must  have  been  made  by  some  great 
Munito,"  and  regarded  the  weapon  with  superstitious  reverence.  Main  Poque 
was  immoderately  fond  of  spirituous  liquor,  and  a  confirmed  drunkard,  also  very 
licentious ;  he  always  had  three  wives,  and  at  one  time  had  six.  "He  died  last 
summer  (1816)  at  a  place  called  the  Manesti  [Manistique?]  on  Lake  Mich- 
igan." He  left  two  sons  and  three  daughters,  and  five  or  six  grandchildren. 
"His  youngest  son  is  a  perfect  Ideot,  and  his  oldest  son  may  redily  be  called  a 
thick  headed  fool.  .  .  The  Main  Poque  may  be  considered  as  having  been 
a  bad  Indian  and  it  is  of  service  to  the  whites  and  Indians  that  he  is  out  of 
the  way."- ED. 

204  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

untill  after  they  (the  Kicapoo  Indians)  left  the  Wabash 
River  which  is  now  about  50  or  60  years  ago  and  made 
war  against  the  band  of  Kaskaskias.  I  do  not  mean  to 
say  that  all  the  Kicapoos  left  the  Wabash  at  the  same 
time  above  mentioned  as  Joseph  L'Reynard  and  a  few 
followers  never  would  consent  to  leave  the  Wabash,  and 
go  into  the  Piraries,  and  it  is  well  known  that  he  directed 
that  after  his  death  that  his  body  must  be  burried  in  a 
Coal  Bank  on  the  Wabash,  so  that  if  the  Kicapoos  sold 
the  lands  after  his  death,  they  would  also  sell  his  body, 
and  their  flesh,  such  was  his  antipathy  to  sell  any  land. 


I  never  heard  of  any  peace  having  been  made  between 
two  nations  of  Indians  (when  war  had  properly  com- 
menced) except  when  the  government  of  the  United 
States  interfered,  and  that  the  Indians  were  within 
reach  of  the  power  of  the  United  States  to  compel  them 
to  keep  quiet,  for  when  war  once  commenced,  it  alwavs 
led  to  the  final  extermination  of  one  or  the  other  of  the 

Some  years  ago  a  war  commenced  between  the  Sauk 
and  Fox  Indians  against  the  Ofsage  Indians.  The  Sauks 
and  Foxes  being  a  very  politic  and  cunning  people, 
managed  matters  so  well,  that  they  procured  the  afsist- 
ance  of  the  Ihowais,  Kicapoos,  and  Pottawatimies 
headed  by  the  celebrated  Main  Poque,  and  in  pafsing 
by  the  Sauk  village  on  Rocky  River  in  one  of  his  war 
expeditions  he  was  joined  by  upwards  of  one  hundred 
Sauk  Indians,  this  happened  in  1810,  the  government 
interfering,  put  a  final  stop  to  the  war,  otherwise  before 
this  there  can  be  no  doubt  the  whole  of  the  Ofsages 
would  have  been  driven  beyond  reach,  as  some  of  the 
Chipeways  and  Ottawa  Indians  accompanied  the  Main 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          205 

Poque.  This  confederacy,  would  have  gained  strength 
daily.  It  is  true  we  hear  of  belts  of  wampum  and  pipes 
accompanied  with  presents  in  merchandise  as  peace  of- 
ferings sent  with  conciliatory  talks  to  make  peace,  but 
such  a  peace  is  seldom  or  never  better  than  an  armistice, 
witnefs  the  Sioux  and  Chipeway  Indians,  they  have  been 
at  war  for  the  last  60  or  80  years,  the  British  government 
thro  their  agents,  General  Pike77  when  he  traveled  to 
the  heads  of  the  Mifsifsippi  River  and  last  year  (1825) 
the  United  States  Commifsioners  at  Pirarie  des  Chiens 
made  peace  (apparently)  between  the  Sioux  and  Chipe- 
way Indians  but  the  war  is  going  on  as  usual,  the  reason 
is  because  those  nations  are  out  of  reach  of  the  power  of 
the  United  States.  The  Ihowai  Indians,  sent  a  depu- 
tation of  their  people  some  years  ago,  to  the  Sioux  In- 
dians, to  ask  for  peace,  the  Mefsengers  were  all  killed 
and  the  war  continued  untill  a  general  peace  took  place 
at  Pirarie  des  Chiens  last  year  ( 1825) .  In  the  summer 
of  1821  I  advised  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  to  make 
peace  with  the  Otto  and  Maha  Indians  living  on  the 
Mifsouri  River,  they  took  my  advise  and  the  winter  fol- 
lowing they  sent  Mefsengers  to  the  Council  Bluffs  with 
a  letter  from  me  to  the  Indian  Agent  at  that  post,  the 
Sauk  and  Fox  Mefsengers  proceeded  on  to  the  Otto  and 
Maha  villages  where  they  made  peace  and  mutual  pres- 
ents took  place  among  them  to  the  satisfaction  of  all 
parties.  I  know  of  no  armorial  bearings  among  the 
Sauk  and  Fox  Indians,  except  Standards  of  White  and 
Red  feathers,  they  have  flags  American  and  British 
which  they  display  at  certain  ceremonies. 

77  Referring  to  Zebulon  M.  Pike  who  made  in  1805-1806  an  expedition  to 
the  headwaters  of  the  Mississippi.  In  September,  1805,  he  made  a  treaty  of 
peace  between  the  Sioux  and  the  Chippewa  tribes.  He  published  (Phila.,  1810), 
a  narrative  of  that  expedition.  —  ED. 

206  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

Death  and  its  Incidents 

When  an  Indian  is  sick  and  finds  he  is  going  to  die, 
he  may  direct  the  place  and  manner  of  his  interment, 
his  request  is  religeously  performed.  The  Sauk  and  Fox 
Indians  bury  their  dead  in  the  ground  and  sometimes 
have  them  transported  many  miles  to  a  particular  place 
of  interment.  The  grave  is  dug  similar  to  that  of  white 
people,  but  not  so  deep,  and  a  little  bark  answers  for  a 
coffin,  the  body,  is  generally  carried  to  the  grave  by  old 
women,  howling  at  intervals  most  pitiously.  Previous 
to  closing  the  grave  one  or  more  Indians  who  attend  the 
funeral  will  make  a  motion  with  a  stick  or  war-club 
called  by  the  Indians  Puc-ca-maw-gun  speaking  in  an 
audible  voice,  "I  have  killed  so  many  men  in  war,  I 
give  their  spirits  to  my  deceased  friend  who  lies  there 
(pointing  to  the  body)  to  serve  him  as  slaves  in  the  other 
world."  After  which  the  grave  is  filled  up  with  earth, 
and  in  a  day  or  two  afterwards  a  kind  of  cabin  is  made 
over  the  grave  with  split  boards  something  like  the  roof 
of  a  house,  if  the  deceased  was  a  brave  a  post  is  planted 
at  the  head  of  the  grave,  on  which  is  painted  with  ver- 
million  the  number  of  scalps  and  prisoners  he  had  taken 
in  war,  distinguishing  the  sexes  in  a  rude  manner  of 
painting  peculiar  to  themselves.  The  Indians  bury  their 
dead  as  soon  as  the  body  becomes  cold,  after  the  death 
of  an  adult  all  the  property78  of  the  deceased  is  given 

78  "Broadly  speaking,  Indian  property  was  personal.  Clothing  was  owned 
by  the  wearer,  whether  man,  woman,  or  child.  Weapons  and  ceremonial  para- 
phernalia belonged  to  the  man;  the  implements  used  in  cultivating  the  soil,  in 
preparing  food,  dressing  skins,  and  making  garments  and  tent  covers,  and 
among  the  Eskimo  the  lamp,  belonged  to  the  women.  In  many  tribes  all  raw 
materials,  as  meat,  corn,  and,  before  the  advent  of  traders,  pelts,  were  also  her 
property.  .  .  Communal  dwellings  were  the  property  of  the  kinship  group, 
but  individual  houses  were  built  and  owned  by  the  woman.  While  the  land 
claimed  by  a  tribe,  often  covering  a  wide  area,  was  common  to  all  its  members 
and  the  entire  territory  was  defended  against  intruders,  yet  individual  occu- 
pancy of  garden  patches  was  respected.  .  .  The  right  of  a  family  to  gather 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          207 

away  to  the  relations  of  the  deceased  and  the  widow  or 
widower  returns  to  his  or  her  nearest  relations,  if  a 
widow  is  not  too  old,  after  she  is  done  mourning,  she  is 
compelled  to  become  the  wife  of  her  deceased  husband's 
brother,  if  he  wishes.  Sometimes  an  Indian  will  take 
the  wife  of  his  deceased  brother,  and  dismifs  his  other 
wife  or  wives  from  all  obligations  to  him,  or  he  may 
keep  them  all.  Many  may  mourn  for  the  lofs  of  a  rela- 

spontaneous  growth  from  a  certain  locality  was  recognized,  and  the  harvest  , 
became  the  personal  property  of  the  gatherers.  For  instance,  among  the  Me- 
nominee  a  family  would  mark  off  a  section  by  twisting  in  a  peculiar  knot  the 
stalks  of  wild  rice  growing  along  the  edge  of  the  section  chosen;  this  knotted 
mark  would  be  respected  by  all  members  of  the  tribe,  and  the  family  could 
take  its  own  time  for  gathering  the  crop.  .  .  Names  were  sometimes  the 
property  of  clans.  Those  bestowed  on  the  individual  members,  and,  as  on  the 
N.W.  coast,  those  given  to  canoes  and  houses,  were  owned  by  'families.'  Prop- 
erty marks  were  placed  upon  weapons  and  implements  by  the  Eskimo  and  by 
the  Indian  tribes.  A  hunter  established  his  claim  to  an  animal  by  his  per- 
sonal mark  upon  the  arrow  which  inflicted  the  fatal  wound.  Among  both  the 
Indians  and  the  Eskimo  it  was  customary  to  bury  with  the  dead  those  articles 
which  were  the  personal  property  of  the  deceased,  either  man  or  woman.  In 
some  of  the  tribes  the  distribution  of  all  the  property  of  the  dead,  including  the 
dwelling,  formed  part  of  the  funeral  ceremonies.  There  was  another  class  of 
property,  composed  of  arts,  trades,  cults,  rituals,  and  ritual  songs,  in  which 
ownership  was  as  well  defined  as  in  the  more  material  things.  For  instance, 
the  right  to  practise  tattooing  belonged  to  certain  men  in  the  tribe;  the  right 
to  say  or  sing  rituals  and  ritual  songs  had  to  be  purchased  from  their  owner 
or  keeper.  .  .  The  shrine  and  sacred  articles  of  the  clan  were  usually  in 
charge  of  hereditary  keepers,  and  were  the  property  of  the  clan.  .  .  The 
accumulation  of  property  in  robes,  garments,  regalia,  vessels,  utensils,  ponies, 
and  the  like,  was  important  to  one  who  aimed  at  leadership.  To  acquire 
property  a  man  must  be  a  skilful  hunter  and  an  industrious  worker,  and  must 
have  an  able  following  of  relatives,  men  and  women,  to  make  the  required 
articles.  All  ceremonies,  tribal  festivities,  public  functions,  and  entertainment 
of  visitors  necessitated  large  contributions  of  food  and  gifts,  and  the  men  who 
could  meet  these  demands  became  the  recipients  of  tribal  honors.  Property 
rights  in  harvest  fields  obtained  among  the  tribes  subsisting  mainly  on  maize 
or  on  wild  rice.  Among  the  Chippewa  the  right  in  wild  rice  lands  was  not 
based  on  tribal  allotment,  but  on  occupancy.  Certain  harvest  fields  were 
habitually  visited  by  families  that  eventually  took  up  their  temporary  or  per- 
manent abode  at  or  near  the  fields;  no  one  disputed  their  ownership,  unless  an 
enemy  from  another  tribe,  in  which  case  might  established  right.  Among  the 
Potawatomi,  according  to  Jenks,  the  people  'always  divide  everything  when 
want  comes  to  the  door.' "  —  ALICE  C.  FLETCHER,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

208  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

tion  but  the  widows  are  always  the  principal  mourners, 
they  are  really  sincere,  they  are  to  be  seen  all  in  rags, 
their  hair  disheveled,  and  a  spot  of  black  made  with 
charcoal  on  the  cheeks,  their  countenance  dejected, 
never  seen  to  smile  but  appears  always  pensive,  seldom 
give  loose  to  their  tears  unlefs  it  is  alone  in  the  woods, 
where  they  are  out  of  the  hearing  of  any  person,  there 
they  retire  at  intervals  and  cry  very  loud  for  about  fif- 
teen minutes,  they  return  to  their  lodges  quite  composed. 
When  the[y]  cease  from  mourning  which  is  generally 
at  the  suggestion  of  their  friends,  they  wash  themselves 
put  on  their  best  clothes  and  ornaments,  and  paint  red. 
I  have  heard  Indians  say,  that,  the  spirit  of  a  deceased 
person,  hovers  about  the  village  or  lodge  for  a  few  days, 
then  takes  its  flight  to  the  land  of  repose. 79 

79  The  aboriginal  ideas  relating  to  the  soul  are  based  on  various  mental 
processes:  concepts  of  life  and  the  power  of  action;  the  phenomena  of  the  will: 
the  power  of  imagery,  which  produces  impressions  both  subjective  and  objective, 
as  in  memory  images,  the  conceptions  of  fancy,  dreams,  and  hallucinations. 
All  these  "lead  to  the  belief  in  souls  separate  from  the  body,  often  in  human 
form,  and  continuing  to  exist  after  death.  The  lack  of  tangibility  of  the  soul 
has  led  everywhere  among  Indians  to  the  belief  that  it  is  visible  to  shamans 
only,  or  at  least  that  it  is  like  a  shadow  (Algonquiaa),  like  an  unsubstantial 
image  (Eskimo),"  etc.  Almost  everywhere  the  soul  of  the  dead  is  identified 
with  the  owl.  "The  beliefs  relating  to  the  soul's  existence  after  death  are  very 
uniform,  not  only  in  North  America  but  all  over  the  world.  The  souls  live  in 
the  land  of  the  dead  in  the  form  that  they  had  in  life  and  continue  their  former 
occupations.  Detailed  descriptions  of  the  land  of  the  dead  are  found  among 
almost  all  American  tribes.  .  .  The  most  common  notion  is  that  of  the 
world  of  the  ghosts  lying  in  the  distant  west  beyond  a  river  which  must  be 
crossed  by  canoe.  This  notion  is  found  on  the  western  plateaus  and  on  the 
plains.  The  Algoiiquians  believe  that  the  brother  of  the  Culture  Hero  lives 
with  the  souls  of  the  dead.  Visits  to  the  world  of  the  dead  by  people  who  have 
been  in  a  trance  are  one  of  the  common  elements  of  American  folk-lore.  They 
have  been  reported  from  almost  all  over  the  continent."  —  FRANZ  BOAS,  in 
Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

The  Indians  certainly  believe  in  a  future  life,  but  their  ideas  of  its  nature 
and  location  were  vague  and  undefined.  "Nor  does  it  appear  that  belief  in  a 
future  life  had  any  marked  influence  on  the  daily  life  and  conduct  of  the 
individual.  The  American  Indian  seems  not  to  have  evolved  the  idea  of  hell 
and  future  punishment."  —  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians, 
art.  "Popular  fallacies." 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          209 

The  spirit  on  its  way  arrives  at  a  very  extensive  Pi- 
rarie,  over  which  they  see  the  woods  at  a  great  distance 
appearing  like  a  blue  cloud,  the  spirit  must  travel  over 
the  Pirarie  and  when  arrived  at  the  further  border,  the 
Pirarie  and  woodland  are  separated  by  a  deep  and  rapid 
stream  of  water,  acrofs  this  stream  is  a  pole  which  is 
continually  in  motion  by  the  rapidity  of  the  water,  the 
spirit  must  attempt  to  crofs  on  the  pole,  if  he  or  she  has 
been  a  good  person  in  this  world,  the  spirit  will  get  safe 
over  and  will  find  all  of  his  or  her  good  relations  who 
died  formerly.  In  those  woods  are  all  kinds  of  game  in 
plenty,  and  there  the  spirits  of  the  good  live  in  everlast- 
ing happinefs,  if  on  the  contrary,  the  person  has  done 
bad  in  this  life,  his  or  her  spirit  will  fall  off  the  pole  into 
the  water,  the  current  of  which  will  carry  the  spirit  to 
the  residence  of  the  evil  spirit,  where  it  will  remain 
for  ever  in  indigence  and  extreame  mifsery.  If  con- 
venient, the  graves  of  deceased  Indians  are  often  visited, 
they  hoe  away  the  grafs  all  about  and  sweep  it  clean, 
and  place  a  little  vituals  occasionally  with  some  to- 
bacco near  the  grave.  All  Indians  are  very  fond  of  their 
children  and  a  sick  Indian  is  loth  to  leave  this  world  if 
his  children  are  young,  but  if  grown  up  and  married 
they  know  they  are  a  burden  to  their  children  and  don't 
care  how  soon  they  die.  An  Indian  taken  prisoner  in 
war,  or  so  surrounded  by  his  enemies  that  he  cannot  es- 
cape, or  that  he  is  to  suffer  for  murder,  he  will  smile  in 
the  face  of  death,  and  if  an  opportunity  offers  he  will 
sell  his  life  dear.  In  burying  Indians  they  place  all 
their  ornaments  of  the  deceased,  sometimes  his  gun  and 
other  implements  for  hunting,  also  some  tobacco  in  his 
grave,  paint  and  drefs  the  dead  body  as  well  as  pofsible 
previous  to  interment. 

210  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

Birth  and  its  Incidents 

A  couple  marrying  the  offspring  belong  to  the  tribe 
of  the  father,  therefore  are  named  from  some  particular 
thing  or  incident  that  has  relation  to  the  name  of  the 
tribe:  for  example,  if  the  man  belongs  to  the  Bear  Tribe, 
he  takes  the  name  of  the  child  from  some  part  of  the 
bear,  or  the  bear  itself.  A  few  days  after  a  child  is  born 
and  some  of  the  old  relations  of  the  father  or  mother's 
side  are  near,  the  mother  of  the  child  gives  a  feast  and 
inviting  a  few  of  her  or  her  husband's  oldest  relations, 
she  having  previously  hinted  to  some  or  all  of  them  the 
nature  of  the  feast,  one  of  the  oldest  relations  gets  up 
while  the  others  are  sitting  on  the  ground  in  a  ring  with 
a  dish  containing  some  vituals  before  each  person  (the 
mother  and  child  being  present  but  do  not  taste  of  the 
feast)  and  makes  a  speech  to  the  following  purport. 
"We  have  gathered  together  here  to  day  in  the  sight  of 
the  Great  Spirit,  to  give  that  child  a  name ;  we  hope  the 
Great  Spirit  will  take  pity  on  our  young  relation  (if  a 
male)  make  him  a  good  hunter  and  warriour  and  a  man 
of  good  cense,  etc.  (if  a  female)  that  she  may  make  an 
industrious  woman,  etc.,  and  we  name  him  or  her." 

This  name  cannot  be  changed  untill  he  goes  to  war, 
when  an  Indian  commonly  changes  his  name  from  some 
fete  [i.e.,  feat]  in  war,  which  has  no  analogy  to  the 
tribe  he  belongs  to.  A  female  after  marriage  may 
change  her  name,  perhaps  a  dream  may  occasion  a 
woman  to  change  her  name  or  some  incident  that  has 
happened  may  do  so.  An  Indian  may  change  his  name 
half  a  dozen  times  without  being  to  war  more  than  once, 
an  Indian  who  has  been  to  war  and  returns  home  after 
travelling  towards  the  enemy's  country  for  a  few  days, 
may  change  his  name,  and  very  often  in  changing  their 
names,  take  the  name  of  one  of  their  ancestors  so  that 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          211 

those  names  may  be  handed  down  to  posterity.  I  know 
a  Fox  Indian  whose  name  is  Muc-co-pawm  which  is  in 
English  language  Bear's  Thigh  or  ham,  he  belongs  to 
the  Bear  Tribe.  A  Sauk  Indian  named  Muc-it-tay 
Mish-she-ka-kake  in  English  the  Black  Hawk,80  he 
belongs  to  the  Eagle  Tribe.  Wab-be-we-sian  or  White 
hair  (of  an  animal)  belongs  to  the  Deer  Tribe. 

80  Black  Hawk  was  a  subordinate  chief  in  the  Sauk  tribe,  and  noted  as  the 
leader  in  the  war  of  1832  which  is  named  for  him;  was  born  in  1767,  in  the 
Sauk  village  at  the  mouth  of  Rock  River,  111.  This  name  is  the  English  trans- 
lation of  his  Sauk  name,  Ma'katawimesheka'ka*.  From  the  age  of  fifteen  years 
he  was  distinguished  as  a  warrior;  and  while  still  a  young  man  he  led  expe- 
ditions against  the  Osage  and  Cherokee  tribes,  usually  successful.  In  the  War 
of  1812  he  fought  for  the  British,  and  after  that  war  he  was  the  leader  of  those 
among  his  tribesmen  who  preferred  British  to  American  affiliations.  When 
the  tide  of  American  migration  pushed  into  the  old  territory  of  the  Sauk  and 
Foxes  (which  had  been  surrendered  to  the  Federal  government  by  the  treaty 
of  1804)  part  of  those  tribes,  under  the  chief  Keokuk,  moved  across  the  Missis- 
sippi into  Iowa;  but  Black  Hawk  refused  to  leave,  saying  that  he  had  been 
deceived  in  signing  that  treaty.  "At  the  same  time  he  entered  into  negotiations 
with  the  Winnebago,  Potawatomi,  and  Kickapoo  to  enlist  them  in  concerted 
opposition  to  the  aggressions  of  the  whites."  Open  hostilities  ensued,  lasting 
from  April  to  August,  1832,  being  ended  by  the  capture  of  Black  Hawk;  he 
was  confined  for  a  time  at  Fortress  Monroe,  and  finally  settled  on  the  Des 
Moines  River,  where  he  died  on  October  8,  1838.  —  JOHN  R.  SWANTON,  in  Hand- 
book Amer.  Indians. 

For  particulars  of  his  life  and  of  the  "Black  Hawk  War"  see  Wis.  Hist. 
Colls.,  vols.  i,  iv,  v,  x,  xii;  also  Forsyth's  own  account  (Forsyth  Mss.,  vol.  ix), 
"Original  causes  of  the  troubles  with  a  party  of  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  under 
the  direction  or  command  of  the  Black  Hawk  who  is  no  chief."  He  says  that 
the  treaty  of  1804  was  signed  only  by  two  Sauk  chiefs,  one  Fox  chief,  and  one 
warrior;  and  that  those  tribes  were  not  consulted  and  knew  nothing  about  it 
(see  note  291).  Squatters  came  upon  their  lands,  and  robbed  and  abused  the 
Indians,  besides  selling  them  whisky,  regardless  of  the  objections  made  to  this 
by  the  chiefs,  especially  Black  Hawk.  They  were  not  allowed  to  hunt  on  the 
lands  alleged  to  have  been  ceded  by  them  to  the  government,  although  this 
privilege  was  granted  to  them  by  the  treaty  of  1804.  In  1830  they  decided  to 
remove  to  their  lands  in  Iowa,  and  Forsyth  (at  their  own  request)  asked  for 
certain  action  on  this  by  Gen.  Clark,  who  paid  no  attention  to  the  matter  — 
neglect  which  Forsyth  blames  as  causing  the  later  hostilities  with  Black  Hawk. 
He  praises  that  leader  as  always  a  friend  to  the  whites,  and  says  that  when  he 
came  back  to  Illinois  in  1832  with  his  people  he  had  no  intention  of  fighting, 
and  did  so  only  because  they  were  first  attacked  by  the  whites  and  naturally 
undertook  to  defend  themselves.  —  ED. 

212  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

The  Eagle  Tribe  have  a  peculiar  monumental  way 
of  designating  their  dead  from  others  by  placing  the 
trunk  of  a  fallen  tree  at  the  head  of  their  graves,  with  the 
roots  upwards.  The  other  tribes  have  also  a  peculiar 
way  of  marking  their  graves  but  I  am  not  acquainted  in 
what  manner.  All  Indians  that  I  am  acquainted  with 
are  always  unwilling  to  tell  their  names  except  when 
immediate  necefsity  require  it  before  many  people,  if 
you  ask  an  Indian  what  his  name  is,  he  will  not  answer 
you,  some  other  Indian  present  will  generally  answer 
for  him :  it  is  considered  impolite  to  ask  an  Indian  his 
name  promptly:  in  speaking  of  an  Indian  not  present, 
his  name  is  mentioned,  but  if  present  the  Indians  will 
say,  him,  that  man.  If  a  few  old  acquaintances  meet, 
they  call  one  another  comrade,  uncle,  nephew,  brave, 
etc.  Children  while  young  are  altogether  under  the 
guidance  of  their  mothers,  they  seldom  or  ever  whip 
their  children  particularly  the  boys.  The  mother  re- 
ports to  their  children  all  the  information  she  pofsefses 
relating  to  any  great  event  that  she  recollects  or  has 
heard  of.  When  a  boy  grows  up  to  be  able  to  hunt  they 
follow  their  father  a  hunting,  he  shews  them  the  differ- 
ent tracks  of  animals,  and  the  art  of  hunting  different 
animals,  and  the  mode  of  preparing  the  medicine  for 
the  Beaver  Traps  and  how  to  apply  it,  etc. 

A  female  always  keeps  close  to  her  mother  until  she 
gets  married  who  teaches  her  how  to  make  mocosins, 
drefs  skins,  make  or  construct  a  lodge,  etc.  Males  after 
marriage  or  being  once  to  war  are  considered  men,  yet 
if  a  young  Indian  has  to  serve  for  a  wife,  he  has  nothing 
to  say  in  the  disposial  of  his  hunt  until  after  the  birth  of 
the  first  child,  after  which  he  considers  himself  his  own 
master,  and  master  of  his  wife.  In  delivering  to  the  In- 
dians annuities  or  presents  for  the  whole  it  is  divided 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          213 

among  the  poorer  clafs  of  the  Indians,  the  chief  and 
braves  seldom  keep  any  of  the  annuities  or  presents  for 
themselves.  Old  people  are  a  very  great  incumbrance 
to  their  relations  except  the[y]  live  exclusively  on  the 
bank  of  rivers  or  creeks,  where  they  may  be  easily  trans- 
ported in  canoes.  A  great  many  of  the  old  people  of  the 
Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  may  be  seen  pafsing  the  winter 
on  the  banks  of  the  Mifsifsippi,  they  live  on  corn,  pump- 
kins and  such  other  provision  as  a  boy  or  two  can  pro- 
cure such  as  wild  fowl,  raccoons,  etc.  They  are  very 
indigent  in  the  absence  of  their  relations  in  the  interiour 
of  the  country  yet  never  complain.  All  adopted  chil- 
dren are  treated  as  real  children  and  considered  in  same 
light,  it  is  often  the  case,  a  man  may  adopt  his  nephew 
whom  he  calls  his  son,  and  the  nephew  calls  the  uncle 
father.  All  young  Indian  children  are  tied  up  in  an 
Indian  cradle,  I  know  of  no  difference  made  between 
the  children  untill  the  boys  begin  to  hunt,  then  the 
mother  shews  a  preference  to  the  best  hunter  or  the 
oldest  (as  it  generally  happens  that  they  are  all  hunters 
in  time)  in  giving  them  good  leggins,  mocosins,  etc. 
The  young  females  are  also  very  industrious  in  attend- 
ing on  their  brothers,  as  they  well  know  the  hardships 
their  brothers  endure  in  hunting.  When  young  In- 
dians grow  up  to  seventeen  or  eighteen  and  their  fathers 
are  hard  to  them,  they  leave  their  parents,  but  when  the 
young  Indian  begins  to  kill  deer,  they  are  seldom  spoken 
harsh  to,  on  the  contrary,  they  are  flattered  with  silver 
works,  wampum,  vermillion  and  other  ornaments. 

In  the  event  of  an  Indian  dying  and  leaving  a  fam- 
ily of  children,  the  relations  take  care  of  them  untill 
they  are  married,  if  the  orphan  children  have  no  rela- 
tions their  situation  is  bad,  but  it  is  almost  impofsible  for 
a  child  or  children  in  the  Sauk  and  Fox  nations  not  to 

214  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

have  relations.  The  mother  always  takes  care  of  her 
children,  legitimate  or  illegitimate.  It  seldom  happens 
that  Indian  women  have  more  than  one  child  at  a  birth, 
and  I  never  heard  of  any  Indian  woman  having  more 
than  two. 


An  Indian  girl  may  become  loose,  and  if  she  happens 
to  be  taken  off  by  a  young  Indian  in  a  summer  hunting 
excursion  (as  it  frequently  happens)  on  his  return  he 
will  give  her  parents  part  of  his  hunt,  probably  a  horse, 
or  some  goods  and  a  little  whiskey,  telling  them  that  he 
means  to  keep  their  daughter  as  his  wife :  if  the  old  peo- 
ple accept  of  the  presents,  the  young  couple  live  peace- 
ably together  with  his  or  her  relations,  and  so  end  that 
ceremony.  A  young  Indian  may  see  a  girl  whom  he 
wishes  for  a  wife,  he  watches  opportunities  to  speak  to 
her,  if  well  received,  he  acquaints  his  parents:  his  par- 
ents not  wishing  to  part  with  their  son  if  he  is  a  good 
hunter,  the  old  people  make  an  offer  of  goods  or  horses 
for  the  girl,  and  if  they  succeed  they  take  home  their 
daughter-in-law.  On  the  contrary  if  the  parents  of  the 
girl  will  not  agree  to  receive  property  but  insist  on 
servitude,  the  young  Indian  must  come  to  hunt  for  his 
wife's  parents  for  same  one,  two,  or  three  years  as  may 
be  agreed  on  before  the  parents  will  relinquish  their 
right  to  their  daughter.  I  do  not  know  of  any  marriage 
ceremony  except  the  contract  between  the  parties.  An 
Indian  may  have  two,  three  or  more  wives,  but  always 
prefer  sisters  as  they  agree  better  together  in  the  same 
lodge,  the  eldest  has  generally  the  disposal  of  the  hunt, 
purchase  all  the  goods  and  regulate  all  the  domestic 
affairs.  Adultery  among  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  is 
punished  by  cutting  off  the  ears,  or  cutting  or  biting  off 
the  nose  of  the  woman,  the  punishment  is  generally  per- 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          215 

formed  by  the  husband  on  the  wife,  however  this  seldom 
happens,  and  altho  there  are  many  loose  girls  among 
them,  the  married  women  are  generally  very  constant. 
An  Indian  will  not  be  blamed  for  committing  the  act, 
if  he  has  not  made  use  of  force,  the  old  women  will  say, 
he  is  a  Kit-che-Waw-wan-ish-caw,  i.e.  a  very  worthlefs 
rake,  however  the  injured  husband  might  in  a  fit  of 
jealousy  kill  both  of  them. 

An  Indian's  wife  is  his  property,  and  has  it  in  his 
power  to  kill  her  if  she  acts  badly  without  fear  of  re- 
venge from  her  relations.  There  is  no  such  thing  as 
divorces,  the  Indians  turn  off  their  wives,  and  the  wives 
leave  their  husbands  when  they  become  discontented, 
yet  the  husband  can  oblidge  his  wife  to  return  if  he 
pleases.  Women  seldom  leave  their  husbands  and  the 
Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  as  seldom  beat  or  maltreat  their 
wives.  An  Indian  will  listen  to  a  woman  scold  all  day, 
and  feel  no  way  affected  at  what  she  may  say.  Barrenefs 
is  generally  the  cause  of  separation  among  the  Indians. 

The  Indian  women  never  have  more  than  one  hus- 
band at  a  time,  nor  does  an  Indian  ever  marry  the  mother 
and  daughter,  they  look  with  contempt  on  any  man  that 
would  have  connection  with  a  mother  and  her  daughter, 
he  would  be  called  a  worthlefs  dog.  The  relationship 
among  Indians  is  drawn  much  closer  than  among  us,  for 
instance,  brother's  children  consider  themselves  and  call 
one  another  brothers  and  sisters  and  if  the  least  relation- 
ship exists  between  an  Indian  and  a  girl  it  will  prevent 
them  from  being  married.  An  old  Sauk  chief  who  died 
a  few  years  ago  named  Masco,  told  me  that  he  was  then 
upwards  of  ninety  years  of  age,  I  hesitated  to  believe 
him,  but  he  insisted  on  what  he  said  to  be  true,  he  spoke 
of  the  taking  of  Canada  by  the  British  also  about  the 
French  fort  at  Green  Bay  on  Lake  Michigan,  mentioned 

216  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

the  French  commandant's  name  Monsieur  Marrin81 
which  left  no  doubt  with  me  of  his  being  a  very  old  man. 
There  are  now  many  very  old  people  among  the  Sauk 
and  Fox  Indians  but  as  all  Indians  are  ignorant  of  their 
exact  age,  it  is  impofsible  to  find  out  the  age  of  any  of 
the  old  people.  It  is  very  uncommon  for  unmarried 
women  to  have  children,  except  it  be  those  who  live  with 
whitemen  for  sometime,  in  that  case,  when  they  return 
to  live  with  their  nation,  necefsity  compels  them  to  ac- 
cept the  first  offer  that  is  made  to  them  and  they  gener- 
ally get  some  poor,  lazy,  worthlefs  fellow  who  cannot 
procure  a  wife  in  the  usual  way. 

There  are  few  women  among  the  Sauk  and  Fox  In- 
dians who  are  sterile:  the  proportion  of  sterile  women 
to  them  who  bear  children,  are  about  one  to  500,  it  will 
not  be  too  much  to  say,  that  each  married  woman  on  an 
average  have  three  children.  Girls  seldom  arrive  at  the 
age  of  sixteen  without  being  married,  fourteen  is  the 
usual  age  of  getting  married  for  the  young  girls,  and  we 
often  see  a  girl  of  fourteen  with  her  first  child  on  her 
back,  Indian  women  generally  have  a  child  the  first  year 
after  marriage,  and  one  every  two  years  subsequent,  they 
allow  their  children  to  suck  at  least  twice  as  long  as  a 
whitewoman  do,  they  generally  leave  off  child  bearing 
about  the  age  of  thirty. 

Family  Government,  etc. 

The  duties  of  an  Indian  is  to  hunt,  to  feed  and  clothe 
his  wife  and  children,  to  purchase  arms  and  amunition 
for  himself  and  sons,  purchase  kettles,  axes,  hoes,  etc.,  to 
make  canoes,  paddles,  poles,  and  saddles,  to  afsist  in 

81  There  were  two  French  officers  named  Marin  in  the  northwestern  Indian 
country,  and  their  identity  has  been  sometimes  confused.  Pierre  Paul,  sieur 
Marin  was  born  in  1692,  and  was  for  a  long  time  a  trader  among  the  Sioux 
and  the  Wisconsin  Indians.  From  1745  until  his  death  in  1.753,  he  held  com- 
mands in  the  French-Canadian  troops.  His  son  Joseph  followed  also  a  military 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          217 

working  the  canoes  also  in  hunting,  saddling  and  driv- 
ing the  horses. 

The  duties  of  the  women 82  is  to  skin  the  animals  when 
brot  home,  to  stretch  the  skins  and  prepare  them  for 
market,  to  cook,  to  make  the  camp,  to  cut  and  carry 
wood,  to  make  fires,  to  drefs  leather,  make  mocosins  and 
leggins,  to  plant,  hoe  and  gather  in  the  corn,  beans,  etc., 

career,  from  1748  until  the  fall  of  Quebec  (1763),  when  he  returned  to  France. 
The  man  named  Marin  (or  Morand)  reported  as  living  in  Wisconsin  after 
1763  was  probably  a  half-breed.  —  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  xvii,  315.  [Cf.  also 
many  references  in  indexes,  vols.  v,  viii,  xvi,  xvii.  —  ED.] 

82  The  position  of  woman  in  Indian  society,  especially  as  regards  the  division 
of  labor  has  been  misunderstood.  In  the  idea  that  she  was  a  mere  drudge  and 
slave,  and  her  husband  only  indolent,  there  was  some  truth,  but  it  was  much 
overdrawn,  "chiefly  because  the  observations  which  suggest  it  were  made  about 
the  camp  and  village,  in  which  and  in  the  neighboring  fields  lay  the  peculiar 
province  of  woman's  activity."  Her  field  of  labor  was  naturally  the  home  and 
household  industries,  and  the  rearing  of  the  children,  and  among  agricultural 
tribes  generally  tillage  of  the  fields  was  largely  woman's  work;  but  she  had 
some  leisure  time  for  amusement  and  social  intercourse.  "In  an  Indian  com- 
munity, where  the  food  question  is  always  a  serious  one,  there  can  be  no  idle 
hands.  The  women  were  aided  in  their  round  of  tasks  by  the  children  and  old 
men.  Where  slavery  existed  their  toil  was  further  lightened  by  the  aid  of 
slaves,  and  in  other  tribes  captives  were  often  compelled  to  aid  in  the  women's 

"The  men  did  all  the  hunting,  fishing,  and  trapping,  which  in  savagery  are 
always  toilsome,  frequently  dangerous,  and  not  rarely  fatal,  especially  in  winter. 
The  man  alone  bore  arms,  and  to  him  belonged  the  chances  and  dangers  of 
war."  It  was  men  also  who  attended  to  the  making  and  administration  of 
laws,  the  conduct  of  treaties,  and  the  general  regulation  of  tribal  affairs, 
"though  in  these  fields,  women  also  had  important  prerogatives;"  and  import- 
ant ceremonies  and  religious  rites,  and  the  memorizing  of  tribal  records,  and 
of  treaties  and  rituals,  were  intrusted  to  the  men.  "The  chief  manual  labor  of 
the  men  was  the  manufacture  of  hunting  and  war  implements,  an  important 
occupation  that  took  much  time."  They  also  made  the  canoes,  and  often  dressed 
the  skins  of  animals,  and  sometimes  even  made  the  clothing  for  their  wives. 
"Thus,  in  Indian  society,  the  position  of  woman  was  usually  subordinate,  and 
the  lines  of  demarcation  between  the  duties  of  the  sexes  were  everywhere 
sharply  drawn.  Nevertheless,  the  division  of  labor  was  not  so  unequal  as  it 
might  seem  to  the  casual  observer,  and  it  is  difficult  to  understand  how  the  line 
could  have  been  more  fairly  drawn  in  a  state  of  society  where  the  military 
spirit  was  so  dominant.  Indian  communities  lived  in  constant  danger  of  attack, 
and  their  men,  whether  in  camp  or  on  the  march,  must  ever  be  ready  at  a 
moment's  warning  to  seize  their  arms  and  defend  their  homes  and  families." 
-HENRY  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


and  to  do  all  the  drudgery.  They  will  scold  their  hus- 
bands for  getting  drunk  or  parting  with  a  favorite  horse 
or  wasting  any  property  to  purchase  spiritous  liquor, 
will  scold  their  children  for  wasting  or  destroying  any 
property.  It  is  a  maxim  among  the  Indians  that  every 
thing  belong  to  the  woman  or  women  except  the  Indian's 
hunting  and  war  implements,  even  the  game,  the  In- 
dians bring  home  on  his  back.  As  soon  as  it  enters  the 
lodge,  the  man  ceases  to  have  anything  to  say  in  its  dis- 
posal, properly  speaking,  the  husband  is  master,  the 
wife  the  slave,  but  it  is  in  most  cases  voluntary  slavery 
as  the  Indians  seldom  make  their  wives  feel  their  author- 
ity, by  words  or  deeds,  they  generally  live  very  happy 
together,  they  on  both  sides  make  due  allowances. 


The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  are  much  troubled  with 
the  pleuricy  and  sore  eyes,  one  proceeds  from  their  fa- 
tigue and  exposure  in  hunting  and  war,  the  other  I 
suppose  from  smoke  in  their  lodges.  They  understand 
the  use  of  medicine83  necefsary  for  the  cure  of  the  most 

83  "Many  erroneous  ideas  of  the  practice  of  medicine  among  the  Indians 
are  current,  often  fostered  by  quacks  who  claim  to  have  received  herbs  and 
methods  of  practice  from  noted  Indian  doctors.  The  medical  art  among  all 
Indians  was  rooted  in  sorcery;  and  the  prevailing  idea  that  diseases  were 
caused  by  the  presence  or  acts  of  evil  spirits,  which  could  be  removed  only 
by  sorcery  and  incantation,  controlled  diagnosis  and  treatment.  This  concep- 
tion gave  rise  to  both  priest  and  physician.  Combined  with  it  there  grew  up 
a  certain  knowledge  of  and  dependence  upon  simples,  one  important  develop- 
ment of  which  was  what  we  know  as  the  doctrine  of  signatures,  according  to 
which,  in  some  cases,  the  color,  shape,  and  markings  of  plants  are  supposed  to 
indicate  the  organs  for  which  in  disease  they  are  supposed  to  be  specifics. 
There  was  current  in  many  tribes,  especially  among  the  old  women,  a  rude 
knowledge  of  the  therapeutic  use  of  a  considerable  number  of  plants  and  roots, 
and  of  the  sweating  process,  which  was  employed  with  little  discrimination." 
—  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

Many  of  the  medicinal  roots  of  eastern  and  southern  United  States  were 
adopted  by  the  whites  from  the  Indian  pharmacopeia;  some  of  these  are  still 
known  by  their  native  names,  and  about  forty  are  quoted  in  current  price  lists 
of  crude  drugs.  Indians  formerly  gathered  medicinal  roots  to  supply  the  trade 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          219 

complaints,  they  are  subject  to,  they  make  the  use  of  pur- 
gatives and  emetics,  some  of  them  operate  promptly, 
some  of  the  Indians  understand  the  art  of  bleeding,  and 
make  use  of  the  lancet  or  penknife  for  that  purpose,  they 
make  use  of  decoctions  of  roots,  and  there  are  few  die 
for  want  of  medicines,  probably  some  die  from  taking 
to  much. 


I  am  informed  that  the  Indians  in  general  are  much 
better  acquainted  with  the  anatomy  of  the  human  body, 
than  the  commonalty  of  white  people,  and  in  many  in- 
stances, making  surprising  cures,  they  are  very  succefsful 
in  the  treatment  of  wounds :  I  have  known  many  to  have 
been  cured  after  having  been  shot  in  the  body  with  ball 
and  arrows,  they  are  rather  rough  in  their  surgical 
operations,  they  cut  away  with  a  small  knife,  and  I 
have  seen  them  make  use  of  a  pair  of  old  scifsors,  to  ex- 
tract an  arrow  point  stuck  in  the  thigh  bone,  and  suc- 
ceeded after  much  carving  to  get  at  it.  Every  Indian 
is  acquainted  either  more  or  lefs  with  the  use  of  common 
medicines,  in  extreame  cures  [sc.  cases],  they  apply  to 
some  of  their  most  celebrated  jugglers,  they  in  addition 
to  their  medicine  make  use  of  superstitious  ceremonies, 
to  imp  re  Is  on  the  minds  of  the  sick,  or  the  persons 
present,  that  he  makes  use  of  supernatural  means  for  the 
recovery  of  the  person  sick:  also  that  the  sick  persons  is 
bewitched  and  will  work  away  making  use  of  the  most 
ludicrous  experiments  all  of  which  is  swallowed  by  the 
credulous  Indians.  The  conjuror  or  Man  a  too- Caw- So 

that  arose  after  the  coming  of  the  whites.  Many  roots  were  exported,  espe- 
cially ginseng,  in  which  there  was  an  extensive  commerce  with  China;  and, 
curiously  enough,  the  Iroquois  name  for  the  plant  has  the  same  meaning  as  the 
Chinese  name."  —  WALTER  HOUGH,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

See  the  list  of  trees  and  plants  used  for  medicinal  purposes  by  the  Chippewa 
in  Minnesota,  in  Hoffman's  "Mide'wiwin  of  the  Ojibwa,"  in  Seventh  annual 
Report  of  the  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  198-201.  —  ED. 

220  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

or  doctor  are  feared  by  the  bulk  of  the  Indians,  and 
never  dare  to  do  any  thing  to  displease  them. 


The  general  opinion  of  all  Indians  is,  that  the  earth 
is  flat,  and  [they]  appear  to  be  acquainted  with  several 
stars,  they  know  all  the  fixed  stars,  and  have  names  for 
them  all,  also  for  others  that  apparently  change  their 
position,  the[y]  regulate  their  seasons  as  well  by  the 
stars  as  by  the  moon.  The  year  the[y]  divide  into  four 
seasons,  as  we  do.  Spring- Man-no-cum-ink.  Sum- 
mer -Pen-a- wick.  Autumn  -Tuc-quock.  Winter  - 
Pap-po-en.  Also  into  twelve  moons  as  follows: 
Tuc-wot-thu  Keeshis  First  frosty  moon  commencing  in  Sept. 
Amulo  "  Rutting  "  October 

Puccume  Freezing  November 

Kiche  Muqua         "        Big  Bear         "  December 

Chuckee  Muqua  Little  Bear      "  January 

Tuc-wun-nee  "        Cold  February 

Pa-puc-qua  "        Sap  March 

A-paw-in-eck-kee     "        Fish  "  April 

Uc-kee-kay  "        Planting  "  May 

Pa-la-nee  First  summer  or  flowering  moon   June 

Na-pen-nee  Midsummer  moon  July 

Mish-a-way  "        Elk  "  August 

Their  year  is  quoted  as  the[y]  are  placed  in  the  above 
list  of  moons,  commencing  with  the  moon  that  changes 
in  September,  being  the  time  the[y]  usually  leave  their 
villages  (after  saving  their  corn)  to  go  westward  to 
make  their  fall  and  winter's  hunt.  The  Sauk  and  Fox 
Indians  say  that  the  Great  Spirit  made  every  thing,  the 
earth,  moon,  sun,  stars,  etc.,  all  kinds  of  birds,  beasts, 
and  fishes,  and  all  for  the  use  of  the  Indians.  As  a 
proof  they  say,  that  it  is  only  in  their  country  that  the 
buffaloe,  elk,  deer,  bear,  etc.,  are  to  be  found,  therefore 
they  were  specially  intended  for  the  Indians.  To  the 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          221 

white  people  the  Great  Spirit  gave  the  book,  and  taught 
them  the  use  of  it,  which  the  Great  Spirit  thought  was 
absolutely  necefsary  for  them  to  guide  them  through 
life :  he  also  shewed  them  how  to  make  blankets,  guns, 
and  gunpowder,  all  of  which  were  special  gifts  to  the 
whites.  The  use  of  letters  particularly  astonish  them, 
and  the[y]  hold  writing  of  any  sort  in  great  esteem, 
they  have  many  papers  among  them  of  sixty  and  seventy 
years  old  in  the  French  and  Spanish  languages,  they 
take  care  of  all  old  papers,  without  knowing  any  thing 
of  the  purport  of  them:  the  old  papers  are  generally 
recommendations  formerly  written  by  French  and  Span- 
ish commandants,  commonly  called  patents  by  the 
French  and  Spaniards. 

The  Indians  do  not  like  to  see  eclipses  of  the  sun  or 
moon,  they  say  that  some  bad  munitoo  is  about  to  hide 
and  devour  the  sun  or  moon,  the  Indians  always  fire  at 
the  eclipse  to  drive  away  the  munitoo,  which  they  think 
they  succeed  in  when  the  eclipse  is  over.  The  Indians 
also  fire  ball  at  any  comet,  or  bright  star,  which  they 
think  are  munitoos. 

All  Indians  can  count  as  far  as  1,000,  which  they  call 
a  big  hundred,  a  great  many  can  count  to  10,000.  They 
know  as  much  of  arithmetic  as  is  sufficient  to  do  their 
own  businefs,  altho  they  have  no  particular  mark  to 
represent  numbers.  The  method  the  Indians  describe 
north,  east,  south,  and  west,  is  as  follows.  They  point 
to  the  north  (or  at  night  to  the  north  star  which  they  call 
the  immoveable  star)  which  they  call  the  cold  country : 
south  the  warm  country,  east  the  rising  sun,  west  the 
setting  sun.  The  Indians  are  excellent  judges  of  the 
weather,  and  I  have  known  them  prepare  for  rain,  when 
I  could  observe  no  signs  whatever.  Met[e]ors  they 
cannot  comprehend,  they  call  them  munitoos.  In  mak- 


ing  calculations  for  the  appearance  of  the  new  moon, 
they  say,  in  so  many  days  the  present  moon  will  die,  and 
in  so  many  more  days,  the  next  moon  will  hang  in  the 
firmament  (or  the  moon  will  be  visible) . 

Few  of  the  Indians  know  any  thing  of  Europe,  or  the 
ocean,  the  little  they  know,  they  have  learned  it  from 
the  traders. 


The  only  musical  instruments  the  Sauk  and  Fox  In- 
dians make  use  of,  is  the  flute,  made  of  a  piece  of  cane 
of  two  pieces  of  soft  wood  hallowed  out  and  tied  to- 
gether with  leather  thongs,  also  a  drum,  which  they  beat 
with  a  stick,  the  flute  they  blow  at  one  end,  and  except 
the  key  it  is  something  like  a  flagelet.  They  beat  the 
drum  at  all  kinds  of  feasts,  dances,  and  games,  they 
dance  keeping  time  with  the  tap  of  the  drum,  their  tunes 
are  generally  melancholly,  they  are  always  on  a  flat 
key,  and  contain  many  variations,  they  have  a  pe- 
culiar mode  of  telling  stories,  elegantly  illustrated  with 
metaphor  and  similie,  in  telling  their  stories  they  always 
retain  something  to  the  last,  which  is  necefsary  to  ex- 
plain the  whole. 


The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  believe  in  one  great  and 
good  Spirit,84  who  superintends  and  commands  all 
things,  and  that  there  are  many  supernatural  agents  or 

8*  "Among  the  many  erroneous  conceptions  regarding  the  Indian  none  has 
taken  deeper  root  than  the  one  which  ascribes  to  him  belief  in  an  overruling 
deity,  the  'Great  Spirit.'  Very  far  removed  from  this  tremendous  conception 
of  one  all-powerful  deity  was  the  Indian  belief  in  a  multitude  of  spirits  that 
dwelt  in  animate  and  inanimate  objects,  to  propitiate  which  was  the  chief 
object  of  his  supplications  and  sacrifices.  To  none  of  his  deities  did  the  Indian 
ascribe  moral  good  or  evil.  His  religion  was  practical.  The  spirits  were  the 
source  of  good  or  bad  fortune,  whether  on  the  hunting  path  or  the  war  trail, 
in  the  pursuit  of  a  wife  or  in  a  ball  game.  If  successful  he  adored,  offered 
sacrifices,  and  made  valuable  presents.  If  unsuccessful  he  cast  his  manito  away 
and  offered  his  faith  to  more  powerful  or  more  friendly  deities.  In  this  world 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          223 

munitoos  permitted  by  the  Great  Spirit  to  interfere  in 
the  concerns  of  the  Indians. 

They  believe  the  thunder  presides  over  the  destinies  of 
war,  also  Mache-muntitoo  or  bad  Spirit  is  subordinate 
to  Kee-shay-Munitoo  or  the  Great  Spirit,  but  that  the 
bad  Spirit  is  permitted  (occasionally)  to  revenge  him- 
self on  mankind  thro  the  agency  of  bad  medicine,  poison- 
ous reptiles,  killing  horses,  sinking  canoes,  etc.,  every 
accident  that  befalls  them,  they  impute  to  the  bad  Spir- 
it's machinations,  but  at  same  time,  conceive  it  is  al- 
lowed to  be  so,  in  atonement  for  some  part  of  their 
misdeeds.  All  Indians  believe  in  ghosts,  and  when  they 
imagine  they  have  seen  a  ghost,  the  friends  of  the  de- 
ceased immediately  give  a  feast  and  hang  up  some 
clothing  as  an  offering  to  pacify  the  troubled  spirit  of 
the  deceased;  they  pray  by  singing  over  certain  words 
before  they  lay  down  at  night,  they  hum  over  a  prayer 
also  about  sunrise  in  the  morning.  The  Sauk  and  Fox 
Indians  are  very  religious  so  far  as  ceremony  is  con- 
cerned, and  even  in  pafsing  any  extraordinary  cave, 
rock,  hill,  etc.,  they  leave  behind  them  a  little  tobacco 
for  the  munitoo,  who  they  suppose  lives  there.  There 
is  a  particular  society  among  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians 
(and  I  believe  among  some  other  nations  of  Indians), 
the  particulars  of  which,  I  understand  is  never  divulged 
by  any  of  the  society.  They  hold  their  meetings  in 
secret,  and  what  ever  pafses  among  them  at  their  meet- 
ings, is  never  spoken  of  by  any  of  them  elsewhere,  this 
society  is  composed  of  some  of  the  best  and  most  sen- 
cible  men  in  the  two  nations.85  I  have  given  myself 

of  spirits  the  Indian  dwelt  in  perpetual  fear.     He  feared  to  offend  the  spirits 
of  the  mountains,  of  the  dark  wood,  of  the  lake,  of  the  prairie." 

-  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

85  "Societies  or  brotherhoods  of  a  secret  and  usually  sacred  character  existed 
among  very  many  American  tribes,  among  many  more,  doubtless,  than  those 
from  which  there  is  definite  information.  On  the  plains  the  larger  number  of 


much  trouble  to  find  out  the  particulars  of  this  society, 
but  have  been  able  to  succeed  in  a  very  small  part  only. 
The  Indians  of  this  society  are  called  the  Great  Medi- 
cine men,  and  when  a  young  Indian  wish  to  become 
one  of  the  society,  he  applies  to  one  of  the  members  to 
intercede  for  him,  saying  "you  can  vouch  for  me  as 

these  were  war  societies,  and  they  were  graded  in  accordance  with  the  age  and 
attainments  of  the  members.  The  Buffalo  Society  was  a  very  important  body 
devoted  to  healing  disease.  The  Omaha  and  Pawnee  seem  to  have  had  a  great 
number  of  societies,  organized  for  all  sorts  of  purposes.  There  were  societies 
concerned  with  the  religious  mysteries,  with  the  keeping  of  records,  and  with 
the  dramatization  of  myths,  ethical  societies,  and  societies  of  mirth-makers,  who 
strove  in  their  performances  to  reverse  the  natural  order  of  things.  We  find 
also  a  society  considered  able  to  will  people  to  death,  a  society  of  'big-bellied 
men,'  and  among  the  Cheyenne  a  society  of  fire-walkers,  who  trod  upon  fires 
with  their  bare  feet  until  the  flames  were  extinguished."  Hoffman  describes 
the  Grand  Medicine  society,  or  Mide'wiwin,  and  its  four  degrees ;  "as  a  result 
of  these  initiations  the  spiritual  insight  and  power,  especially  the  power  to 
cure  disease,  was  successively  increased,  while  on  the  purely  material  side  the 
novitiate  received  instruction  regarding  the  medicinal  virtues  of  many  plants. 
The  name  of  this  society  in  the  form  medeu  occurs  in  Delaware,  where  it  was 
applied  to  a  class  of  healers."  —  JOHN  R.  SWANTON,  in  Handbook  Amer.  In- 
dians>  art.  "Secret  societies." 

W.  J.  Hoffman  says  in  his  paper  on  the  above-named  "Grand  Medicine 
Society"  of  the  Chippewa  (or  Ojibwa)  —which  was  published  in  the  Seventh 
annual  Report  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology  (1885-1886),  143-299  — in 
speaking  of  the  opposition  made  by  the  medicine-men  (often  called  sorcerers), 
from  the  outset,  to  the  introduction  of  Christianity:  "In  the  light  of  recent 
investigation  the  cause  of  this  antagonism  is  seen  to  lie  in  the  fact  that  the  tra- 
ditions of  Indian  genesis  and  cosmogony  and  the  ritual  of  initiation  into  the 
Society  of  the  Mide'  constitute  what  is  to  them  a  religion,  even  more  powerful 
and  impressive  than  the  Christian  religion  is  to  the  average  civilized  man. 
This  opposition  still  exists  among  the  leading  classes  of  a  number  of  the  Algon- 
kian  tribes,  and  especially  among  the  Ojibwa,  many  bands  of  whom  have  been 
more  or  less  isolated  and  beyond  convenient  reach  of  the  church.  The  purposes 
of  the  society  are  twofold:  first,  to  preserve  the  traditions  just  mentioned,  and, 
second,  to  give  a  certain  class  of  ambitious  men  and  women  sufficient  influence 
through  their  acknowledged  power  of  exorcism  and  necromancy  to  lead  a  com- 
fortable life  at  the  expense  of  the  credulous.  The  persons  admitted  into  the 
society  are  firmly  believed  to  possess  the  power  of  communing  with  various 
supernatural  beings  —  manidos  —  and  in  order  that  certain  desires  may  be 
realized  they  are  sought  after  and  consulted"  (page  151).  Hoffman  made 
personal  investigations  among  the  Ojibwa  during  the  years  1887-1889,  at 
Leech  Lake,  Minn.,  to  obtain  data  for  this  paper,  and  much  of  his  information 
was  furnished  directly  by  the  shamans  ("medicine-men")  themselves.  —  ED. 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          225 

being  a  good  Indian,  etc.,"  the  friend  of  the  applicant 
mentions  the  circumstance  to  the  headman  of  the  so- 
ciety, who  gives  an  answer  in  a  few  days  after  consulting 
others  of  the  society,  if  the  applicant  is  admitted,  his 
friend  is  directed  to  prepare  him  accordingly,  but  what 
the  preparation,  etc.,  is,  I  never  could  find  out,  but  no 
Indian  can  be  admitted  untill  the  expiration  of  one  year, 
after  application  is  made.  This  society  or  Great  Medi- 
cine consists  of  four  roads  (or  as  we  would  call  them, 
degrees)  and  it  requires  to  do  something  to  gain  the 
first  road,  and  so  on  to  the  second,  third,  fourth  roads 
or  degrees.  It  costs  an  Indian  from  forty  to  fifty  dollars 
in  goods,  or  other  articles  to  be  initiated  or  admitted 
into  this  society,  and  am  told  there  are  but  few  of  them 
who  can  gain  the  end  of  the  fourth  road.  A  trader  once, 
offered  fifty  dollars  in  goods  to  a  particular  Indian 
friend  of  his,  who  is  the  head  or  principal  man  of  this 
society  among  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians,  to  be  allowed 
to  be  present  at  one  of  their  meetings,  but  was  refused. 
Age  has  nothing  to  do  with  an  applicant  who  wishes  to 
become  a  member  of  this  society,  as  I  have  been  told  the 
Minnominnie  Indians  admit  boys  of  fourteen  and  fif- 
teen years  of  age,  but  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  will 
not  admit  any  so  young.  The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians 
believe  in  wizards  and  witches  and  none  but  their  jug- 
glers have  power  to  allay  them. 

General  Manners  and  Customs 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  (like  all  other  Indians) 
did  formerly  eat  human  flesh,  and  in  their  war  excur- 
sions would  always  bring  home  pieces  of  the  flesh  of 
some  of  their  enemies  killed  in  battle,  which  they  would 
eat,  but  for  the  last  forty  or  fifty  years  they  have  aban- 
doned that  vile  practice,  and  sometimes  will  yet  bring 
§home  a  small  piece  of  human  flesh  of  their  enemies  for 


their  little  children  to  gnaw,  to  render  them  brave  as 
they  say.  The  Sauk  and  Fox  and  all  other  Indians  that 
I  am  acquainted  with  have  no  particular  salutation  in 
meeting  or  parting  from  each  other,  with  the  whiteman 
they  will  shake  hands  in  deference  to  our  custom.  The 
Sauk  Indians  pay  great  respect  to  their  chiefs  when 
afsembled  in  council,  but  the  Fox  Indians  are  quite  to 
the  contrary,  they  pay  no  respect  to  their  chiefs  at  any 
time,  except  necefsity  compels  them,  but  as  there  are  so 
much  equality  among  all  Indians,  the  chiefs  seldom  dare 
insult  a  private  individual.86  The  Indians  have  no 
language  like  our  profane  cursing  and  swearing,  they 
on  emergencies  appeal  to  the  deity  to  witnefs  the  truth 
of  their  statements.  They  will  say  such  a  man  is  a 
worthlefs  dog,  a  bad  Indian,  etc.  Friendship  between 
two  Indians  as  comrades  has  no  cold  medium  to  it,  an 
Indian  in  love  is  a  silly  looking  mortal,  he  cannot  eat, 
drink,  or  sleep,  he  appears  to  be  deranged  and  with  all 
the  pains  he  takes  to  conceal  his  passion,  yet  it  is  so 
vifsible  that  all  his  friends  know  what  is  the  matter  with 

86  "Equality  and  independence  were  the  cardinal  principles  of  Indian  society. 
In  some  tribes,  as  the  Iroquois,  certain  of  the  highest  chieftaincies  were  con- 
fined to  certain  clans,  and  these  may  be  said  in  a  modified  sense  to  have  been 
hereditary;  and  there  were  also  hereditary  chieftaincies  among  the  Apache, 
Chippewa,  Sioux,  and  other  tribes.  Practically,  however,  the  offices  within 
the  limits  of  the  tribal  government  were  purely  elective.  The  ability  of  the 
candidates,  their  courage,  eloquence,  previous  services,  above  all,  their  personal 
popularity,  formed  the  basis  for  election  to  any  and  all  offices.  Except  among 
the  Natchez  and  a  few  other  tribes  of  the  lower  Mississippi,  no  power  in  any 
wise  analogous  to  that  of  the  despot,  no  rank  savoring  of  inheritance,  as  we 
understand  the  term,  existed  among  our  Indians.  Even  military  service  was 
not  compulsory,  but  he  who  would  might  organize  a  war  party,  and  the  courage 
and  known  prowess  in  war  of  the  leader  chiefly  determined  the  number  of  his 
followers.  So  loose  were  the  ties  of  authority  on  the  war-path  that  a  bad 
dream  or  an  unlucky  presage  was  enough  to  diminish  the  number  of  the  war 
party  at  any  time,  or  even  to  break  it  up  entirely.  .  .  The  fact  is  that  social 
and  political  organization  was  of  the  lowest  kind ;  the  very  name  of  tribe,  with 
implication  of  a  body  bound  together  by  social  ties  and  under  some  central 
authority,  is  of  very  uncertain  application."  —  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Hand- 
book Amer.  Indians,  art.  "Popular  fallacies." 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          227 

him.  They  never  laugh  at  him  but  rather  pity 
him.  After  an  Indian  returns  home  from  hunting  he 
will  throw  his  game  at  the  door  of  the  lodge,  enter  in, 
put  away  his  gun,  undrefs  his  leggins  and  mocosins,  and 
sit  down  without  speaking  a  word  with  his  head  between 
his  knees :  immediately  some  thing  to  eat  is  placed  be- 
fore him,  after  eating  heartily  he  looks  at  his  wife  or 
friends,  smiles,  and  enters  into  conversation  with  them 
about  what  he  has  seen  extraordinary  during  the  day  a 
hunting.  Their  power  of  recollection  don't  seem  to  be 
as  strong  as  ours,  many  circumstances  that  have  occurred 
within  my  recollection  they  have  totally  forgot.  The 
Indians  have  only  one  way  of  building  their  bark  huts 
or  summer  residences,  they  are  built  in  the  form  of  an 
oblong,  a  bench  on  each  of  the  long  sides  about  three  feet 
high  and  four  feet  wide,  paralel  to  each  other,  a  door  at 
each  end,  and  a  pafsage  thro  the  center  of  about  six  feet 
wide,  some  of  those  huts,  are  fifty  or  sixty  feet  long  and 
capable  of  lodging  fifty  or  sixty  persons.  Their  winter 
lodges  are  made  by  driving  long  poles  in  the  ground  in 
two  rows  nearly  at  equal  distances  from  each  other, 
bending  the  tops  so  as  to  overlap  each  other,  then  cover- 
ing them  with  mats  made  of  what  they  call  puc-wy 87  a 
kind  of  rushes  or  flags,  a  Bearskin  generally  serves  for 
a  door,  which  is  suspended  at  the  top  and  hangs  down, 
when  finished  it  is  not  unlike  an  oven  with  the  fire  in  the 

87  Puc-vuy:  a  corruption  of  Ojibwa  apakwetashk,  meaning  "roof -mat  grass;" 
the  "cat-tail  flag"  (Typha  latifolia)  the  leaves  of  which  are  used  for  making 
mats  for  covering  wigwams  (apahueiak,  plural  of  apakwei,  from  a  root  mean- 
ing "to  roof").  The  rush  used  for  making  floor-mats  (andkanak,  from  a  root 
meaning  "to  spread  out  upon  the  ground")  is  the  widely-distributed  bulrush 
(Scirpus  lacustris),  called  by  the  Ojibwa  andkanashk,  or  "floor-mat  grass." 
The  root  of  this  rush,  in  California  called  "tule"  (from  Mexican  tolin)  is  much 
eaten  by  some  Indians ;  it  affords  a  white,  sweet,  and  very  nutritious  flour. 

-  WM.  R.  GERARD. 

Lake  Puckaway,  in  Green  Lake  County,  Wis.,  is  evidently  named  for  this 
plant.  —  ED. 


center  and  the  smoke  omits  thro  the  top.  The  Indians 
are  acquainted  with  the  various  ways  in  which  different 
nations  of  Indians  encamp,  and  when  they  happen  to 
come  to  an  old  encampment  they  can  tell  by  the  signs, 
the  peculiar  mode  of  making  spits  to  roast  their  meat 
on,  etc.,  whether  it  was  their  own  people  or  whom  and 
how  many  days  old  the  encampment  was,  also  which  way 
they  came  and  which  way  they  went.  The  reasons  that 
the  Indians  spare  the  lives  of  snakes  is  thro  fear  of  of- 
fending them,  they  wish  to  be  friendly  with  the  whole 
family  of  snakes  particularly  the  venemous  kinds,  they 
frequently  throw  them  tobacco  and  to  the  dead  ones 
they  lay  a  few  scraps  of  tobacco  close  to  their  heads. 

Food,  Mode  of  Living,  Cooking  Meals,  etc. 

There  are  few  animals  a  hungry  Indian  will  not  eat, 
but  the  preference  is  always  given  to  venison  or  bear's 
meat,  and  are  the  chief  kinds  of  meat  they  eat,  they  feel 
always  at  a  lofs  without  corn,  even  in  the  midst  of  meat. 
Corn  with  beans  and  dryed  pumpkins  well  prepared, 
and  sweet  corn  boiled  with  fat  venison,  ducks,  or  tur- 
kies,  are  delicious  in  the  extreme.  The  Sauk  and  Fox 
Indians  eat  but  few  roasts,  as  they  raise  an  immensity  of 
corn,  they  sometimes  make  use  of  the  wild  potatoe  a-pin, 
and  the  bear  potatoe  or  Muco-co-pin  also  wah-co-pin  or 
crooked  root,  Wab-bis-see-pin  or  Swan  root.88  They 

88  "The  Indians  put  the  roots  and  other  valuable  parts  of  plants  to  a 
greater  variety  of  uses  than  they  did  animal  or  mineral  substances,  even  in  the 
arid  region,  though  plants  with  edible  roots  are  limited  mainly  to  the  areas 
having  abundant  rainfall.  The  more  important  uses  of  roots  were  for  food, 
for  medicine,  and  for  dyes,  but  there  were  many  other  uses,  as  for  basketry, 
cordage,  fire-sticks,  cement,  etc.,  and  for  chewing,  making  salt,  and  flavoring. 
Plants  of  the  lily  family  furnished  the  most  abundant  and  useful  root  food  of 
the  Indians  throughout  the  United  States.  .  .  The  tubers  of  the  arrowhead 
plant  (Sagittaria  arifolia  and  S.  latifolia),  wappatoo  in  Algonquian,  were 
widely  used  in  the  northwest  for  food.  .  .  The  Chippewa  and  Atlantic 
coast  Indians  also  made  use  of  them.  .  .  The  Sioux  varied  their  diet  with 
roots  of  the  Indian  turnip,  two  kinds  of  water-lily,  the  water  grass,  and  the 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          229 

do  not  make  much  use  of  wild  rice,  because  they  have 
little  or  none  in  their  country,  except  when  they  pro- 
cure some  from  the  Winnebagoes  or  Minnominnie  In- 
dians. They  most  generally  boil  every  thing  into  soup. 
I  never  knew  them  to  eat  raw  meat,  and  meat  seems  to 
disgust  them  when  it  is  not  done  thoroughly.  They 
use  fish  only  when  they  are  scarce  of  tallow  in  summer, 
then  they  go  and  spear  fish  both  by  night  and  day,  but 
it  appears  they  only  eat  fish  from  necessity.  The  old 
women  set  the  kettle  a  boiling  in  the  night,  and  about 
day  break  all  eat  whatever  they  have  got,  they  eat  in  the 
course  of  the  day  as  often  as  they  are  hungry,  the  kettle 
is  on  the  fire  constantly  suspended  from  the  roof  of  the 
lodge,  every  one  has  his  wooden  dish  or  bowl  and  wood- 
en spoon 89  or  as  they  call  it  Me-quen  which  they  carry 

modo  of  the  Sioux,  called  by  the  French  pomme  de  terre,  the  ground-nut 
(Apios  apios}.  To  these  may  be  added  the  tuber  of  milkweed  (Asclepias  tube- 
rosa),  valued  by  the  Sioux  of  the  upper  Platte,  and  the  root  of  the  Jerusalem 
artichoke  (Helianthus  tuberosa),  eaten  by  the  Dakota  of  St  Croix  River.  .  . 
The  Miami,  Shawnee,  and  other  tribes  of  the  middle  west  ate  the  'man  of  the 
earth'  (Ipomcea  pandurata]  and  Jerusalem  artichoke  (Helianthus  tub ero so).  .  . 
The  Hopi,  Zuni,  and  other  tribes  eat  the  tubers  of  the  wild  potato  (Solatium 
jamesii} .  The  southern  and  eastern  tribes  also  made  use  of  the  potato.  Though 
this  acrid  tuber  is  unpalatable  and  requires  much  preparation  to  render  it  suit- 
able for  food,  many  tribes  recognized  its  value.  The  Navaho,  especially,  dug 
and  consumed  large  quantities  of  it,  and,  on  account  of  the  griping  caused  by 
eating  it,  they  ate  clay  with  it  as  a  palliative.  .  .  Hariot  mentions  (Briefs 
and  True  Report,  1590)  six  plants  the  roots  of  which  were  valued  as  food  by 
the  Virginia  Indians,  giving  the  native  name,  appearance,  occurrence,  and 
method  of  preparation.  .  .  Although  the  use  of  edible  roots  by  the  Indians 
was  general,  they  nowhere  practiced  root  cultivation,  even  in  its  incipient 
stages.  In  the  United  States  the  higher  agriculture,  represented  by  maize  culti- 
vation, seems  to  have  been  directly  adopted  by  tribes  which  had  not  advanced 
to  the  stages  of  root  cultivation."  —  WALTER  HOUGH,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 
89  "With  the  Indian  the  bowl  serves  a  multitude  of  purposes ;  it  is  associated 
with  the  supply  of  his  simplest  needs  as  well  as  with  his  religion.  The  mate- 
rials employed  in  making  bowls  are  stone  (especially  soapstone),  horn,  bone, 
shell,  skin,  wood,  and  bark.  Bowls  are  often  adapted  to  natural  forms,  as 
shells,  gourds,  and  concretions,  either  unmodified  or  more  or  less  fully  re- 
modeled, and  basket  bowls  are  used  by  many  tribes."  They  were  used  in  pre- 
paring and  serving  food,  for  the  drying,  gathering,  etc.  of  seeds  in  games  of 
chance  and  divination,  and  in  religious  ceremonies;  and  "the  most  ancient 

230  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

along  with  them  when  they  are  invited  to  feasts.  Their 
cooking  are  not  very  clean,  they  seldom  wash  their  ket- 
tles, dishes  or  meat,  the  old  women  will  sometimes  by 
way  of  cleanlinefs  wipe  the  dish  with  her  fingers. 

Games,  Dances,  etc. 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  have  many  games,  such  as 
the  mocosin,  the  platter,  etc.  Their  most  active  game  is 
what  they  call  Puc-a-haw-thaw-waw,  it  is  not  unlike 
what  we  call  shinny  or  bandy,  they  make  use  of  a  yarn 
ball  covered  with  leather,  the  women  also  play  this 
game,  also  the  platter  which  is  exclusively  theirs.  Run- 
ing  foot  races  and  horses  they  are  very  fond  of.  The 
Sauk  and  Fox  nations  have  dances  peculiar  to  them- 
selves, also  others  they  have  adopted  from  other  nations. 
The[y]  dance  the  buffallow-dance  and  the  otter  dance, 
in  dancing  the  buffallow-dance,  they  are  drefsed  with  the 
pate  of  ,a  buffallow  skin  with  the  horns,  they  imitate  the 
buffallow  by  throwing  themselves  into  different  pos- 
tures, also  by  mimicing  his  groans,  attempting  to  horn 
each  other,  keeping  exact  time  with  the  drum,  the 
women  often  join  in  these  dances,  but  remain  nearly  in 
the  same  spot  (while  dancing)  and  singing  in  a  shrill 
voice  above  the  men.  The  medicine  dance  or  Mit-tee- 
wee,  all  those  who  belong  to  that  fraternity,  are  made 

permanent  cooking  utensil  of  the  plains  tribes  was  a  bowl  made  by  hollowing 
out  a  stone."  -  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

Spoons  and  ladles  were  used  among  all  tribes  of  the  United  States;  they 
were  made  of  a  great  variety  of  materials  —  stone,  shell,  bone,  horn,  wood, 
gourd,  pottery,  etc.  —  and  in  size  were  larger  than  European  utensils  of  this 
sort.  Wood  was  the  most  usual  material  for  these  articles;  and  some  of  the 
tribes  on  the  northwest  coast  made  them  of  highly  artistic  form  and  decoration. 
Among  the  eastern  and  southern  Indians  from  New  York  to  Florida  they  were 
made  with  the  pointed  bowl,  a  form  which  occurs  in  no  other  part  of  the 
United  States.  "Gourds  were  extensively  used  and  their  forms  were  often 
repeated  in  pottery."  Spoons  of  shell  were  common  where  shells  were  avail- 
able, and  artistically  wrought  specimens  have  been  found  in  the  mounds. 

—  WALTER  HOUGH,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          231 

acquainted  by  some  of  the  head  persons,  that  on  a  cer- 
tain day,  the  whole  will  afsemble  at  a  particular  place; 
on  the  day  appointed  they  make  a  shade,  both  males  and 
females  make  their  best  appearance,  they  have  two 
drums  on  the  occasion,  the  businefs  is  opened  with  a 
prayer  from  one  of  the  members,  after  which  the  drum- 
mers sing  a  doleful  ditty,  beating  at  same  time  on  their 
drums,  each  person  male  and  female  are  provided  with 
a  sac  or  pouch  of  the  whole  skin  of  some  animal  as  the 
raccoon,  mink,  marten,  fisher,  and  otter,  but  generally 
of  the  last  mentioned :  one  of  the  elders  get  up  and  com- 
mence dancing  round  the  inside  of  the  lodge,  another 
follows,  and  so  on  untill  they  are  all  in  motion,  as  they 
pafs  by  each  other,  they  point  the  nose  of  the  sacs  or 
pouches  at  each  other  blowing  a  whiff  at  the  same  time, 
the  person  so  pointed  at,  will  fall  down  on  the  ground 
apparently  in  pain,  and  immediately  get  up  again  and 
touch  some  other  one  in  turn,  who  will  do  the  same  in 
succefsion,  etc.  The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  play  at 
cards,  and  frequently  play  high,  they  bet  horses,  wam- 
pum, silver  works,  etc.  They  frequently  in  the  summer 
season  have  sham  battles,  a  party  of  footmen  undertake 
to  conduct  to  their  village  some  friends,  they  on  their 
journey  are  attacked  by  a  party  of  horsemen  who  rush 
on  them  from  the  woods  and  surround  them,  the  foot- 
men throw  themselves  into  the  form  of  a  hollow  square, 
the  horsemen  are  armed  with  pistols,  the  footmen  re- 
ceive them  with  a  volley,  and  beat  them  off,  and  are 
again  attacked  from  another  quarter  and  so  on  alter- 
nately untill  they  succeed  in  bringing  their  friends  safe 
to  their  village.  In  those  encounters  many  get  thrown 
from  their  horses  and  sometimes,  the  footmen  get 
trampled  on  by  the  horses,  but  during  the  whole  of  the 
transaction  nothing  like  anger  makes  its  appearance, 

232  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

they  all  retire  on  the  best  terms  with  each  other,  and  it 
would  be  considered  as  shameful  and  to  much  like  a 
woman  for  a  man  to  become  angry  in  play. 90 

International  Law  of  Relations 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Nations  of  Indians  are  in  very 
strict  alliance  with  each  other,  indeed  their  affinity  are 

90  "When  not  bound  down  by  stern  necessity,  the  Indian  at  home  was  occu- 
pied much  of  the  time  with  dancing,  feasting,  gaming,  and  story-telling. 
Though  most  of  the  dances  were  religious  or  otherwise  ceremonial  in  character, 
there  were  some  which  had  no  other  purpose  than  that  of  social  pleasure.  They 
might  take  place  in  the  day  or  the  night,  be  general  or  confined  to  particular 
societies,  and  usually  were  accompanied  with  the  drum  or  other  musical  instru- 
ment to  accentuate  the  song.  The  rattle  was  perhaps  invariably  used  only  in 
ceremonial  dances.  Many  dances  were  of  pantomimic  or  dramatic  character, 
and  the  Eskimo  had  regular  pantomime  plays,  though  evidently  due  to  Indian 
influence.  The  giving  of  presents  was  often  a  feature  of  the  dance,  as  was 
betting  of  all  athletic  contests  and  ordinary  games.  .  .  From  Hudson  Bay 
to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  border  of  the  plains,  the 
great  athletic  game  was  the  ball  play,  now  adopted  among  civilized  games 
under  the  name  of  'lacrosse.'  In  the  north  it  was  played  with  one  racket,  and 
in  the  south  with  two.  Athletes  were  regularly  trained  for  this  game,  and 
competitions  were  frequently  intertribal.  The  wheel-and-stick  game  in  one 
form  or  another  was  well-nigh  universal.  .  .  Like  most  Indian  institutions, 
the  game  often  had  a  symbolic  significance  in  connection  with  a  sun  myth.  .  . 
Target  practice  with  arrows,  knives,  or  hatchets,  thrown  from  the  hand,  as 
well  as  with  the  bow  or  rifle,  was  also  universal  among  the  warriors  and  boys 
of  the  various  tribes.  The  gaming  arrows  were  of  special  design  and  orna- 
mentation, and  the  game  itself  often  had  a  symbolic  purpose.  .  .  Games 
resembling  dice  and  hunt-the-button  were  found  everywhere  and  were  played 
by  both  sexes  alike,  particularly  in  the  tipi  or  the  wigwam  during  the  long 
winter  nights.  .  .  Investigations  by  Culin  show  a  close  correspondence  be- 
tween these  Indian  games  and  those  of  China,  Japan,  Korea,  and  northern 
Asia.  Special  women's  games  were  shinny,  football,  and  the  deer-foot  game, 
besides  the  awl  game  already  noted.  .  .  Among  the  children  there  were 
target  shooting,  stilts,  slings,  and  tops  for  the  boys,  and  buckskin  dolls  and 
playing-house  for  the  girls,  with  'wolf  or  'catcher,'  and  various  forfeit  plays, 
including  a  breath-holding  test.  Cats'-cradles,  or  string  figures,  as  well  as 
shuttlecocks  and  buzzes,  were  common.  As  among  civilized  nations,  the  chil- 
dren found  the  greatest  delight  in  imitating  the  occupations  of  the  elders. 
Numerous  references  to  amusements  among  the  various  tribes  may  be  found 
throughout  the  annual  reports  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology.  Consult 
especially  'Games  of  the  American  Indians,'  by  Stewart  Culin,  in  the  24th 
Report,  1905."  — JAMES  MOONEY,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians,  art.  "Amuse- 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          233 

doubly  rivited  by  intermarriages,  similarity  of  manners 
and  customs  as  also  in  the  similarity  of  language.  I 
have  never  heard  where  their  council  fire  is  but  believe 
it  to  be  at  the  Sauk  Village  on  the  Rocky  River,  it  may 
be  elsewhere.  The  alliance  between  the  Sauk  and  Fox 
Indians  and  the  Ofsages  was  made  at  the  Ofsage  vil- 
lage on  the  Ofsage  River  which  falls  into  the  Mifsouri 
River.  The  alliance  between  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Na- 
tions and  the  Kicapoo  Nation  of  Indians,  was  formed  at 
the  Sauk  Village  as  above  described.  All  those  Nations 
of  Indians  except  the  Ofsages  have  long  since  joined  the 
General  Confederacy  at  Browns  Town  in  Michigan 
Territory,  and  it  still  exists.  The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians 
have  no  national  badge  that  I  know,  they  call  the  Shawa- 
noes  and  Kicapoos  their  elder  brothers.  Every  nation 
of  Indians  think  themselves  as  great  as  any  other,  and  I 
never  heard  of  any  relative  rank  among  the  different 
nations  of  Indians,  except  what  has  been  said  about  the 
council  fire  at  Browns  town. 


About  the  middle  of  September  (some  years  later) 
the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  all  begin  to  move  from  their 
villages  to  go  towards  the  country  the[y]  mean  to  hunt 
during  the  ensuing  winter,  they  generally  go  westwards 
in  the  interiour  on  the  head  waters  of  Ihoway  and  De- 
moine  Rivers  and  some  go  beyond  those  rivers  quite  in 
the  interiour  of  the  country.  There  are  some  who  have 
no  horses  as  also  many  old  people  who  descend  the 
Mifsifsippi  River  in  canoes  as  far  as  the  Ihoway,  Scunk 
and  other  rivers  and  ascend  those  rivers  to  the  different 
places  where  they  mean  to  pafs  the  winter  a  hunting. 
Those  Indians  who  have  a  sufficiency  of  horses  to  trans- 
port their  families  and  baggage  go  as  far  westward  in 
their  hunting  excursions  as  the  Mifsouri  River  and 

234  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

sometimes  are  invited  by  the  Kansez  and  other  Indians 
to  crofs  the  Mifsouri  River  and  hunt  in  this  country  as 
far  westward  on  small  streams  that  fall  into  Arkansaw 
River.  They  generally  stop  hunting  deer  when  the 
winter  begins  to  be  severe  and  forms  themselves  into 
grand  encampments  to  pafs  the  remainder  of  the  winter 
or  severe  weather.  They  at  this  time  are  visited  by 
their  traders  who  go  and  receive  their  credits  and  also 
trade  with  them. 91  On  opening  of  the  spring  those  that 
have  traps  go  to  beaver  hunting  others  to  hunt  bear 
and  they  generally  finish  their  hunt  about  the  ioth  of 
April.  They  formerly  had  general  hunting  parties  or 
excursions  before  the  buffaloe  removed  so  far  westward. 
It  is  customary  to  make  a  feast  of  the  first  animal  killed 
by  each  party,  the  whole  are  invited  with  some  cere- 
mony. In  case  of  sicknefs  they  feast  on  dog's  meat  and 
sacrifice  dogs  by  killing  them  with  an  axe,  tying  them  to 
a  sapling  with  their  noses  pointed  east  or  west  and 
painted  with  vermillion.  When  strangers  of  another 
nation  visit  their  villages,  the  crier  makes  a  long  ha- 
rangue thro  the  village  in  a  loud  voice,  to  use  the 
strangers  well,  while  they  stay,  etc.  The  strangers  may 
be  invited  to  several  feasts  in  the  course  of  the  same  day, 
while  the[y]  remain  at  the  village;  however  particular 
Indians  give  feasts  to  particular  individuals,  their  par- 
ticular friends  and  relations,  and  the  custom  of  feasting 
strangers  is  not  so  common  now  among  the  Sauk  and 
Fox  Indians  as  formerly,  or  as  is  at  present  among  the 
Indians  of  Mifsouri. 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  will  on  great  emergencies 
hold  a  general  feast  throughout  their  nations,  to  avert 

91  In  the  Forsyth  Mss.  (vol.  iii,  doc.  i)  is  a  list  of  the  licenses  to  traders 
granted  by  Forsyth  at  the  Rock  River  agency,  1822-1827.  Twenty-six  licenses, 
sometimes  more  than  one  to  the  same  person,  are  described,  all  issued  for  one 
year.  The  number  of  clerks  for  each  varied  from  one  to  six;  and  the  capital 
employed,  from  $518.16  to  $6,814.71.  — ED. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          235 

some  expected  general  calamity,  while  the  magicians  are 
praying  to  the  Great  Spirit  and  making  use  of  numer- 
ous ceremonies. 

It  is  a  very  mistaken  idea  among  many  of  the  white 
people  to  suppose,  that  the  Indians  have  not  hair  on 
every  part  of  their  body,  that  they  have  both  males  and 
females :  they  pull  it  out  with  an  instrument  made  of 
brafs  wire  in  the  form  of  a  gun  worm.  They  consider  it 
indecent  to  let  it  grow. 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  shave  their  heads  except 
a  small  patch  on  the  crown,  which  they  are  very  fond  of 
drefsing  and  plaiting,  the[y]  suspend  several  ornaments 
to  it  of  horse  or  deer's  hair  died  red  as  also  silver  orna- 
ments, feathers  of  birds,  etc.,  they  paint  their  faces  red 
with  vermillion,  green  with  verdigrease  and  black  with 
charcoal,  their  prevailing  colour  is  red,  except  before  or 
after  coming  from  war,  after  returning  from  war  they 
divest  themselves  of  all  their  ornaments,  wear  dirt  on 
their  heads,  and  refrain  from  using  vermillion  for  one 
year.  The  women  tye  their  hair  in  a  club  with  some 
worsted  binding,  red,  blue,  or  green  but  the  former  is 
prefered  leaving  two  ends  to  hang  down  their  backs. 92 

92  "The  motive  of  personal  adornment,  aside  from  the  desire  to  appear  at- 
tractive, seems  to  have  been  to  mark  individual,  tribal,  or  ceremonial  distinction. 
The  use  of  paint  on  the  face,  hair,  and  body,  both  in  color  and  design,  gen- 
erally had  reference  to  individual  or  clan  beliefs,  or  it  indicated  relationship  or 
personal  bereavement,  or  was  an  act  of  courtesy.  It  was  always  employed  in 
ceremonies,  religious  and  secular,  and  was  an  accompaniment  of  gala  dress 
donned  to  honor  a  guest  or  to  celebrate  an  occasion.  The  face  of  the  dead  was  fre- 
quently painted  in  accordance  with  tribal  or  religious  symbolism.  The  prac- 
tice of  painting  was  widespread  and  was  observed  by  both  sexes.  Paint  was 
also  put  on  the  faces  of  adults  and  children  as  a  protection  against  wind  and 
sun,"  Other  forms  of  adornment  consisted  in  plucking  out  the  hairs  on  the  face 
and  body,  head-flattening,  tattooing,  the  use  of  fat,  and  that  of  perfumes;  and 
the  wearing  of  earrings,  labrets,  and  nose-rings.  Garments  were  often  elab- 
orately ornamented  —  among  the  inland  tribes  largely  with  porcupine  and 
feather  quills,  which  were  later  replaced  by  beads  of  European  manufacture  — 
and  sometimes  were  painted.  Such  work  was  not  only  decorative,  but  often 
symbolic,  ceremonial,  or  even  historical.  -  ALICE  C.  FLETCHER,  in  Handbook 
Amer.  Indians. 

236  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

The  Indians  admire  our  manufactories  but  more  par- 
ticularly guns  and  gunpowder,  but  many  old  Indians 
say  they  were  more  happy  before  they  knew  the  use  of 
fire  arms,  because,  they  then  could  kill  as  much  game 
as  they  wanted,  not  being  then  compelled  to  destroy 
game  to  purchase  our  merchandise  as  they  are  now 
oblidged  to  do. 

They  say  that  the  white  people's  thirst  after  land  is 
so  great  that  they  are  never  contented  untill  they  have  a 
belly  full  of  it,  the  Indians  compare  a  white  settlement 
in  their  neighbourhood  to  a  drop  of  raccoon's  grease 
falling  on  a  new  blanket  the  drop  at  first  is  scarcely 
perceptible,  but  in  time  covers  almost  the  whole  blanket. 
The  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  do  almost  all  their  carrying 
on  horseback  and  in  canoes,  if  any  carrying  is  oblidged 
to  be  done  for  want  of  horses,  the  women  have  to 
shoulder  it.  Among  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  the 
young  men  are  most  generally  handsome,  well  made, 
and  extreamely  modest. 

The  young  men  and  women,  when  they  begin  to  think 
of  marrying  use  vermillion.  I  have  observed  in  the 
course  of  my  life,  that  Indians  are  not  now  so  stout  and 
robust  as  formerly,  in  general  they  are  very  atheletic 
with  good  constitutions,  yet  whatever  may  be  the  cause, 
they  have  not  the  strength  we  have.  Their  general 
heighth  is  about  five  feet,  eight  inches,  a  great  many  of 
the  old  people  are  much  taller,  however  they  are  not 
in  my  opinion  degenerating.  It  is  impofsible  to  ascer- 
tain the  proportion  of  births  to  the  deaths  but  it  is  well 
known  they  are  on  the  increase. 93  In  a  conversation  I 
had  with  Keeocuck  the  most  intelligent  Indian  among 

93  "It  has  been  supposed  that,  in  his  physiologic  functions  the  Indian  differs 
considerably  from  the  white  man,  but  the  greater  our  knowledge  in  this  direction 
the  fewer  the  differences  appear;  there  is,  however,  a  certain  lack  of  uni- 
formity in  this  respect  between  the  two  races."  The  development  and  life  of 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          237 

the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  (and  a  Sauk  by  birth)  last 
summer  (1826)  he  told  me  the  Sauk  Nation  could  fur- 
nish twelve  hundred  warriours,  three  fourths  of  which 
were  well  armed  with  good  rifles  and  remainder  with 
shot  guns  and  some  few  with  bows  and  arrows.  The 
Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  encourage  polygamy  and  the 
adoption  of  other  Indians  in  their  nations,  which  serves 
to  augment  their  nations  rapidly.  All  belts  of  wampum 
are  presented  in  council  (after  speaking)  by  the  prin- 

the  Indian  infant  are  quite  similar  to  those  of  the  white  child.  The  period 
of  puberty  is  notably  alike  in  the  two  races.  Marriage  takes  place  earlier 
among  the  Indians  than  among  the  whites;  "only  few  girls  of  more  than 
eighteen  years,  and  few  young  men  of  more  than  twenty-two  years,  are  un- 
married," and  sometimes  girls  marry  at  thirteen  to  fifteen  years.  "Indian 
women  bear  children  early,  and  the  infants  of  even  the  youngest  mothers  seem 
in  no  way  defective.  The  birth  rate  is  generally  high,  from  six  to  nine  births 
in  a  family  being  usual.  .  .  The  adult  life  of  the  Indian  offers  nothing 
radically  different  from  that  of  ordinary  whites.  The  supposed  early  aging 
of  Indian  women  is  by  no  means  general  and  is  not  characteristic  of  the  race; 
when  it  occurs,  it  is  due  to  the  conditions  surrounding  the  life  of  the  indi- 
vidual. .  .  But  few  of  them  know  their  actual  age.  .  .  The  longevity  of 
the  Indian  is  very  much  like  that  of  a  healthy  white  man.  There  are  in- 
dividuals who  reach  the  age  of  one  hundred  years  and  more,  but  they  are 
exceptional.  Among  aged  Indians  there  is  usually  little  decrepitude.  Aged 
women  predominate  somewhat  in  numbers  over  aged  men." 

"Among  the  more  primitive  tribes,  who  often  pass  through  periods  of  want, 
capacity  for  food  is  larger  than  in  the  average  whites.  Real  excesses  in  eating 
are  witnessed  among  such  tribes,  but  principally  at  feasts.  On  the  reservations, 
and  under  ordinary  circumstances,  the  consumption  of  food  by  the  Indian  is 
usually  moderate.  All  Indians  readily  develop  a  strong  inclination  for  and 
are  easily  affected  by  alcoholic  drinks.  The  average  Indian  ordinarily  passes 
somewhat  more  time  in  sleep  than  the  civilized  white  man ;  on  the  other  hand, 
he  manifests  considerable  capacity  for  enduring  its  loss." 

"Dreams  are  frequent  and  variable.  Illusions  or  hallucinations  in  healthy 
individuals  and  under  ordinary  conditions  have  not  been  observed.  .  . 
The  sight,  hearing,  smell,  and  taste  of  the  Indian,  so  far  as  can  be  judged  from 
unaided  but  extended  observation,  are  in  no  way  peculiar.  .  .  The  physical 
endurance  of  Indians  on  general  occasions  probably  exceeds  that  of  the  whites. 
The  Indian  easily  sustains  long  walking  or  running,  hunger  and  thirst,  severe 
sweating,  etc.;  but  he  often  tires  readily  when  subjected  to  steady  work.  His 
mental  endurance,  however,  except  when  he  may  be  engaged  in  ceremonies  or 
games,  or  on  other  occasions  which  produce  special  mental  excitement,  is  but 
moderate;  an  hour  of  questioning  almost  invariably  produces  mental  fatigue." 

—  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

238  THOMAS  FORSYTH  [Vol. 

cipal  chiefs,  the  principal  brave  or  chief  of  the  soldiers 
also  delivers  his  speech  and  wampum  in  public  council 
when  it  is  a  national  affair  or  that  they  wish  to  do  any 
thing  permanent.  They  make  use  of  no  heiroglyphicks 
except  painting  on  a  tree  or  rock  or  on  a  post  at  the  head 
of  graves,94  the  representation  of  the  tribe  the  person 
belong  to,  the  number  of  scalps  and  prisoners  taken  from 
the  enemy,  etc.  Strings  or  belts  of  white  wampum  are 
occasionally  sent  with  a  piece  of  tobacco  tied  to  the  end 

9*  "Pictography  may  be  defined  as  that  form  of  thought-writing  which 
seeks  to  convey  ideas  by  means  of  picture-signs  or  marks  more  or  less  sug- 
gestive or  imitative  of  the  object  or  idea  in  mind.  Significance,  therefore,  is 
an  essential  element  of  pictographs,  which  are  alike  in  that  they  all  express 
thought,  register  a  fact,  or  convey  a  message.  Pictographs,  on  the  one  hand, 
are  more  or  less  closely  connected  with  sign  language,  by  which  they  may  have 
been  preceded  in  point  of  time;"  and,  on  the  other  hand,  "with  every  varying 
form  of  script  and  print,  past  and  present,  the  latter  being,  in  fact,  derived 
directly  or  indirectly  from  them."  Picture-signs  have  been  employed  by  all 
uncivilized  peoples,  but  "it  is  chiefly  to  the  American  Indian  we  must  look  for 
a  comprehensive  knowledge  of  their  use  and  purpose,  since  among  them  alone 
were  both  pictographs  and  sign  language  found  in  full  and  significant  em- 
ploy. Pictographs  have  been  made  upon  a  great  variety  of  objects,  a  favorite 
being  the  human  body.  Among  other  natural  substances,  recourse  by  the  picto- 
grapher  has  been  had  to  stone,  bone,  skins,  feathers  and  quills,  gourds,  shells, 
earth  and  sand,  copper,  and  wood,  while  textile  and  fictile  fabrics  figure 
prominently  in  the  list.  .  . 

"From  the  earliest  form  of  picture-writing,  the  imitative,  the  Indian  had 
progressed  so  far  as  to  frame  his  conceptions  ideographically,  and  even  to 
express  abstract  ideas.  Later,  as  skill  was  acquired,  his  figures  became  more 
and  more  conventionalized  till  in  many  cases  all  semblance  of  the  original  was 
lost,  and  the  ideograph  became  a  mere  symbol.  While  the  great  body  of  In- 
dian glyphs  remained  pure  ideographs,  symbols  were  by  no  means  uncommonly 
employed,  especially  to  express  religious  subjects,  and  a  rich  color  symbolism  like- 
wise was  developed,  notably  in  the  southwest."  Usually  the  Indian  glyphs  "are 
of  individual  origin,  are  obscured  by  conventionalism,  and  require  for  their 
interpretation  a  knowledge  of  their  makers  and  of  the  customs  and  events  of  the 
times,  which  usually  are  wanting"  —  hence  the  need  of  great  caution,  and  fre- 
quent failure,  in  trying  to  explain  them.  Nevertheless,  "their  study  is  im- 
portant. These  pictures  on  skin,  bark,  and  stone,  crude  in  execution  as  they 
often  are,  yet  represent  the  first  artistic  records  of  ancient,  though  probably  not 
of  primitive  man.  In  them  lies  the  germ  of  achievement  which  time  and  effort 
have  developed  into  the  masterpieces  of  modern  eras.  Nor  is  the  study  of 
pictographs  less  important  as  affording  a  glimpse  into  the  psychological  work- 
ings of  the  mind  of  early  man  in  his  struggles  upward."  —  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW, 
in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          239 

of  it  as  a  friendly  mefsage  or  invitation  from  one  nation 
to  another  for  the  purpose  of  opening  the  way  to  an 
adjustment  of  differences  or  any  other  subject  of  impor- 
tance. Blue  wampum  painted  red,  with  tobacco  in  the 
same  manner  denotes  hostility  or  a  solicitation  to  join 
in  hostility  against  some  other  power.  Those  strings  or 
belts  of  wampum  are  accompanied  by  speeches  to  be 
repeated  verbatim  or  presenting  them  to  the  person  or 
persons  to  whom  they  are  sent,  should  the  terms  offered 
or  the  purport  of  the  mefsage  be  acceeded  to  the  parties 
accepting  the  wampum  smoke  of  the  tobacco  thus  tied 
to  it  and  return  their  answer  in  a  similar  way.  A  belt 
of  wampum  sent  to  a  neighboring  nation  for  afsistance 
in  war,  is  made  of  blue  wampum,  at  one  end  is  wrought 
in  with  white  grains  the  figure  of  a  tomyhawk,  presented 
towards  a  dimond  of  white  grains  also  both  painted  red 
with  vermillion.  Should  the  nation  accept  the  mefsage, 
they  work  their  dimond  of  white  grains  of  wampum 
in  the  same  way. 


The  Sauk  and  Fox  languages  are  guttural  and  nosal 
the  following  letters  are  made  use  in  their  language  as 
well  as  other  sounds  that  cannot  be  represented  by  any 
letters  in  an  alphabet -A,  B,  C,  H,  I,  K,  L,  M,  N,  0,  P,  Q, 
S,  T,  U,  w,  Y,  Z,  are  letters  of  our  alp  [h]  abet  that  are 
sounded  in  their  language :  the  accent  is  generally  placed 
on  the  second  syllable  and  often  on  the  first.  They  place 
a  very  strong  emp[h]asis  on  the  superlative  degree  of 
their  ajectives  also  their  adverbs  of  quality  and  inter- 
jections. They  designate  the  genders  thus- 


Man,  Ninny  Woman,  Hequa 

Men,  Ninnywuck  Women,  Hequa-wuck 

Buck,  lawpe  Doe,  A-co 

Deer  [plural?],  Pay-shakes-see 


The  genders  of  all  other  animals  are  formed  by  plac- 
ing the  word  [for]  male  or  female  before  them.  The 
plurals  of  substantives  are  formed  by  the  termination  of 
uck  or  <wuck 


Child,  A-pen-no  Children,  A-pen-no-wuck 

Chief,  O-ke-maw  Chiefs,  O-ke-maw-wuck 

Indian,  Me-thu-say-nin-ny  Indians,  Me-thu-say-nin-ny-wuck 

also  the  termination  of  y  or  wy  to  the  name  of  an  animal 
is  the  proper  name  of  its  Skin. 


Buckskin,  I-aw-pe-wy  Buckskins,  I-aw-pe-wy-uck 

Muskrat  [skin],  Shusk-wy  Muskratskins,  Shusk-wy-uck 


American,95  Muc-a-mon  Englishman,  Sog-o-nosh 

French,  Mith-o-cosh  Blanket,  Mi-co-say 

95  Derivation  of  the  Indian  names  for  American,  English  and  French 
people  —  It  is  very  well  known,  that  the  first  white  people  the  Indians  saw  in 
North  America,  were  the  French,  who  landed  in  Canada  at  an  early  day.  The 
Indians  say,  that  the  French  wore  long  beards  in  those  days,  from  which  cir- 
cumstance, the  Indians  called  them  Wa-bay-mish-e-tome,  i.e.,  white  people  with 
beards,  and  Wem-ty-goush  is  an  abbreviation  of  the  former  Indian  words  of 

Sog-o-nosh,  appears  to  be  derived  from  the  gallic  word  Sasenaugh,  which 
as  I  am  well  informed,  means  Saxon.  The  manner  in  which  the  Indians  became 
acquainted  with  this  word  is  as  follows.  At  an  early  period,  perhaps,  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  seventeenth,  or  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the 
British  were  about  to  make  an  attack  on  Quebeck;  some  Scotchmen  who  were 
officers  in  the  French  army,  at  that  place,  told  the  Indians  to  be  strong,  and 
they,  combined  with  the  French,  would  kill  all  those  bad  Sasenaghs  (meaning 
the  British  Army)  who  dared  come  against  them.  The  Indians  took  the  word, 
and  pronounced  it  as  now  spoken,  Sog-o-nosh.  Both  words  as  Wem-ty-goush 
and  Sog-o-nosh  originated  with  the  lake  Indians. 

Kit-chi-mo-co-maun  or  Big  Knife  is  of  a  more  recent  origin,  than  the  two 
former  names.  In  some  one  of  the  many  battles  between  the  settlers  of  the 
then  province  (now  State)  of  Virginia,  the  Indians  were  attacked  by  a  party 
of  white  men  on  horseback,  with  long  knives  (swords),  and  were  ever  after 
called  Big  Knives  by  the  Indians  in  that  quarter,  which  name  reached  the  more 
northern  Indians,  and  the  name  of  Big  Knife  has  ever  since  been  given  by  the 
Indians  to  every  American.  The  Indians  in  Lower  Canada  used  to  call  the 
New  England  people  Pos-to-ney  which  I  presume  was  borrowed  from  the 
French  Bostone,  but  at  the  present  day  and  for  many  years  back,  all  Indians 

two]        MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          241 

Powder  (gun),  Muck-i-tha  Sun,  Keeshis 

Flint,  Sog-o-cawn  Otter,  Cuth-eth-tha 
Whiskey  or  rum,  Scho-ta-wa-bo       Beaver,  Amic-qua 

Cow,  Na-no-ee  Elk,  Mesh-shay-way 

Cat,  Caw-shu  Bear,  Muc-qua 

Cat   (wild),  Pis-shew  Wild  goose,  Alick-qua 

Fowls,  Puck-a-ha-qua  Duck,  She-sheeb 

Looking  glafs,  Wa-ba-moan  Eagle,  Mick-is-seou 

Silver,  Shoo-ne-aw  Owl,  We-thuc-co 

Knife,  Mau-thifs  Swan,  A-ha-wa 

Dog,  A-lem-mo  Pidgeon,  Mee-mee 

Saddle,  Tho-me-a-cul  Eye,  Os-keesh-oc-qua 
Bridle,  So-ke-the-na-pe-chu-cun         Hand,  Neek 

Canoe,  It-che-maun  Mouth,  Thole 

Paddle,  Up-we  Nose,  co-mouth 

Water,  Neppe  Teeth,  Wee-pee-thul 

call  alJ  Americans,  Kit-chi-mo-co-raaun,  i.e.,  Big  Knives.  —  T.  FORSYTH  (among 
memoranda  following  his  memoir). 

Many  curious  names  were  given  by  the  aboriginal  peoples  to  the  white 
men,  "appellations  referring  to  their  personal  appearance,  arrival  in  ships, 
arms,  dress,  and  other  accouterments,  activities,  merchandise  and  articles 
brought  with  them,  as  iron,  and  fancied  correspondence  to  figures  of  aboriginal 
myth  and  legend."  In  some  cases  the  term  for  men  of  one  nation  was  after- 
ward extended  to  include  all  white  men  whom  they  met.  Thus,  "the  Chippe- 
wa  term  for  'Englishman,'  shaganash  (which  probably  is  connected  with  'spear* 
man,'  or  the  'contemptible  spearman.' —  WM.  JONES,  1906)  has  been  extended  to 
mean  'white  man.'"  The  Americans  (i.e.,  the  inhabitants  of  the  English 
colonies  which  are  now  part  of  the  United  States)  were  called,  in  and  after  the 
Revolutionary  period,  various  names  by  the  Indians  to  distinguish  them  from 
the  British  and  French.  "Probably  from  the  swords  of  the  soldiery  several 
tribes  designated  the  Americans  as  'big  knives,'  or  'long  knives.'  This  is  the 
signification  of  the  Chippewa  and  Nipissing  chimo'koman.  .  .  The  prom- 
inence of  Boston  in  the  early  history  of  the  United  States  led  to  its  name  being 
used  for  'American'  on  both  the  Atlantic  and  the  Pacific  coast.  Another  Al- 
gonquian  term  for  Frenchman  is  the  Cree  wemistikojiw,  Chippewa  wemittgosht, 
probably  akin  to  the  Fox  wa'me'tego'whita,  one  who  is  identified  with  something 
wooden,  probably  referring  to  something  about  clothing  and  implements.  The 
Fox  name  for  a  Frenchman  is  ivdme'tegoshia  (WM.  JONES,  1906) ;  Menorainee, 
vvameqtikosiu;  Missisauga,  wamitigushi,  etc.  The  etymology  of  this  name  is 
uncertain."  -  A.  F.  CHAMBERLAIN,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians,  art.  "Race 

In  a  letter  to  the  editor,  Dr.  F.  W.  Hodge  says:  "Forsyth's  Wem-ty-goush 
is  from  the  Chippewa  wemitigosht,  meaning  'people  of  the  wooden  canoes.'" 





Legs,  Cau-then 

Arms,  Nitch 

Head,  Weesh 

Foot,  Couth 

Hair  (of  the  head),  We-ne-sis 

Hair  (of  animals),  We-se-an 

Corn,  Thaw-meen 

Tree,  Ma-thic-quai 

Moon,  Kee-shis 

Stars,  A-law-queek 

Day,  Keesh-o-co 

Night,  Tip-pic-quoc 

Father,  Oce 

Mother,  Kea 

Sister,  Ni-thuc-quame 

Brother  (elder),  Si-say 

Brother  (younger),  Se-ma 

Sister  (elder),  Ne-mis-sa 

Sister  (younger),  Chu-me-is-sum 

Son,  Quis 

Daughter,  Thaunis 

Grandfather,  Mish-o-mifs 

Grandmother,  Co-mifs 

Friend,  Cawn 

Yesterday,  O-naw-co 

To-day,  He-noke 

Tomorrow,  wa-buck 

Warriour,  Wa-taw-say 

Spring,   Man-no-cum-me 

Rock,  As-sen 

Sand,  Na-kow 

Wood,  Ma-thi-a-cole 

Mifsifsippi,  Mes-is-se-po 

Wind,  No-then 

Snow,  Ac-coen 

Rain,  Kee-me-a 

Thunder,  An-a-mee-kee 

Dance,  Ne-mee 

Path,  Me-ow 

God,  Man-nit-too 

Devil,  Mache-man-nit-too 

Fire,  Scho-tha 

Boy,  Qui-es-ea 

Girl,  Squa-cy 

Tobacco,  Say-maw 

Sail,  Caw-tha-sum 

Thought,  Es-she-thai 

Courage,  A-e-qua-me 

Hatred,  Es-£m-a-wa 

Fear,  Co-suc-kea 

Love,  Tip-pawn-nan 

Eternity,  Caw-keek 

Happinefs,    Men-we-pem-au-this- 


Strength,  We-shic-is-see 
Beauty,  Wa-wan-is-see 
Insanity,  Waw-wen-au-this-se-ow 
Revenge,  Ash-e-tho-a-caw-no 
Cowardice,  Keesh-kee-tha-hum 
Hunger,  Wee-shaw-pel 
Round,  PTa-we-i-au 
White,  Wa-bes-kiou 
Black,  Muck-et-tha-wa 
Yellow,  As-saow 
Green,  Ski-buc-ki-a 
Red,  Mus-quaou 
Blue,  We-pec-qua 
Song,  Nuc-a-moan 
Feast,  Kay-kay-noo 
Salt,  See-wee-thaw-gun 
Sugar,  Sis-sa-bac-quat 
White  Oak,  Mec-she-mish 
Red  Oak,  Ma-thic-wa-mish 
Cedar,  Mus-qua-aw-quck 
Pine,  Shin-qua-quck 
Cottonwood,  Me-thew-wuck 
Sycamore,  Keesh-a-wock-quai 
Grafs,  Mus-kis-kee 
Hill,  Mes-is-sauk 
Island,  Men-nefs 

two]         MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES          243 

River,  Seepo 

Flat,  Puc-puc-kfs-kia 

Alive,  Pematifs 

Dead,  Nippo 

Sick,  Oc-co-muth 

Well,  Nes-say 

Tired,  je-qua 

Lazy,   Naw-nee-kee-tho 

Early,  Maw-my 

Late,  A-maw-quas 

Handsome,  Waw-won-nifs-see 

Ugly,  Me-aw-nifs-see 

Rich,  O-thai-wifs-see 

Poor,  Kitch-a-moc-is-see 
Good,  Wa-wun-nitt 
Better,  Na-kai-may-wa-won-nitt 
Best,     One-wak-men-we-wa-won- 


Bad,  Me-aw-nith 
Worse,  A-ne-kai-may-me-aw-nith 
Worst,  A-me-kaw-she-me-aw- 

nith  96 

Boat,  Mis-se-gock-it-che-man 
Flute,  Paw-pe-guen 
Boards,  Mifs-see-gock 

I,  Neen 

Thou  or  you,  Keene 
He,  she,  or  it,  Weene 



We,  Neenwaw 
Ye,  Keenwaw 
They,  Weenwaw 


Mine  or  my,  Nichi  Enim  97 
Thy  or  thine,  Kiche  Enim 
His  or  hers,  O-thi-Enim 



Ours,  Neen-ane-i-thi-enim 
Yours,  Keen-ane-othi-enim 
Theirs,  Ween-waw-othi-enim 



I  love,  ne-neen-wen-a-maw 
Thou  lovest,  Ke-men-wen-a-maw- 

He  loved,  O-men-wen-a-maw-kia 

One,  Necouth 
Two,  Neesh 
Three,  Nefs 


We  love,  Neen-wa-ke-men-a-kia 
Ye  or  you  love,  Keen-wa,  etc. 
They  love,  Ween-wa,  etc. 
Loved,  Men-a-wa-kia-pie 
Loving,  Men-wen-a-meen 


Four,  Ne-a-we 
Five,  Nee-aw-neen 
Six,  Ne-coth-wa-sick 

96  These  comparisons  of  "bad,"  as  also  the  specimens  of  plural  formation 
for  substantives  (page  240)   have  been  transposed  to  their  present  and  logical 
position  because  in  the  Ms.  they  were  evidently  misplaced  by  some  forgetful- 
ness  or  oversight  of  Forsyth's.  —  ED. 

97  The  termination  enim  has  reference  to  things.  —  T.  FORSYTH  (in  marginal 


Seven,  No-wuck  12,  Mittausway  Neshway  nifscc 

Eight,  Nip-wash-ick  13,  Mittausway  Nefs-way  Nifsee 

Nine,  Shauck  20,  Neesh  Wap-pe-tuck 

Ten,  Mit-taus  30,  Nefs  Wap-pe-tuck 

II,  Mittausway  Necouth  a  nifsee        100,  Necouth-wock-qua 
1,000,  Mittaus  wock-qua  or  necouth  kichi  wock 
10,000,  Mit-taus  Kichi  wock  or  ten  great  hundreds 

The  Sauk  and  Fox  and  I  believe  all  other  Indians 
count  decimally. 


Come  with  me  Ke-we-thay-me 

Go  to  him  E-na-ke-haw-loo 

I  will  fight  for  you  Ke-me-caw-thu-it-thum-one 

Come  in  with  me  Pen-the-kay-thaun 

Let  us  wade  thro  the  water  Pee-than-see-e-thawn 


He  shoots  badly  Me-awn-os-show-whai 

He  eats  much  Kichu-o-we-sen-ne 

The  River  rises  rapidly  Kichu-mos-on-hum-o-see-po 

Come  here  Pe-a-loo 

Go  there  E-tip-pe-haw-loo 

Behave  well  Muc-quache-how-e-wa 

Not  you  but  me  A-qua-kun-neen 

Neither  you  nor  I  A-qua-necoth  I-O 

The  above  is  submitted  to  your  better  Judgment  of 
Indian  Manners  and  Customs  by  your  obedient  servant 

St  Louis,  1 5th  January,  1827 
[Addressed:]  GENERAL  WILLIAM  CLARK,"  Suptd  of  In. 

affs,  St.  Louis. 

98  Thomas  Forsyth  was  of  Scotch-Irish  origin,  his  father,  William  Forsyth, 
coming  to  America  in  1750,  and  entering  military  service  here;  after  the  French 
and  Indian  War  he  was  stationed  at  Detroit,  where  Thomas  was  born,  Dec.  5, 
1771.  When  but  a  youth,  Thomas  entered  the  Indian  trade;  he  spent  several 
winters  at  Saginaw  Bay,  and  as  early  as  1798  spent  a  winter  on  an  island  in 
the  Mississippi  River,  near  Quincy,  111.  About  1802  he,  with  Robert  Forsyth 
and  John  Kinzie,  established  a  trading-post  at  Chicago,  and  later  settled  as  a 
trader  at  Peoria.  April  i,  1812,  he  was  appointed  a  sub-agent  of  Indian  affairs 
(with  a  salary  of  $6co  a  year,  and  three  rations  a  day),  under  Gen.  William 

two]          MEMOIRS  OF  THE  SAUK  AND  FOXES  245 

Clark,  and  for  many  years  (until  a  short  time  before  the  Black  Hawk  War) 
was  agent  at  first  for  the  Illinois  district,  and  then  among  the  Sauk  and  Fox 
tribes.  He  died  at  St.  Louis,  Oct.  29,  1833,  leaving  four  children.  Forsyth's 
letter-books,  covering  the  period  from  1812  to  his  death,  with  many  letters  re- 
ceived by  him  from  prominent  men  of  his  time,  copies  of  his  official  accounts 
rendered  to  the  government,  and  several  memoirs  on  the  Indians  —  forming  a 
collection  of  original  documents  of  great  value  and  interest  for  western  and 
Indian  history  of  that  period  —  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  His- 
torical Society.  Forsyth  was  a  man  of  great  ability,  and  was  generally  con- 
sidered one  of  the  most  competent  among  the  early  Indian  agents;  he  had 
much  influence  with  the  Indians,  and  did  much  to  retain  them  on  the  side  of 
the  Americans  in  the  war  of  1812-18x5.  See  biographical  and  other  information 
regarding  him  in  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  vi,  188,  and  vol.  xi,  316.  —  ED. 

"General  Clark  was  heard  to  say  that  this  account  of  the  manners  and 
customs  of  the  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  was  "tolerable."  It  was  so  tolerable  that 
he  nor  any  of  his  satelites  could  equal  it,  and  I  should  be  glad  to  see  some 
of  their  productions  on  this  head. -T.  FORSYTH  (marginal  note). 


A.  Biographical  sketch  of  Nicolas  Per- 
rot;  condensed  from  the  notes  of  Father 

B.  Notes  on  Indian  social  organization, 
mental  and  moral  traits,  and  religious 
beliefs;  and  accounts  of  three  remark- 
ably religious  movements  among  In- 
dians in  modern  times.     Mainly  from 
writings  of  prominent  ethnologists;  the 
remainder   by   Thomas    Forsyth    and 
Thomas  R.  Roddy. 

C.  Various  letters,  etc.,  describing  the 
character  and  present  condition  of  the 
Sioux,    Potawatomi,    and  Winnebago 
tribes;  written  for  this  work  by  mission- 
aries and  others  who  know  these  peoples 


[The  following  sketch  of  Perrot's  life  is  condensed  from  Tail- 
han's  notes  on  the  explorer's  narrative,  pages  257-279,  301-308  (see 
present  work,  volume  i,  note  171),  and  319-336,  of  the  original  publi- 
cation. This  account  is  given  as  far  as  possible  in  Tailhan's  own 
language,  and  includes  all  his  statements  of  facts;  but  his  long  cita- 
tions from  La  Potherie  and  others  are  omitted,  as  also  various  unim- 
portant comments  and  details.] 

"We  would  know  [from  his  memoirs]  absolutely  nothing  about 
the  family  of  our  author,  the  year  and  the  place  of  his  birth,  his  youth, 
and  his  first  expeditions  among  the  savages  of  the  west,  if  Charle- 
voix  and  La  Potherie  had  not,  at  least  in  part,  made  amends  for  his 
silence.  In  this  note  I  have  brought  together  the  somewhat  scanty 
records  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  them,  and  of  which  they  too 
often  leave  us  in  ignorance  of  the  exact  date.  Nicolas  Per  rot,  born 
in  1644,  came  (I  know  not  in  what  year)  to  New  France.  He  be- 
longed to  a  respectable  but  not  wealthy  family;  accordingly,  after  he 
had  obtained  some  smattering  of  knowledge  he  found  that  he  must 
break  off  his  studies,  in  order  to  enter  the  service  of  the  missionaries. 
The  Jesuits,  at  that  time  dispersed  afar  among  the  savage  peoples 
whom  war  and  famine  vied  in  destroying,  had  soon  realized  that  they 
could  not  without  rashness  place  themselves,  as  regards  their  sub- 
sistence, at  the  mercy  of  the  poor  Indians  in  the  midst  of  whom  they 
were  living.  It  was  therefore  necessary  for  them,  as  well  as  for 
their  neophytes,  to  seek  their  daily  food  from  hunting,  fishing,  and 
agriculture.  These  toils,  to  which  their  earlier  education  had  left 
them  strangers,  were  besides  incompatible  with  the  functions  of  their 
ministry.  The  few  European  coadjutor  brethren  who  were  included 
in  their  number  being  almost  as  unskilled  in  these  pursuits  as  were 
the  missionaries  themselves,  the  latter  took  as  associates  some  young 
men  of  the  country,  who,  either  gratuitously  or  for  a  salary,  consented 
to  share  their  dangers,  fatigues,  and  privations,  and  made  provision 
for  their  needs.  Fathers  Mesnard  (Relation  of  1663,  chap,  viii), 
Allouez  (id.  of  1667,  chap,  xvi),  Marquette  (Recit,  chap,  i),  and 

250  APPENDIX  A  [Vol. 

many  others  before  or  after  them,  had  for  companions  of  their  apos- 
tolic journeys  a  certain  number  of  these  donnes  or  engages.  It  is 
among  these  latter  that  Perrot  was  enrolled,  which  gave  him  the 
opportunity  to  visit  most  of  the  indigenous  tribes  and  to  learn  their 
languages  (Charlevoix,  Histoire,  vol.  i,  437).  What  was  the  exact 
duration  of  this  sort  of  apprenticeship?  I  do  not  know,  but  it  could 
not  have  lasted  very  long.  We  know,  indeed,  through  La  Potherie 
(Histoire,  vol.  ii,  88,  89)  that  Perrot  was  the  first  to  visit  the  Poute- 
ouatamis,  in  order  to  trade  with  them  in  'iron'  -  that  is,  in  arms  and 
munitions  of  war.  At  that  time,  therefore,  he  had  already  quitted 
the  service  of  the  missionaries.  But  this  voyage  could  not  have  been 
made  later  than  1665;  since,  on  the  one  hand,  Perrot  went  from  the 
Pouteouatamis  and  arrived  among  the  Outagamis  in  the  very  year 
following  the  settlement  of  this  latter  tribe  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  Sakis  and  the  Bay  (La  Potherie,  Histoire,  vol.  ii,  99),  and,  on  the 
other,  this  migration  of  the  Outagamis  was  accomplished  by  the  year 
1665  (Relation  of  1667,  chap.  x).  We  are  then  necessarily  led  to 
assign  to  Perrot's  engagement  a  length  of  only  four  or  five  years  at 
most  (from  1660  to  1664  or  1665) ;  for  we  can  hardly  suppose  that 
Perrot  became  companion  to  the  missionaries  before  his  sixteenth 
year."  The  statement  that  he  was  the  first  Frenchman  to  visit  the 
Pouteouatamis  (who  had  been  settled  at  the  entrance  to  Green  Bay 
since  1638)  seems  to  conflict  with  the  other  one  (Relation  of  1660, 
chap,  iii)  that  they  had  been  visited  by  two  Frenchmen  in  1654;  but 
La  Potherie  may  refer  to  only  one  of  the  villages  of  that  tribe,  the 
one  farthest  up  the  bay.  But,  however  that  may  be,  "it  is  certain 
that  before  1670  Perrot  made  several  journeys  among  the  various 
tribes  of  the  Bay  of  Puans  and  of  Wisconsin.  .  .  Perrot  was  not 
a  common  trader,  occupied  solely  with  his  own  interests  and  those  of 
his  employers.  From  the  beginning  of  his  career  he  realized  how  im- 
portant it  was  to  the  Colony  and  to  France  to  see  all  the  peoples  of 
the  west  united  together  against  their  common  enemy,  the  Iroquois. 
Accordingly,  having  learned  on  his  arrival  among  the  Pouteouatamis 
that  hostilities  had  already  broken  out  between  those  Indians  and 
their  neighbors  the  Maloumines  or  wild-rice  people,  from  whom  his 
hosts  feared  an  attack  —  all  the  more  to  be  dreaded  just  then  because 
all  their  warriors  were  at  Montreal  trading -he  offered  to  go  in 
person  to  negotiate  peace  with  their  enemies.  This  proposition  was 
welcomed  with  gratitude  by  the  old  men  of  the  tribe,  and  Perrot  im- 
mediately set  out  to  execute  his  mission."  (See  La  Potherie's  His- 


toire,  vol.  ii,  90-98,  for  account  of  this  embassy  and  its  success,  and 
Perrot's  welcome  by  the  grateful  Pouteouatamis. )  "These  attentions, 
these  marks  of  honor,  and  these  enthusiastic  demonstrations  were  not 
as  disinterested  as  might  be  supposed.  Perrot  somewhere  observes 
that  in  their  traffic  with  Europeans  the  savages  are  such  only  in 
name,  and  can  employ  more  skilfully  than  they  the  means  most  cer- 
tain for  securing  their  own  ends.  The  object  which  in  this  case  they 
proposed  to  attain  was  to  gain  the  confidence  of  Perrot  and  the 
merchants  of  the  colony,  to  bring  the  French  among  themselves  to 
the  exclusion  of  other  peoples,  and  thus  to  become  the  necessary 
middlemen  for  the  commerce  of  New  France  with  all  the  Indians  of 
the  west.  It  was  with  this  purpose  that  they  sought  to  prevent,  as 
far  as  possible,  the  establishment  of  direct  relations  between  Perrot 
and  the  more  remote  tribes,  by  hastening  to  send  deputies  to  those 
tribes,  commissioned  to  inform  them  of  the  alliance  of  the  Pouteou- 
atamis with  the  French,  the  voyage  of  the  former  to  Montreal,  and 
their  return  with  a  great  quantity  of  merchandise  —  for  which  they 
invited  those  distant  peoples  to  come  and  exchange  their  furs.  But 
if  they  had  an  object  Perrot  had  also  his  own,  from  which  he  did  not 
allow  himself  to  turn  aside.  His  patriotism  and  his  adventurous 
spirit  urged  him  on  to  visit  for  himself  the  various  tribes  of  the  Bay 
and  of  adjoining  regions;  and  in  dealing  with  them  personally  he 
endeavored  to  attach  them  to  himself  and  to  France,  and  he  accom- 
plished this  in  the  course  of  the  following  years. 

"The  Outagamis  or  Renards,  driven  from  their  ancient  abodes  by 
fear  of  the  Iroquois,  had  taken  refuge  at  a  place  called  Ouestatinong, 
twenty-five  or  thirty  leagues  from  the  Bay  of  Puans,  toward  the 
southwest  (Relation  of  1670,  chap.  xii).  The  exact  time  of  this 
migration  is  not  known  to  us.  What  is  certain  is,  that  (i)  it  took 
place  after  1658,  since  the  Outagamis  do  not  figure  in  the  enumera- 
tion of  the  peoples  of  the  Bay  and  of  Mechingan  given  in  the  Relation 
of  that  year  (chap,  v) ;  and  (2)  that  it  was  already  made  at  the  end 
of  1665  (cf.  supra).  This  tribe,  of  Algonquin  race,  were  relatives 
and  allies  of  the  Sakis,  whose  language  they  spoke  (Relation  of  1667, 
chap,  x;  id.  of  1670,  chap,  xii;  Perrot,  154).  This  is  why  they  sent, 
in  the  spring  of  the  year  which  followed  their  new  settlement,  depu- 
ties commissioned  to  announce  to  the  latter  tribe  their  arrival.  The 
Sakis,  in  their  turn,  resolved  to  despatch  some  chiefs  as  ambassadors 
to  congratulate  the  Outagamis  on  their  coming  to  that  region,  and  to 
entreat  them  not  to  move  any  farther.  Perrot  did  not  let  slip  this 

252 APPENDIX  A [Vol. 

opportunity  to  visit  a  tribe  which  until  then  had  had  no  intercourse 
with  the  French  (La  Potherie,  Histoire,  vol.  ii,  99,  173).  It  will 
be  easy  for  us  to  follow  him,  thanks  to  Fathers  Allouez  and  Dablon, 
who  soon  afterward  made  the  same  voyage,  and  have  given  us  a 
curious  and  circumstantial  narrative  of  their  itinerary  (Relation  of 
1670,  chap,  xii;  id.  of  1671,  3rd  part,  chap,  v)."  This  voyage  was 
up  the  Fox  River  to  Lake  Winnebago,  thence  up  the  upper  Fox  and 
the  Wolf  Rivers  to  the  Outagami  village.  Perrot  also  made  a 
journey  to  the  Maskoutens  and  Miamis,  who  had  fled  for  refuge  to 
the  upper  Fox  River,  above  the  Wolf.  "It  is  to  be  believed  that,  in 
the  course  of  these  few  years,  Perrot  made  still  other  voyages;  but 
the  two  which  I  have  just  narrated  are  the  only  ones  on  which  the 
old  historians  of  Canada  have  furnished  me  any  information.  I  will 
content  myself,  therefore,  with  adding  to  what  has  gone  before  the 
fact  that  when  Perrot  returned  to  the  colony  with  the  Ottawa  fleet 
[1670],  he  had  already  visited  the  greater  number  of  the  savage 
tribes  of  the  west ;  and  that  he  had  gained  their  confidence  so  far  that 
he  persuaded  them  to  do  whatever  he  wished  (Charlevoix,  Histoirey 
vol.  i,  436).  The  Algonquins  loved  and  esteemed  him  (Perrot, 
119) ;  and  the  various  tribes  of  the  bay  honored  him  as  their  father 
(La  Potherie,  Histoire,  vol.  ii,  173,  175).  In  a  word,  he  was  the 
man  best  prepared  in  all  New  France  for  discharging  the  mission 
which  Monsieur  de  Courcelles  was  soon  to  entrust  to  him  (Charle- 
voix, ut  supra)." 

"After  this  very  inglorious  campaign  [1684]  Perrot  actually  re- 
turned to  the  Puante  River,  in  the  seigniory  of  Becancourt,  where 
from  1 68 1  (as  the  census  of  that  year  shows  us)  he  had  possessed  a 
dwelling  and  a  land-grant  of  eighteen  arpents.  At  that  same  time 
Perrot  had  been  married  about  ten  years,  since  the  eldest  of  his  six 
children  was  then  fully  nine  years  old.  Although  Perrot  had  in- 
herited, in  right  of  his  wife,  Madeleine  Raclos,  a  considerable  amount 
of  property,  his  affairs  were  none  the  less  much  embarrassed  in  the 
present  year  1684.  We  allow  him  to  explain  the  matter  himself,  in 
a  letter  to  Monsieur  de  Saint  Martin,  one  of  his  creditors,  and 
notary-royal  at  Cap  de  la  Madeleine: 

From  the  Puante  River,  this  twentieth  of  August,  1684. 
MONSIEUR:  I  have  received  your  letter,  by  which  I  see  that  you 
demand  what  is  quite  just.  I  would  not  have  delayed  so  long  to  visit 
you  and  all  those  to  whom  I  am  indebted,  if  I  had  brought  in  the  peltries 
which  I  left  behind  on  account  of  the  orders  given  me  to  come  to  the 
war  .  .  .  if  I  had  those  in  my  possession,  I  would  be  bolder  than  I 


am  to  go  to  find  my  creditors;  but  as  I  brought  back  nothing,  even  to  pay 
for  the  merchandise  [that  I  carried  out],  for  fear  of  being  punished  for 
disobedience,  I  am  ashamed.  That  will  not  prevent  me  from  going  down 
to  Quebec  to  procure  merchandise;  if  I  bring  back  goods  that  suit  you, 
you  will  dispose  of  them ;  if  not,  I  will  try  to  satisfy  your  claim  in  some 
other  way,  if  I  can.  I  am  not  the  only  one  who  has  come  down  without 
bringing  back  anything.  I  expected  to  go  to  the  Cap  [de  la  Madeleine], 
in  order  to  give  you  proof  of  what  I  am  writing  to  you;  but  Monsieur 
de  Villiers  is  sending  me  with  some  letters  to  Quebecq,  which  obliges  me 
to  give  up  going  to  see  you  until  after  my  return.  Believe  me,  I  intend 
to  give  you  satisfaction,  or  I  could  not  do  so.  Your  very  humble  ser- 
vant, N.  PERROT. 

In  the  course  of  the  following  years,  the  condition  of  affairs  caused 
only  more  troubles  for  Perrot  and  for  many  others.  The  Iroquois 
closed  all  the  passages,  and  no  longer  permitted  the  fleets  of  the  Otta- 
was  and  the  Canadian  voyageurs  to  come  down  to  the  colony  with 
their  peltries,  from  which  sprang  universal  poverty  and  misery.  Mon- 
sieur de  Champigny,  intendant  of  New  France,  wrote  in  his  despatch 
of  August  9,  1688  (in  the  archives  of  the  Marine)  :  'The  merchants 
are  still  in  a  most  deplorable  condition;  all  their  wealth  has  been  in 
the  woods  for  the  last  three  or  four  years.  It  is  impossible  for  them 
to  avoid  being  considerably  indebted  in  France;  and,  in  a  word,  when 
the  fur-trade  fails  for  one  year,  very  fortunate  is  he  who  has  bread.' 
While  awaiting  a  favorable  opportunity  for  transporting  to  Mon- 
treal the  produce  of  his  trading,  Perrot  had  deposited  it  in  the  buildings 
of  St.  Frangois  Xavier  mission,  at  the  Bay  of  Puans;  but  while  he 
followed  the  Marquis  de  Denonville  in  his  expedition  against  the 
Tsonnontouan  Iroquois,  a  fire  consumed  the  church,  the  adjoining 
buildings,  and  the  40,000  livres'  worth  of  peltries  which  Perrot  had 
left  there  (La  Potherie,  Histoire,  vol.  ii,  209)."  [For  Perrot's  ac- 
tivities in  1685-1686,  see  volume  i,  note  171. -ED.] 

On  returning  to  the  colony,  Perrot  endeavored  to  retrieve  his 
ruinous  losses  of  property  by  a  new  trading  voyage  to  the  west ;  and  he 
obtained  from  Denonville  the  same  office,  with  nearly  the  same 
authority,  as  that  which  La  Barre  had  conferred  on  him.  Probably 
in  the  autumn  of  1687,  he  went  to  Green  Bay,  and  thence  to  the 
upper  Mississippi,  to  the  fort  which  he  had  built  there  a  few  years 
before.  While  there,  he  traded  with  the  Dakotas,  and  persuaded  them 
to  permit  his  taking  possession  of  that  region  for  France  ( 1 689 ) .  He 
returned  to  Montreal,  on  the  way  stopping  at  Michillimakinak  and 
procuring  the  release  of  some  Iroquois  prisoners  whom  the  Ottawas 
were  about  to  burn  at  the  stake ;  and  the  latter  sent  with  him  one  of 

254  APPENDIX  A  [Vol. 

their  chiefs  to  deliver  the  rescued  captives  to  the  governor.  But  soon 
after  their  arrival  at  Montreal  an  Iroquois  army  surprised  (Aug.  25, 
1689)  the  village  of  Lachine,  massacred  or  captured  its  inhabitants, 
and  ravaged  Montreal  Island.  The  French  and  the  friendly  Indians 
were  overcome  with  fear,  and  the  savages  of  the  upper  country  were 
filled  with  contempt  for  the  French,  and  the  desire  to  protect  them- 
selves from  danger  by  concluding  a  peace  with  the  Iroquois  and  the 
English;  knowing  that  this  would  be  ruinous  to  the  French  colony, 
La  Durantaye  and  the  Jesuit  missionaries  at  Michillimakinak  labored 
to  retain  the  Indians  in  the  French  alliance.  Fortunately  at  this 
crisis,  Count  de  Frontenac  arrived  at  Quebec  (Oct.  12,  1689),  and 
immediately  formed  a  plan  to  draw  all  the  Algonquian  tribes  into  an 
offensive  alliance  with  the  French  against  the  Iroquois;  to  gain  over 
to  this  the  tribes  of  the  northwest,  he  sent  Perrot  (May  22,  1690) 
with  presents  as  his  envoy  to  them  -  an  undertaking  in  which  the  latter 
was  successful.  Frontenac  sent  armies  against  the  Iroquois,  into  their 
own  country,  and  thus  broke  up  their  previous  mastery  of  the  St.  Law- 
rence route;  so  that  in  1693  a  fleet  of  two  hundred  Ottawa  canoes 
brought  down  to  Montreal  800,000  livres  worth  of  peltries.  In  1692, 
Perrot  received  orders  to  go  to  reside  among  the  Miamis  of  the  Mara- 
meg  River,  at  the  same  time,  however,  apparently  retaining  his  author- 
ity over  the  tribes  about  Green  Bay;  he  was  sent  thither  "on  account  of 
its  being  important  to  maintain  that  post  against  the  new  expeditions 
which  the  Iroquois  might  make  in  that  quarter"  (Letter  of  Callieres, 
Oct.  27,  1695).  Indeed,  in  that  very  year  a  band  of  Iroquois  had 
endeavored  to  surprise  the  Miamis  there;  but  the  latter,  with  the  aid 
of  the  French  at  the  post  (under  command  of  Courtemanche)  had 
repulsed  the  enemy.  In  the  summer  of  the  same  year  Perrot  had 
gone  to  Montreal  with  chiefs  of  the  various  tribes  under  his  control, 
who  were  received  in  audience  by  Frontenac.  The  governor  urged 
the  Miamis  of  the  Marameg  to  unite  with  their  tribesmen  on  the  St. 
Joseph ;  under  the  influence  of  Frontenac  and  Perrot  they  seem  to  have 
consented,  although  somewhat  reluctantly,  to  this  removal.  During 
the  next  few  years  Perrot  had  much  to  do  with  the  western  tribes,  and 
encountered  many  adventures  and  even  dangers.  "The  principal  oc- 
cupation of  our  author  was,  as  before,  to  maintain  harmony  and  peace 
among  those  tribes,  always  ready  to  tear  one  another  in  pieces,  and  to 
urge  them  to  wage  war  against  the  Iroquois.  That  was  a  work  as 
thankless  as  difficult,  because  it  was  hardly  accomplished  when  it  be- 
came necessary  to  begin  it  again  on  some  new  ground,  so  inconstant 


and  fickle  is  the  will  of  those  peoples,  whose  'wild  young  men,  who 
are  braves  without  discipline  or  any  appearance  of  subordination,  at 
the  first  glance  or  the  first  brandy  debauch  overthrow  all  the  delibera- 
tions of  the  old  men,  who  are  no  longer  obeyed'  (Letter  of  Denonville, 
May  8,  1686)."  This  fickleness  was  often  displayed  against  even 
Perrot,  whose  property  was  seized  by  them,  and  who  even  was  in 
danger  of  being  burned  at  the  stake  by  the  Maskoutens  (about  1693) 
and  again  by  the  Miamis  (in  1696).  In  the  latter  case,  chiefs  from 
the  other  tribes  offered  their  services  to  Frontenac  to  avenge  the  injuries 
of  Perrot;  but  he  knew  their  hatred  to  the  Miamis,  and  discreetly 
declined  this  proposal.  The  governor  was  a  firm  friend  of  Perrot, 
and  if  he  had  lived  would  doubtless  have  enabled  him  to  recoup  his 
losses;  but  the  death  of  Frontenac  (November  28,  1698)  deprived 
Perrot  of  a  protector,  and  about  the  same  time  the  court  of  France 
abolished  the  trading  permits  and  ordered  that  the  posts  at  Michilli- 
makinak  and  St.  Joseph  be  abandoned,  and  all  the  French  soldiers  and 
traders  recalled  to  the  colony  (Letter  of  Champigny,  Oct.  15,  1698; 
in  archives  of  the  Marine).  As  a  result,  Perrot  was  "completely 
ruined,  and  harassed  by  numerous  creditors;"  and  his  appeals  to  both 
the  colonial  and  the  royal  governments  were  rejected  -  although  Cal- 
lieres  suggested  that  the  latter  grant  a  small  pension  to  relieve  the 
poverty  of  the  unfortunate  explorer,  a  request  which  seems  to  have 
been  entirely  ignored.  But  the  same  neglect  was  experienced  by  other 
faithful  servants  of  the  French  cause -for  instance,  La  Durantaye 
and  Jolliet,  who  were  reduced  to  the  same  extremity  (see  Raudot's 
"List  of  those  interested  in  the  Company  of  Canada,"  1708;  in  ar- 
chives of  the  Marine). 

In  the  summer  of  1701  Perrot  was  called  to  act  as  interpreter  at  a 
general  conference  of  the  Indian  tribes  that  was  held  there.  On  this 
occasion  those  of  the  west  who  had  been  under  his  command  entreated 
the  governor  to  send  him  back  to  them,  and  displayed  the  utmost 
esteem  and  affection  for  him ;  this  request  was  made  by  the  Potawatomi 
chief,  Ounanguisse,  the  Outagami  chief,  Noro,  and  the  orator  of  the 
Ottawas  and  their  allies,  but  was  met  only  by  vague  promises,  which 
were  never  fulfilled.  See  La  Potherie,  Histoire,  vol.  iv,  212-214,  257. 
The  Marquis  de  Vaudreuil,  who  succeeded  Callieres  as  governor,  was 
fortunately  always  a  warm  friend  of  Perrot  and  his  family,  and  seems 
to  have  conferred  on  the  former  a  command  in  the  militia  of  the 
seigniories  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  which  carried  with  it  a  small  salary 
and  comparatively  light  duties.  The  leisure  thus  obtained  by  Perrot 


was  spent  largely  in  writing  his  various  memoirs.  He  was  still  living 
in  1718,  as  is  evident  from  his  allusion  at  the  end  of  chap,  xxvii  to 
Louvigny's  expeditions  (1716,  1717)  to  punish  and  afterward  pacify 
the  Outagamis.  Further  information  regarding  Perrot's  later  years 
is  not  available.  "In  his  humble  sphere,  he  always  proved  himself 
brave,  loyal,  and  devoted;  and  as  a  writer  he  was,  although  without 
doubt  unpolished  and  unskilful,  yet  honest -one  who  has  in  his 
memoirs  known  how  to  speak  of  himself  without  boasting,  and  of 
others  without  fawning,  without  jealousy,  and  without  vilification." 
"The  memoir  that  we  have  just  published  is  the  only  one  of  all  Per- 
rot's writings  which  has  reached  us."  From  allusions  therein,  it  is 
evident  that  he  also  wrote  ( I )  a  memoir  on  the  Outagamis,  addressed 
to  Vaudreuil;  and  (2)  several  memoirs  on  the  wars  between  the 
Iroquois  and  the  western  tribes,  and  on  the  various  acts  of  treachery 
committed  by  the  Indians,  especially  by  the  Hurons  and  Ottawas. 


An  interesting  and  well-written  sketch  of  Perrot's  life  forms  no.  I 
of  the  Parkman  Club  Papers  (Milwaukee,  1896);  it  was  prepared 
by  Gardner  P.  Stickney.  He  has  based  it  mainly  on  Tailhan's  notes, 
but  has  collected  other  mention  and  minor  details  from  Charlevoix, 
Parkman,  Neill,  and  other  writers.  -  ED. 



[Here  is  presented  information  on  various  topics  regarding  Indian 
society,  character,  and  religious  beliefs,  which  seems  more  appropriately 
grouped  here  than  scattered  through  the  work,  especially  as  some  of 
the  subjects  are  inconveniently  long  or  general  for  footnotes.  These 
articles  are  chiefly  taken  from  the  Handbook  of  Amer.  Indians,  vol.  ii; 
the  exceptions  are  obtained,  as  indicated,  from  excellent  authorities. 
As  will  be  noted,  they  are  arranged  in  logical  sequence,  as  far  as 
possible.  -  ED.] 

Social  Organization 

"North  American  tribes  contained  (i)  subdivisions  of  a  geo- 
graphic or  consanguineal  character;  (2)  social  and  governmental 
classes  or  bodies,  especially  chiefs  and  councils,  with  particular  powers 
and  privileges;  and  (3)  fraternities  of  a  religious  or  semi-religious 
character,  the  last  of  which  are  especially  treated  under  article  'Secret 
Societies.'  Tribes  may  be  divided  broadly  into  those  in  which  the 
organization  was  loose,  the  subdivisions  being  families  or  bands  and 
descent  being  counted  prevailingly  from  father  to  son ;  and  those  which 
were  divided  into  clearly  defined  groups  called  gentes  or  clans,  which 
were  strictly  exogamic  and  more  often  reckoned  descent  through  the 
mother.  Among  the  former  may  be  placed  the  Eskimo,"  the  Cree, 
Montagnais,  and  Cheyenne,  of  Algonquian  tribes,  the  Kiowa,  etc. ;  in 
the  latter  divisions  are  the  Pueblos,  Navaho,  and  the  majority  of  tribes 
in  the  Atlantic  and  Gulf  States,  and  some  others.  "Where  clans  exist 
the  distinctive  character  of  each  is  very  strongly  defined  and  a  man  can 
become  a  member  only  by  birth,  adoption,  or  transfer  in  infancy  from 
his  mother's  to  his  father's  clan,  or  vice  versa.  Each  clan  generally 
possessed  some  distinctive  totem  from  which  the  majority  of  the  per- 
sons belonging  to  it  derived  their  names,  certain  rights,  carvings,  and 
ceremonies  in  common,  and  often  the  exclusive  right  to  a  tract  of  land. 
Although  the  well-defined  caste  system  of  the  north  Pacific  coast,  based 
on  property  and  the  institution  of  slavery,  does  not  seem  to  have  had 
a  parallel  elsewhere  north  of  Mexico  except  perhaps  among  the 

258  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

Natchez,  bravery  in  war,  wisdom  in  council,  oratorical,  poetical,  or 
artistic  talents,  real  or  supposed  psychic  powers  —  in  short,  any  variety 
of  excellence  whatever  served  in  all  Indian  tribes  to  give  one  prom- 
inence among  his  fellows,  and  it  is  not  strange  that  popular  recognition 
of  a  man's  ability  sometimes  reacted  to  the  benefit  of  his  descendants. 
Although  it  was  always  a  position  of  great  consequence,  leadership  in 
war  was  generally  separate  from  and  secondary  to  the  civil  chieftain- 
ship. Civil  leadership  and  religious  primacy  were  much  more  com- 
monly combined.  Among  the  Pueblos  all  three  are  united,  forming  a 
theocracy.  Councils  of  a  democratic,  unconventional  kind,  in  which 
wealthy  persons  or  those  of  most  use  to  the  tribe  had  the  greatest  in- 
fluence, were  universal  where  no  special  form  of  council  was  estab- 
lished. .  .  The  tribes  possessing  a  well-defined  clan  system  are 
divided  into  three  groups  -  the  north  Pacific,  southwestern,  and  east- 
ern. .  .  Among  the  Plains  Indians  the  Omaha  had  a  highly  organ- 
ized social  system.  The  tribe  was  divided  into  ten  gentes  called 
Villages,'  with  descent  through  the  father,  each  of  which  had  one 
chief.  Seven  of  these  chiefs  constituted  a  sort  of  oligarchy,  and  two  of 
them,  representing  the  greatest  amount  of  wealth,  exercised  superior 
authority.  The  functions  of  these  chiefs  were  entirely  civil;  they 
never  headed  war  parties.  Below  them  were  two  orders  of  warriors, 
from  the  higher  of  which  men  were  selected  to  act  as  policemen  dur- 
ing the  buffalo  hunt.  Under  all  were  those  who  had  not  yet  attained 
to  eminence.  During  the  buffalo  hunts  and  great  ceremonials  the 
tribe  encamped  in  a  regular  circle  with  one  opening,  like  most  other 
plains  tribes.  In  it  each  gens  and  even  each  family  had  its  definite 
position.  The  two  halves  of  this  circle,  composed  of  five  clans  each, 
had  different  names,  but  they  do  not  appear  to  have  corresponded  to 
the  phratries  of  more  eastern  Indians.  A  man  was  not  permitted  to 
marry  into  the  gens  of  his  father,  and  marriage  into  that  of  his  mother 
was  rare  and  strongly  disapproved.  Other  plains  tribes  of  the  Siouan 
family  probably  were  organized  in  much  the  same  manner  and  reck- 
oned descent  similarly.  The  Dakota  are  traditionally  reputed  to  have 
been  divided  into  seven  council  fires,  each  of  which  was  at  one  time 
divided  into  two  or  three  major  and  a  multitude  of  minor  bands. 
Whatever  their  original  condition  may  have  been  their  organization  is 
now  much  looser  than  that  of  the  Omaha.  .  .  The  social  organiza- 
tion of  the  western  and  northern  Algonquian  tribes  is  not  well  known. 
The  Siksika  [more  commonly  known  as  Blackfeet]  have  numerous 
subdivisions. which  have  been  called  gentes;  they  are  characterized  by 

two]  INDIAN  TOTEMS  259 

descent  through  the  father,  but  would  appear  to  be  more  truly  local 
groups.  Each  had  originally  its  own  chief,  and  the  council  composed 
of  these  chiefs  selected  the  chief  of  the  tribe,  their  choice  being  gov- 
erned rather  by  the  character  of  the  person  than  by  his  descent.  The 
head  chief's  authority  was  made  effective  largely  through  the  volun- 
tary cooperation  of  several  societies.  The  Chippewa,  Potawatomi, 
Menominee,  Miami,  Shawnee,  and  Abnaki  in  historic  times  have  had 
gentes,  with  paternal  descent,  which  Morgan  believed  had  developed 
from  a  material  stage;  but  this  view  must  be  taken  with  caution,  in- 
asmuch as  there  never  has  been  a  question  as  to  the  form  of  descent 
among  the  Delawares,  who  were  subjected  to  white  influences  at  an 
earlier  date  than  most  of  those  supposed  to  have  changed.  .  .  The 
most  advanced  social  organization  north  of  the  Pueblo  country  was 
probably  that  developed  by  the  Iroquois  confederated  tribes.  Each 
tribe  consisted  of  two  or  more  phratries,  which  in  turn  embraced  one 
or  more  clans,  named  after  various  animals  or  objects,  while  each  clan 
consisted  of  one  or  more  kinship  groups  called  ohwachira.  When  the 
tribes  combined  to  form  the  confederacy  called  the  Five  Nations  they 
were  arranged  in  three  phratries,  of  two,  two,  and  one  tribes  respec- 
tively. There  were  originally  forty-eight  hereditary  chieftainships  in 
the  five  tribes,  and  subsequently  the  number  was  raised  to  fifty.  Each 
chieftainship  was  held  by  some  one  ohwachira,  and  the  selection  of  a 
person  to  fill  it  devolved  on  the  child-bearing  women  of  the  clan  to 
which  it  belonged,  more  particularly  those  of  the  ohwachira  which 
owned  it.  The  selection  had  to  be  confirmed  afterward  by  the  tribal 
and  league  councils  successively.  Along  with  each  chief  a  vice-chief 
was  elected,  who  sat  in  the  tribal  council  with  the  chief  proper,  and 
also  acted  for  a  leader  in  time  of  war,  but  the  chief  only  sat  in  the 
grand  council  of  the  confederacy."- J.  R.  SWANTON,  in  Handbook 
Amer.  Indians. 


'  'Totem"  is  a  corruption  by  travelers  and  traders  of  the  Chippewa 
nind  otem  or  kitotem,  meaning  "my  own  family,"  "thy  own  family"  - 
thence,  by  extension,  "tribe,"  or  "race."  "The  totem  represented  an 
emblem  that  was  sacred  in  character  and  referred  to  one  of  the  ele- 
ments, a  heavenly  body,  or  some  natural  form.  If  an  element,  the 
device  was  symbolic;  if  an  object,  it  might  be  represented  realistically 
or  by  its  known  sign  or  symbol.  An  animal  represented  by  the  'totem' 
was  always  generic;  if  a  bear  or  an  eagle,  no  particular  bear  or  eagle 
was  meant.  The  clan  frequently  took  its  name  from  the  'totem'  and 

26o  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

its  members  might  be  spoken  of  as  Bear  people,  Eagle  people,  etc. 
Variants  of  the  word  'totem'  were  used  by  tribes  speaking  languages 
belonging  to  the  Algonquian  stock,  but  to  all  other  tribes  the  word  was 
foreign  and  unknown."  The  use  of  this  term  is  too  often  indiscrim- 
inate and  incorrect,  which  has  obscured  its  real  meaning.  "As  the 
emblem  of  a  family  or  clan,  it  had  two  aspects:  (i)  the  religious, 
which  concerned  man's  relations  to  the  forces  about  him,  and  involved 
the  origin  of  the  emblem  as  well  as  the  methods  by  which  it  was  se- 
cured; and  (2)  the  social,  which  pertained  to  man's  relation  to  his 
fellow-men  and  the  means  by  which  an  emblem  became  the  hereditary 
mark  of  a  family,  a  clan,  or  society.  There  were  three  classes  of 
'totems:'  the  individual,  the  society,  and  the  clan  'totem.'  Research 
indicates  that  the  individual  'totem'  was  the  fundamental."  This 
personal  "totem"  was  most  often  selected  from  the  objects  seen  in 
dreams  or  visions,  since  there  was  a  general  belief  that  such  an  object 
became  the  medium  of  supernatural  help  in  time  of  need,  and  for  this 
purpose  would  furnish  a  man,  in  his  dream,  with  a  song  or  a  peculiar 
call  by  which  to  summon  it  to  his  help.  The  religious  societies  were 
generally  independent  of  the  clan  organization;  but  sometimes  they 
were  in  close  connection  with  the  clan  and  the  membership  under  its 
control.  The  influence  of  the  "totem"  idea  was  most  developed  in 
the  clan,  "where  the  emblem  of  the  founder  of  a  kinship  group  became 
the  hereditary  mark  of  the  composite  clan,  with  its  fixed,  obligatory 
duties  on  all  members.  .  .  The  idea  of  supernatural  power  was 
attached  to  the  clan  'totem.'  This  power,  however,  was  not  shown, 
as  in  the  personal  'totem,'  by  according  help  to  individuals,  but  was 
manifested  in  the  punishment  of  forgetf ulness  of  kinship.  .  .  While 
homage  was  ceremonially  rendered  to  the  special  power  represented  by 
the  'totem'  of  the  clan  or  of  the  society,  the  'totem'  itself  was  not  an 
object  of  worship.  Nor  was  the  object  symbolized  considered  as  the 
actual  ancestor  of  the  people;  the  members  of  the  Bear  clan  did  not 
believe  they  were  descended  from  a  bear,  nor  were  they  always  pro- 
hibited from  hunting  the  animal,  although  they  might  be  forbidden  to 
eat  of  its  flesh  or  to  touch  certain  parts  of  its  body.  The  unification 
and  strength  of  the  clan  and  tribal  structure  depended  largely  on  the 
restraining  fear  of  supernatural  punishment  by  the  'totemic'  powers,  a 
fear  fostered  by  the  vital  belief  in  the  potency  of  the  personal  'totem/  " 
-  ALICE  C.  FLETCHER,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]  INDIAN  MODE  OF  LIFE  261 

Mode  of  Life 

It  is  a  popular  fallacy  that  the  Indians  were  generally  nomadic, 
having  no  fixed  place  of  abode;  "the  term  nomadic  is  not,  in  fact, 
properly  applicable  to  any  Indian  tribe."  With  some  few  exceptions, 
every  tribe  or  group  of  tribes  "laid  claim  to  and  dwelt  within  the 
limits  of  a  certain  tract  or  region,  the  boundaries  of  which  were  well 
understood,  and  were  handed  down  by  tradition  and  not  ordinarily 
relinquished  save  to  a  superior  force."  There  were  some  debatable 
areas,  owned  by  none  but  claimed  by  all,  over  which  many  disputes  and 
intertribal  wars  arose.  "Most  or  all  of  the  tribes  east  of  the  Missis- 
sippi except  in  the  north,  and  some  west  of  it,  were  to  a  greater  or  less 
extent  agricultural  and  depended  much  for  food  on  the  products  of 
their  tillage.  During  the  hunting  season  such  tribes  or  villages  broke 
up  into  small  parties  and  dispersed  over  their  domains  more  or  less 
widely  in  search  of  game;  or  they  visited  the  seashore  for  fish  and 
shellfish.  Only  in  this  restricted  sense  may  they  be  said  to  be  no- 
madic." Even  the  plains  Indians,  who  wandered  far  in  hunting  the 
buffalo,  had  a  certain  hold  on  their  tribal  territories  and  recognized  the 
rights  of  their  neighbors.  The  natives  of  the  far  north,  owing  to  en- 
vironment and  geographical  conditions,  most  nearly  approached  the 
nomadic  life.  -  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians, 
art.  "Popular  fallacies." 

"Each  North  American  tribe  claimed  a  certain  locality  as  its  hab- 
itat, and  dwelt  in  communities  or  villages  about  which  stretched  its 
hunting  grounds.  As  all  the  inland  people  depended  for  food  largely 
on  the  gathering  of  acorns,  seeds,  and  roots,  the  catching  of  salmon 
when  ascending  the  streams,  or  on  hunting  for  meat  and  skin  clothing, 
they  camped  in  makeshift  shelters  or  portable  dwellings  during  a  con- 
siderable part  of  the  year.  These  dwellings  were  brush  shelters,  the 
mat  house  and  birch-bark  lodge  of  the  forest  tribes,  and  the  skin  tent 
of  the  plains.  .  .  Hunting,  visiting,  or  war  parties  were  more  or 
less  organized.  The  leader  was  generally  the  head  of  a  family  or  of 
a  kindred  group,  or  he  was  appointed  to  his  office  with  certain  cere- 
monies. He  decided  the  length  of  a  day's  journey,  and  where  the 
camp  should  be  made  at  night.  As  all  property,  save  a  man's  personal 
clothing,  weapons,  and  riding  horses,  belonged  to  the  woman,  its  care 
during  a  journey  fell  upon  her.  .  .  When  a  camping  place  was 
reached  the  mat  houses  were  erected  as  was  most  convenient  for  the 
family  group,  but  the  skin  tents  were  set  up  in  a  circle,  near  of  kin 
being  neighbors.  If  danger  from  enemies  was  apprehended,  the  ponies 

262  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

and  other  valuable  possessions  were  kept  within  the  space  inclosed  by 
the  circle  of  tents.  Long  journeys  were  frequently  undertaken  for 
friendly  visits  or  for  intertribal  ceremonies.  .  .  When  the  tribes  of 
the  buffalo  country  went  on  their  annual  hunt,  ceremonies  attended 
every  stage,  from  the  initial  rites  (when  the  leader  was  chosen), 
throughout  the  journeyings,  to  the  thanksgiving  ceremony  which  closed 
the  expedition.  The  long  procession  was  escorted  by  warriors  selected 
by  the  leader  and  the  chiefs  for  their  trustiness  and  valor.  They  acted 
as  a  police  guard  to  prevent  any  straggling  that  might  result  in  personal 
or  tribal  danger;  and  they  prevented  any  private  hunting,  as  it  might 
stampede  a  herd  that  might  be  in  the  vicinity.  When  on  the  annual 
hunt  the  tribe  camped  in  a  circle  and  preserved  its  political  divisions, 
and  the  circle  was  often  a  quarter  of  a  mile  or  more  in  diameter. 
Sometimes  the  camp  was  in  concentric  circles,  each  circle  representing 
a  political  group  of  kindred.  .  .  The  tribal  circle,  each  segment 
composed  of  a  clan,  gens,  or  band,  made  a  living  picture  of  tribal  organ- 
ization and  responsibilities.  It  impressed  upon  the  beholder  the  rela- 
tive position  of  kinship  groups  and  their  interdependence,  both  for  the 
maintenance  of  order  and  government  within  and  for  defense  against 
enemies  from  without;  while  the  opening  to  the  east  and  the  position 
of  the  ceremonial  tents  recalled  the  religious  rites  and  obligations  by 
which  the  many  parts  were  held  together  in  a  compact  whole." 

-  ALICE  C.  FLETCHER,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

Mental  and  Moral  Traits 

"The  mental  functions  of  the  Indian  should  be  compared  with 
those  of  whites  reared  and  living  under  approximately  similar  circum- 
stances. On  closer  observation  the  differences  in  the  fundamental 
psychical  manifestations  between  the  two  races  are  found  to  be  small. 
No  instincts  not  possessed  by  whites  have  developed  in  the  Indian.  His 
proficiency  in  tracking  and  concealment,  his  sense  of  direction,  etc.,  are 
accounted  for  by  his  special  training  and  practice,  and  are  not  found  in 
the  Indian  youth  who  has  not  had  such  experience.  The  Indian  lacks 
much  of  the  ambition  known  to  the  white  man,  yet  he  shows  more  or 
less  of  the  quality  where  his  life  affords  a  chance  for  it." 

"The  emotional  life  of  the  Indian  is  more  moderate  and  ordinarily 
more  free  from  extremes  of  nearly  every  nature,  than  that  of  the  white 
person.  The  prevalent  subjective  state  is  that  of  content  in  well-being, 
with  inclination  to  humor.  Pleasurable  emotions  predominate,  but 
seldom  rise  beyond  the  moderate;  those  of  a  painful  nature  are  oc- 
casionally very  pronounced.  Maternal  love  is  strong,  especially  during 


the  earlier  years  of  the  child.  Sexual  love  is  rather  simply  organic, 
not  of  so  intellectual  an  order  as  among  whites ;  but  this  seems  to  be 
largely  the  result  of  views  and  customs  governing  sex  relations  and 
marriage.  The  social  instinct  and  that  of  self-preservation  are  much 
like  those  of  white  people.  Emotions  of  anger  and  hatred  are  infre- 
quent and  of  normal  character.  Fear  is  rather  easily  aroused  at  all 
ages,  in  groups  of  children  occasionally  reaching  a  panic;  but  this  is 
likewise  due  in  large  measure  to  peculiar  beliefs  and  untrammeled 

"Modesty,  morality,  and  the  sense  of  right  and  justice  are  as  natural 
to  the  Indian  as  to  the  white  man,  but,  as  in  other  respects,  are  modi- 
fied in  the  former  by  prevalent  views  and  conditions  of  life.  Trans- 
gressions of  every  character  are  less  frequent  in  the  Indian.  Memory 
(of  sense  impressions  as  well  as  of  mental  acts  proper)  is  generally 
fair.  Where  the  faculty  has  been  much  exercised  in  one  direction,  as 
in  religion,  it  acquires  remarkable  capacity  in  that  particular.  The 
young  exhibit  good  memory  for  languages.  The  faculty  of  will  is 
strongly  developed.  Intellectual  activities  proper  are  comparable  with 
those  of  ordinary  healthy  whites,  though  on  the  whole,  and  excepting 
the  sports,  the  mental  processes  are  probably  habitually  slightly 
slower.  Among  many  tribes  lack  of  thrift,  improvidence,  absence  of 
demonstrative  manifestations,  and  the  previously  mentioned  lack  of  am- 
bition are  observable;  but  these  peculiarities  must  be  charged  largely, 
if  not  entirely,  to  differences  in  mental  training  and  habits.  The 
reasoning  of  the  Indian  and  his  ideation,  though  modified  by  his  views, 
have  often  been  shown  to  be  excellent.  His  power  of  imitation,  and 
even  of  invention,  is  good,  as  is  his  aptitude  in  several  higher  arts  and 
in  oratory.  An  Indian  child  reared  under  the  care  of  whites,  edu- 
cated in  the  schools  of  civilization,  and  without  having  acquired  the 
notions  of  its  people,  is  habitually  much  like  a  white  child  trained  in  a 
similar  degree  under  similar  conditions."  —  ALES  HRDLICKA,  in  Hand- 
book Amer.  Indians,  art.  "Physiology." 

"The  idea  of  the  Indian,  once  popular,  suggests  a  taciturn  and 
stolid  character,  who  smoked  his  pipe  in  silence  and  stalked  reserved 
and  dignified  among  his  fellows.  Unquestionably  the  Indian  of  the 
Atlantic  slope  differed  in  many  respects  from  his  kinsmen  farther  west ; 
it  may  be  that  the  forest  Indian  of  the  north  and  east  imbibed  some- 
thing of  the  spirit  of  the  primeval  woods  which,  deep  and  gloomy, 
overspread  much  of  his  region.  If  so,  he  has  no  counterpart  in  the 
regions  west  of  the  Mississippi.  On  occasions  of  ceremony  and  re- 
ligion the  western  Indian  can  be  both  dignified  and  solemn,  as  befits 

264  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

the  occasion ;  but  his  nature,  if  not  as  bright  and  sunny  as  that  of  the 
Polynesian,  is  at  least  as  far  removed  from  moroseness  as  his  dispo- 
sition is  from  taciturnity.  The  Indian  of  the  present  day  has  at  least 
a  fair  sense  of  humor  and  is  by  no  means  a  stranger  to  jest,  laughter, 
and  even  repartee."  -  HENRY  W.  HENSHAW,  in  Handbook  Amer. 
Indians ',  art.  "Popular  fallacies." 

"The  specific  question  of  psychological  differences  between  Indians 
and  other  races  is  still  an  unsolved  problem,"  on  account  of  the  lack  of 
adequate  data  as  a  basis  for  conclusions.  Some  work  has  been  done  in 
the  study  and  comparison  of  these  differences,  but  the  results  are  insuf- 
ficient for  definite  general  statements.  Conflicting  theories  are  in 
vogue  among  anthropologists  —  one  that  "the  existence  of  cultural  dif- 
ferences necessitates  the  existence  of  psychological  differences;"  an- 
other, that  those  "cultural  differences  are  not  due  to  psychological 
differences,  but  to  causes  entirely  external,  or  outside  of  the  conscious 
life,"  and  "considers  culture  as  the  sum  of  habits  into  which  the  vari- 
ous groups  of  mankind  have  fallen."  But  thus  far  neither  theory  has 
been  satisfactorily  proved.  "In  conclusion,  it  appears  that  we  have  no 
satisfactory  knowledge  of  the  elemental  psychological  activities  among 
Indians,  because  they  have  not  been  made  the  subjects  of  research  by 
trained  psychologists.  On  the  other  hand,  it  may  be  said  that  in  all 
the  larger  aspects  of  mental  life  they  are  qualitatively  similar  to  other 
races."  —  Handbook  Amer.  Indians,  art.  "Psychology." 

Religious  Beliefs 

"Religious  views  and  actions  are  not  primarily  connected  with 
ethical  concepts.  Only  in  so  far  as  in  his  religious  relations  to  the 
outer  world  man  endeavors  to  follow  certain  rules  of  conduct,  in  order 
to  avoid  evil  effects,  is  a  relation  between  primitive  religion  and  ethics 
established.  The  religious  concepts  of  the  Indians  may  be  described 
in  two  groups  -  those  that  concern  the  individual,  and  those  that  con- 
cern the  social  group,  such  as  tribe  and  clan.  The  fundamental  con- 
cept bearing  upon  the  religious  life  of  the  individual  is  the  belief  in 
the  existence  of  magic  power,  which  may  influence  the  life  of  man,  and 
which  in  turn  may  be  influenced  by  human  activity.  In  this  sense 
magic  power  must  be  understood  as  the  wonderful  qualities  which  are 
believed  to  exist  in  objects,  animals,  men,  spirits,  or  deities,  and  which 
are  superior  to  the  natural  qualities  of  man.  This  idea  of  magic 
power  is  one  of  the  fundamental  concepts  that  occurs  among  all  In- 
dian tribes.  It  is  what  is  called  manito  by  the  Algonquian  tribes; 
wakanda,  by  the  Siouan  tribes;  orenda,  by  the  Iroquois,"  etc.  "The 

two]         RELIGIOUS  BELIEFS  OF  THE  INDIANS          265 

degree  to  which  the  magic  power  of  nature  is  individualized  differs 
considerably  among  various  tribes.  Although  the  belief  in  the  powers 
of  inanimate  objects  is  common,  we  find  in  America  that,  on  the 
whole,  animals,  particularly  the  larger  ones,  are  most  frequently  con- 
sidered as  possessed  of  such  magic  power.  Strong  anthropomorphic 
individualization  also  occurs,  which  justifies  us  in  calling  these  powers 
deities.  It  seems  probable  that  among  the  majority  of  tribes  besides 
the  belief  in  the  power  of  specific  objects,  a  belief  in  a  magic  power  that 
is  only  vaguely  localized  exists.  In  cases  where  this  belief  is  pro- 
nounced, the  notion  sometimes  approaches  the  concept  of  a  deity  or  of 
a  great  spirit,  which  is  hardly  anthropomorphic  in  its  character.  This 
is  the  case,  for  instance,  among  the  Tsimshian  of  British  Columbia 
and  among  the  Algonquian  tribes  of  the  great  lakes,  and  also  in  the 
figure  of  the  Tirawa  of  the  Pawnee.  .  .  The  whole  concept  of  the 
world  -  or,  in  other  words,  the  mythology  of  each  tribe  —  enters  to  a 
very  great  extent  into  their  religious  concepts  and  activities.  The 
mythologies  are  highly  specialized  in  different  parts  of  North  America ; 
and,  although  a  large  number  of  myths  are  the  common  property  of 
many  American  tribes,  the  general  view  of  the  world  appears  to  be 
quite  distinct  in  various  parts  of  the  continent."  In  the  explanation 
of  the  world,  the  Indian  view  is  quite  different  from  that  of  the 
Semitic  mind.  The  former  "accepts  the  eternal  existence  of  the 
world,  and  accounts  for  its  specific  form  by  the  assumption  that  events 
which  once  happened  in  early  times  settled  for  once  and  all  the  form 
in  which  the  same  kind  of  event  must  continue  to  occur.  For  in- 
stance, when  the  bear  produced  the  stripes  of  the  chipmunk  by  scratch- 
ing its  back,  this  determined  that  all  chipmunks  were  to  have  such 
stripes ;  or  when  an  ancestor  of  a  clan  was  taught  a  certain  ceremony, 
that  same  ceremony  must  be  performed  by  all  future  generations. 
This  idea  is  not  by  any  means  confined  to  America,  but  is  found  among 
primitive  peoples  of  other  continents  as  well,  and  occurs  even  in  Se- 
mitic cults." 

In  considering  American  mythologies  five  great  areas  may  be  dis- 
tinguished: (i)  The  Eskimo  area,  its  mythology  characterized  by 
many  purely  human  hero-tales,  and  a  very  few  traditions  accounting 
for  the  origin  of  animals  (and  these  mainly  in  human  setting)  ;  (2) 
the  North  Pacific,  "characterized  by  a  large  circle  of  transformer 
myths,  in  which  the  origin  of  many  of  the  arts  of  man  are  accounted 
for,  as  well  as  the  peculiarities  of  many  animals;  (3)  the  similar  tra- 
ditions of  the  western  plateau  and  of  the  Mackenzie  basin  area,  in 
which  animal  tales  abound,  many  accounting  for  the  present  conditions 

266 APPENDIX  B [Vol. 

of  the  world;  (4)  the  Californian,  "characterized  by  a  stronger  em- 
phasis laid  upon  creation  by  will-power  than  is  found  in  most  other 
parts  of  the  American  continent;"  and  (5)  the  great  plains,  the  east- 
ern woodlands,  and  the  arid  southwest,  where  the  tendency  to  "sys- 
tematization  of  the  myths  under  the  influence  of  a  highly  developed 
ritual.  This  tendency  is  more  sharply  defined  in  the  south  than  in  the 
north  and  northeast,"  and  has  made  most  progress  among  the  Pueblo 
and  the  Pawnee.  "The  religious  concepts  of  the  Indians  deal  largely 
with  the  relation  of  the  individual  to  the  magic  power  mentioned 
above,  and  are  specialized  in  accordance  with  their  general  mythologi- 
cal concepts,  which  determine  largely  the  degree  to  which  the  powers 
are  personified  as  animals,  spirits,  or  deities. 

"Another  group  of  religious  concepts,  which  are  not  less  important 
than  the  group  heretofore  discussed,  refers  to  the  relations  of  the  in- 
dividual to  his  internal  states,  so  far  as  these  are  not  controlled  by  the 
will,  and  are  therefore  considered  as  subject  to  external  magic  influ- 
ences. Most  important  among  these  are  dreams,  sickness,  and  death. 
These  may  be  produced  by  obsession,  or  by  external  forces  which 
compel  the  soul  to  leave  the  body.  In  this  sense  the  soul  is  considered 
by  almost  all  the  tribes  as  not  subject  to  the  individual  will;  it  may  be 
abstracted  from  the  body  by  hostile  forces,  and  it  may  be  damaged  and 
killed.  The  concept  of  the  soul  itself  shows  a  great  variety  of  forms. 
Very  often  the  soul  is  identified  with  life,  but  we  also  find  commonly 
the  belief  in  a  multiplicity  of  souls.  .  .  The  soul  is  also  identified 
with  the  blood,  the  bones,  the  shadow,  the  nape  of  the  neck.  Based  on 
these  ideas  is  also  the  belief  in  the  existence  of  the  soul  after  death. 
Thus,  in  the  belief  of  the  Algonquian  Indians  of  the  great  lakes,  the 
souls  of  the  deceased  are  believed  to  reside  in  the  far  west  with  the 
brother  of  the  great  culture-hero  [Nanabozho].  Among  the  Kutenai 
the  belief  prevails  that  the  souls  will  return  at  a  later  period,  accom- 
panying the  culture-hero.  Sometimes  the  land  from  which  the  an- 
cestors of  the  tribe  have  sprung,  which  in  the  south  is  often  conceived 
of  as  underground,  is  of  equal  importance. 

"Since  the  belief  in  the  existence  of  magic  powers  is  very  strong 
in  the  Indian  mind,  all  his  actions  are  regulated  by  the  desire  to  retain 
the  good-will  of  those  friendly  to  him  and  to  control  those  that  are 
hostile."  In  order  to  secure  the  former,  the  strict  observance  of  a 
great  variety  of  proscriptions  is  needed,  many  of  which  fall  under  the 
designation  of  taboos  -  especially  those  of  food  and  of  work ;  also  social. 
There  are  also  found,  all  over  the  continent,  numerous  regulations 

two]         RELIGIOUS  BELIEFS  OF  THE  INDIANS          267 

intended  to  retain  the  good-will  of  the  food  animals,  and  which  are 
essentially  signs  of  respect  shown  to  them ;  these  are  especially  in  vogue 
in  their  hunting.  "Respectful  behavior  toward  old  people  and  gener- 
ally decent  conduct  are  also  often  counted  among  such  required  acts. 
Here  also  may  be  included  the  numerous  customs  of  purification  that 
are  required  in  order  to  avoid  the  ill-will  of  the  powers.  These,  how- 
ever, may  better  be  considered  as  a  means  of  controlling  magic  power, 
which  form  a  very  large  part  of  the  religious  observances  of  the  Amer- 
ican Indians." 

"The  Indian  is  not  satisfied  with  the  attempt  to  avoid  the  ill-will 
of  the  powers,  but  he  tries  also  to  make  them  subservient  to  his  own 
needs.  This  may  be  attained  in  a  variety  of  ways.  Perhaps  the  most 
characteristic  of  all  North  American  methods  of  gaining  control  over 
supernatural  powers  is  that  of  the  acquisition  of  one  of  them  as  a  per- 
sonal protector.  Generally  this  process  is  called  the  acquiring  of  a 
manito ;  and  the  most  common  method  of  acquiring  it  is  for  the  young 
man  during  the  period  of  adolescence  to  purify  himself  by  fasting,  bath- 
ing, and  vomiting,  until  his  body  is  perfectly  clean  and  acceptable  to 
the  supernatural  beings.  At  the  same  time  the  youth  works  himself 
by  these  means,  by  dancing,  and  sometimes  also  by  means  of  drugs,  into 
a  trance,  in  which  he  has  a  vision  of  the  guardian  spirit  which  is  to 
protect  him  through  life.  These  means  of  establishing  communica- 
tion with  the  spirit  world  are  in  very  general  use  also  at  other  periods 
of  life.  The  magic  power  that  man  thus  acquires  may  give  him 
special  abilities;  it  may  make  him  a  successful  hunter,  warrior,  or 
shaman ;  or  it  may  give  him  power  to  acquire  wealth,  success  in  gam- 
bling, or  the  love  of  women." 

Magic  power  may  also,  in  the  belief  of  many  tribes,  be  attained  by 
inheritance;  or  it  may  be  purchased;  or  it  may  be  "transmitted  by 
teaching  and  by  bodily  contact  with  a  person  who  controls  such 
powers."  Another  means  of  controlling  the  powers  of  nature  is  by 
prayer;  also  may  be  used  charms  or  fetishes.  "The  charm  is  either 
believed  to  be  the  seat  of  magic  power,  or  it  may  be  a  symbol  of  such 
power,  and  its  action  may  be  based  on  its  symbolic  significance ;  of  the 
former  kind  are  presumably  many  objects  contained  in  the  sacred 
bundles  of  certain  Indians,  which  are  believed  to  be  possessed  of  sacred 
powers."  Symbolic  actions  and  divinations  are  also  used  for  the  same 

"Still  more  potent  means  of  influencing  the  powers  are  offerings 
and  sacrifices.  On  the  whole,  these  are  not  as  strongly  developed  in 

268 APPENDIX  B [Vol. 

North  America  as  they  are  in  other  parts  of  the  world.  In  many 
regions  human  sacrifices  were  common  —  for  instance,  in  Mexico  and 
Yucatan  -  while  in  North  America  they  are  known  only  in  rare  in- 
stances, as  among  the  Pawnee.  However,  many  cases  of  torture,  par- 
ticularly of  self-torture,  must  be  reckoned  here.  Other  bloody  sacri- 
fices are  also  rare  in  North  America."  On  the  other  hand,  sacrifices 
of  tobacco  smoke,  of  corn,  and  of  parts  of  food,  of  small  manufactured 
objects,  and  of  symbolic  objects,  are  very  common." 

Another  method  is  "by  incantations,  which  are  in  a  way  related  to 
prayers,  but  which  act  rather  through  the  magic  influence  of  the 
words.  .  .  In  the  same  way  that  incantations  are  related  to  prayer, 
certain  acts  and  charms  are  related  to  offerings.  We  find  among  al- 
most all  Indian  tribes  the  custom  of  performing  certain  acts,  which 
are  neither  symbolic  nor  offerings,  nor  other  attempts  to  obtain  the 
assistance  of  superior  beings,  but  which  are  effective  through  their 
own  potency.  Such  acts  are  the  use  of  lucky  objects  intended  to  secure 
good  fortune;  or  the  peculiar  treatment  of  animals,  plants,  and  other 
objects,  in  order  to  bring  about  a  change  of  weather.  There  is  also 
found  among  most  Indian  tribes  the  idea  that  the  supernatural  powers, 
if  offended  by  transgressions  of  rules  of  conduct,  may  be  propitiated  by 
punishment.  Such  punishment  may  consist  in  the  removal  of  the  of- 
fending individual,  who  may  be  killed  by  the  members  of  the  tribe,  or 
the  propitiation  may  be  accomplished  by  milder  forms  of  punish- 
ment. .  .  Other  forms  of  punishment  are  based  largely  on  the  idea 
of  purification  by  fasting,  bathing,  and  vomiting." 

Protection  against  disease  is  also  sought  by  the  help  of  superhuman 
powers.  These  practices  have  two  distinct  forms,  according  to  the 
fundamental  conception  of  disease.  Disease  is  conceived  of  principally 
in  two  forms  —  either  as  due  to  the  presence  of  a  material  object  in  the 
body  of  the  patient,  or  as  an  effect  of  the  absence  of  the  soul  from 
the  body.  The  cure  of  disease  is  intrusted  to  the  shamans  or  medi- 
cine-men, who  obtain  their  powers  generally  by  the  assistance  of 
guardian  spirits,  or  who  may  be  personally  endowed  with  magic 
powers.  It  is  their  duty  to  discover  the  material  disease  which  is 
located  in  the  patient's  body,  and  which  they  extract  by  sucking  or 
pulling  with  the  hands;  or  to  go  in  pursuit  of  the  absent  soul,  to  re- 
cover it,  and  to  restore  it  to  the  patient.  Both  of  these  forms  of 
shamanism  are  found  practically  all  over  the  continent;"  but  in  some 
regions  one  of  these  theories  of  the  cause  of  sickness  predominates,  in 
some  the  other. 

two]         RELIGIOUS  BELIEFS  OF  THE  INDIANS          269 

"The  belief  that  certain  individuals  can  acquire  control  over  the 
powers  has  also  led  to  the  opinion  that  they  may  be  used  to  harm 
enemies.  The  possession  of  such  control  is  not  always  beneficial,  but 
may  be  used  also  for  purposes  of  witchcraft.  Hostile  shamans  may 
throw  disease  into  the  bodies  of  their  enemies,  or  they  may  abduct  their 
souls.  They  may  do  harm  by  sympathetic  means,  and  control  the 
will-power  of  others  by  the  help  of  the  supernatural  means  at  their 
disposal.  Witchcraft  is  everywhere  considered  as  a  crime,  and  is  so 

"Besides  those  manifestations  of  religious  belief  that  relate  to  the 
individual,  religion  has  become  closely  associated  with  the  social  struc- 
ture of  the  tribes ;  so  that  the  ritualistic  side  of  religion  can  be  under- 
stood only  in  connection  with  the  social  organization  of  the  Indian 
tribes.  Even  the  fundamental  traits  of  their  social  organization 
possess  a  religious  import.  This  is  true  particularly  of  the  clans,  so 
far  as  they  are  characterized  by  totems.  .  .  Also  in  cases  where 
the  clans  have  definite  political  functions,  like  those  of  the  Omaha  or 
the  Iroquois,  these  functions  are  closely  associated  with  religious  con- 
cepts, partly  in  so  far  as  their  origin  is  ascribed  to  myths,  partly  in  so 
far  as  the  functions  are  associated  with  the  performance  of  religious 
rites.  The  position  of  officials  is  also  closely  associated  with  definite 
religious  concepts.  Thus,  the  head  of  a  clan  at  times  is  considered  as 
the  representative  of  the  mythological  ancestor  of  the  clan,  and  as 
such  is  believed  to  be  endowed  with  superior  powers ;  or  the  position  as 
officer  in  the  tribe  or  clan  entails  the  performance  of  certain  definite 
religious  functions.  In  this  sense  many  of  the  political  functions 
among  Indian  tribes  are  closely  associated  with  what  may  be  termed 
'priestly  functions.'  The  religious  significance  of  social  institutions 
is  most  clearly  marked  in  cases  where  the  tribe,  or  large  parts  of  the 
tribe,  join  in  the  performance  of  certain  ceremonies  which  are  intended 
to  serve  partly  a  political,  partly  a  religious  end.  Such  acts  are  some 
of  the  intertribal  ball-games,"  the  sun-dance  and  the  performances  of 
the  warrior  societies  of  the  plains,  and  the  secret  societies  in  so  many 
tribes.  "It  is  characteristic  of  rituals  in  many  parts  of  the  world  that 
they  tend  to  develop  into  a  more  or  less  dramatic  representation  of 
the  myth  from  which  the  ritual  is  derived.  For  this  reason  the  use  of 
masks  is  a  common  feature  of  these  rituals,  in  which  certain  individ- 
uals impersonate  supernatural  beings.  .  .  It  would  seem  that  the 
whole  system  of  religious  beliefs  and  practices  has  developed  the  more 
systematically  the  more  strictly  the  religious  practices  have  come  to  be 

270  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

in  the  charge  of  priests.  This  tendency  to  systematization  of  relig- 
ious beliefs  may  be  observed  particularly  among  the  Pueblo  and  the 
Pawnee,  but  it  also  occurs  in  isolated  cases  in  other  parts  of  the  conti- 
nent; for  instance,  among  the  Bellacoola  of  British  Columbia,  and 
those  Algonquian  tribes  that  have  the  Midewiwin  ceremony  fully  de- 
veloped. In  these  cases  we  find  that  frequently  an1  elaborate  series  of 
esoteric  doctrines  and  practices  exist,  which  are  known  to  only  a  small 
portion  of  the  tribe,  while  the  mass  of  the  people  are  familiar  only 
with  part  of  the  ritual  and  with  its  exoteric  features.  For  this  reason 
we  often  find  the  religious  beliefs  and  practices  of  the  mass  of  a  tribe 
rather  heterogeneous  as  compared  with  the  beliefs  held  by  the  priests. 
Among  many  of  the  tribes  in  which  priests  are  found  we  find  distinct 
esoteric  societies,  and  it  is  not  by  any  means  rare  that  the  doctrines  of 
one  society  are  not  in  accord  with  those  of  another.  All  this  is  clearly 
due  to  the  fact  that  the  religious  ideas  of  the  tribe  are  derived  from 
many  different  sources,  and  have  been  brought  into  order  at  a  later 
date  by  the  priests  charged  with  the  keeping  of  the  tribal  rituals.  .  . 
It  would  seem  that,  on  the  whole,  the  import  of  the  esoteric  teachings 
decreases  among  the  more  northerly  and  northeasterly  tribes  of  the 

"On  the  whole,  the  Indians  incline  strongly  toward  all  forms  of 
religious  excitement.  This  is  demonstrated  not  only  by  the  exuberant 
development  of  ancient  religious  forms,  but  also  by  the  frequency  with 
which  prophets  have  appeared  among  them,  who  taught  new  doctrines 
and  new  rites,  based  either  on  older  religious  beliefs,  or  on  teachings 
partly  of  Christian,  partly  of  Indian  origin.  Perhaps  the  best  known 
of  these  forms  of  religion  is  the  ghost-dance,  which  swept  over  a  large 
part  of  the  continent  during  the  last  years  of  the  nineteenth  century. 
But  other  prophets  of  similar  type  and  of  far-reaching  influence  were 
quite  numerous.  One  of  these  was  Tenskwatawa,  the  famous  brother 
of  Tecumseh;  another,  the  seer  Smohallah,  who  founded  the  sect  of 
Shakers  of  the  Pacific  Coast;  and  even  among  the  Eskimo  such  pro- 
phets have  been  known,  particularly  in  Greenland."  -  FRANZ  BOAS,  in 
Handbook  Amer.  Indians,  art.  "Religion." 

"In  their  endeavors  to  secure  the  help  of  the  supernatural  powers, 
the  Indians,  as  well  as  other  peoples,  hold  principally  three  methods: 
( I )  The  powers  may  be  coerced  by  the  strength  of  a  ritualistic  per- 
formance; (2)  their  help  may  be  purchased  by  gifts  in  the  form  of 
sacrifices  and  offerings;  or  (3)  they  may  be  approached  by  prayer. 
Frequently  the  coercing  ritualistic  performance  and  the  sacrifice  are 

two]        RELIGIOUS  BELIEFS  OF  THE  INDIANS          271 

accompanied  by  prayers;  or  the  prayer  itself  may  take  a  ritualistic 
form,  and  thus  attain  coercive  power.  In  this  case  the  prayer  is  called 
an  incantation.  Prayers  may  either  be  spoken  words,  or  they  may  be 
expressed  by  symbolic  objects,  which  are  placed  so  that  they  convey 
the  wishes  of  the  worshiper  to  the  powers.  .  .  Very  often  prayers 
accompany  sacrifices.  .  .  Prayers  of  this  kind  very  commonly  ac- 
company the  sacrifice  of  food  to  the  souls  of  the  deceased,  as  among 
the  Algonquian  tribes,  Eskimo,  and  N.w.  coast  Indians.  The  custom 
of  expressing  prayers  by  means  of  symbolic  objects  is  found  principally 
among  the  southwestern  tribes.  ["The  so-called  prayer  stick  of  the 
Kickapoo  was  a  mnemonic  device  for  Christian  prayer."  -  WALTER 
HOUGH.]  Prayers  are  often  preceded  by  ceremonial  purification, 
fasting,  the  use  of  emetics  and  purgatives,  which  are  intended  to  make 
the  person  praying  agreeable  to  the  powers.  Among  the  North 
American  Indians  the  prayer  cannot  be  considered  as  necessarily  con- 
nected with  sacrifice  or  as  a  substitute  for  sacrifice,  since  in  a  great 
many  cases  prayers  for  good  luck,  for  success,  for  protection,  or  for 
the  blessing  of  the  powers,  are  offered  quite  independently  of  the  idea 
of  sacrifice.  While  naturally  material  benefits  are  the  object  of  prayer 
in  by  far  the  majority  of  cases,  prayers  for  an  abstract  blessing  and  for 
ideal  objects  are  not  by  any  means  absent.  .  .  The  Indians  pray 
not  only  to  those  supernatural  powers  which  are  considered  the  pro- 
tectors of  man  —  like  the  personal  guardians  or  the  powers  of  na- 
ture —  but  also  to  the  hostile  powers  who  must  be  appeased." 

-  FRANZ  BOAS,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians 
Tawiskaron  was  "an  imaginary  man-being  of  the  cosmogonic  philos- 
ophy of  the  Iroquoian  and  other  tribes,  to  whom  was  attributed  the 
function  of  making  and  controlling  the  activities  and  phenomena  of 
winter.  He  was  the  Winter  God,  the  Ice  King,  since  his  distinctive 
character  is  clearly  defined  in  terms  of  the  activities  and  phenomena 
of  nature  peculiar  to  this  season.  As  an  earth-power  he  was  one  of 
the  great  primal  man-beings  belonging  to  the  second  cosmical  period 
of  the  mythological  philosophy  of  the  Iroquoian,  Algonquian,  and 
perhaps  other  Indians."  According  to  the  legends,  he  was  a  grandson 
of  Awen'ha'i  (the  Ataentsic  of  Huron  mythology),  or  Mother  Earth; 
and  at  his  birth  his  body  was  composed  of  flint,  and  he  caused  the 
death  of  his  mother  by  violently  bursting  through  her  armpit  -  a  fault 
which  he  cast  on  his  twin  brother,  Teharonhiawagon  (or  Jouskeha  of 
the  Hurons),  who  in  consequence  was  hated  by  the  grandmother. 
Teharonhiawagon  was  the  embodiment  or  personification  of  life;  he 

272  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

was  the  creator  and  maker  of  the  animals,  birds,  trees,  and  plants, 
and  finally  of  man.  From  his  father  of  mysterious  origin  he  had 
learned  the  art  of  fire-making,  and  that  of  agriculture,  and  how  to 
build  a  house;  and  these  arts  he  communicated  to  mankind.  In  all 
his  beneficent  endeavors  he  was  opposed  by  Awen'ha'i  and  Tawiskaron, 
who  continually  strove  to  thwart  his  plans;  but  by  the  counsels  of  his 
father  and  his  superior  magic  power  he  was  able  to  gain  the  ascendency 
over  them  and  became  (at  a  contest  in  playing  the  game  of  bowl)  the 
ruler  of  the  world.  "The  great  and  most  important  New  Year  cere- 
mony among  the  Iroquois  who  still  hold  to  their  ancient  faith  and 
customs,  at  which  is  burned  a  purely  white  dog  as  a  sacrifice,  is  held 
in  honor  of  Teharonhiawagon  for  his  works,  blessings,  and  goodness, 
which  have  been  enjoyed  by  the  people."  -  J.  N.  B.  HEWITT,  in  Hand- 
book Amer.  Indians. 

Tawiskaron  is  practically  identical  with  Chakekenapok  in  Algon- 
quian  mythology,  a  younger  brother  of  Nanabozho. 


"From  time  to  time  in  every  great  tribe  and  every  important  crisis 
of  Indian  history  we  find  certain  men  rising  above  the  position  of 
ordinary  doctor,  soothsayer,  or  ritual  priest  to  take  upon  themselves 
an  apostleship  of  reform  and  return  to  the  uncorrupted  ancestral  be- 
lief and  custom  as  the  necessary  means  to  save  their  people  from  im- 
pending destruction  by  decay  or  conquest.  In  some  cases  the  teaching 
takes  the  form  of  a  new  Indian  gospel,  the  revolutionary  culmination 
of  a  long  and  silent  development  of  the  native  religious  thought.  As 
the  faithful  disciples  were  usually  promised  the  return  of  the  earlier 
and  happier  conditions,  the  restoration  of  the  diminished  game,  the 
expulsion  of  the  alien  intruder,  and  reunion  in  earthly  existence  with 
the  priests  who  had  preceded  them  to  the  spirit  world -all  to  be 
brought  about  by  direct  supernatural  interposition  -  the  teachers  have 
been  called  prophets.  While  all  goes  well  with  the  tribe  the  religious 
feeling  finds  sufficient  expression  in  the  ordinary  ritual  forms  of  tribal 
usage,  but  when  misfortune  or  destruction  threatea  the  nation  or  the 
race,  the  larger  emergency  brings  out  the  prophet,  who  strives  to  avert 
the  disaster  by  molding  his  people  to  a  common  purpose  through  in- 
sistence upon  the  sacred  character  of  his  message  and  thus  furnishes 
support  to  the  chiefs  in  their  plans  for  organized  improvement  or  re- 
sistance. Thus  it  is  found  that  almost  every  great  Indian  warlike 
combination  has  had  its  prophet  messenger  at  the  outset,  and  if  all  the 


facts  could  be  known  we  should  probably  find  the  rule  universal. 
Among  the  most  noted  of  these  aboriginal  prophets  and  reformers  with- 
in our  area  are:  Pope,  of  the  Pueblo  revolt  of  1680;  the  Delaware 
prophet  of  Pontiac's  conspiracy,  1762;  Tenskwatawa,  the  Shawnee 
prophet,  1805;  Kanakuk,  the  Kickapoo  reformer,  1827;  Tavibo,  the 
Paiute,  1870;  Nakaidoklini,  the  Apache,  1881 ;  Smohalla,  the  dreamer 
of  the  Columbia,  1870-1885  ;  and  Wovoka  or  Jack  Wilson,  the  Paiute 
prophet  of  the  Ghost  Dance,  1889  and  later."  (Consult  Mooney, 
"Ghost  Dance  Religion,"  in  I4th  Annual  Report  of  the  Bureau  of 
American  Ethnology,  part  ii,  1896.)  -  JAMES  MOONEY,  in  Handbook 
Amer.  Indians. 

The  Shawnee  Prophet 

You  are  very  well  acquainted  with  the  residence  of  the  Shawnoe 
Prophet,100  at  or  near  the  mouth  of  the  Tipicanoe,  we  may  date  our 
difficulties  with  the  Indians  from  the  time  he  and  his  followers  first 

100  Tenskwatawa,  "the  Shawnee  Prophet,"  was  a  twin  brother  of  Tecumseh. 
When  quite  a  young  man  he  apparently  died;  but  when  his  friends  assembled 
for  the  funeral  he  revived  from  his  trance,  and  told  them  that  he  had  re- 
turned from  a  visit  to  the  spirit  world.  In  November,  1805,  when  he  was 
hardly  more  than  thirty  years  of  age,  he  called  around  him  his  tribesmen  and 
their  allies,  and  announced  himself  as  the  bearer  of  a  new  revelation  from  the 
Master  of  Life,  which  he  had  received  in  the  spirit  world.  He  denounced  the 
witchcraft  and  juggleries  of  the  medicine-men,  and  the  "fire-water"  obtained 
from  the  whites  as  poison  and  accursed ;  and  warned  his  hearers  of  the  misery 
and  punishment  which  would  follow  all  these  evil  practices.  He  advocated 
more  respect  for  the  aged,  community  of  property,  the  cessation  of  intermar- 
riages between  the  whites  and  Indian  women ;  and  urged  the  Indians  to  discard 
all  clothing,  tools,  and  customs  introduced  by  the  whites,  and  to  return  to  their 
primitive  mode  of  life.  Then  they  would  be  received  into  Divine  favor,  and 
regain  the  happiness  that  they  had  known  before  the  coming  of  the  whites. 
He  claimed  that  he  had  received  power  to  cure  all  diseases  and  avert  death  in 
sickness  or  battle.  This  preaching  aroused  great  excitement  and  a  crusade 
against  all  who  were  supposed  to  practice  witchcraft.  The  Prophet  fixed  his 
headquarters  at  Greenville,  Ohio,  where  many  persons  came  from  various 
tribes  of  the  northwest  to  learn  the  new  doctrines.  To  lend  these  authority,  he 
announced  various  dreams  and  revelations,  and  in  1806  predicted  an  eclipse  of 
the  sun;  the  fulfilment  of  this  brought  him  great  prestige,  and  enthusiastic 
acceptance  as  a  true  prophet.  The  movement  spread  far  to  the  south  and  the 
northwest;  it  added  many  recruits  to  the  British  forces  in  the  War  of  1812, 
and  occasioned  the  bloody  Creek  War  of  1813.  But  the  influence  of  the  Pro- 
phet and  his  doctrines  were  destroyed  by  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe ;  after  the  war 
came  to  an  end  Tenskwatawa  received  a  pension  from  the  British  government 
and  resided  in  Canada  until  1826.  Then  he  rejoined  his  tribe  in  Ohio,  and 
soon  afterward  removed  with  them  to  Kansas;  he  died  there  in  November, 


settled  at  that  place,  not  that  I  believe  that  his  first  intention  was 
inimical  to  the  views  of  the  United  States,  but  when  he  found,  he  had 
got  such  influence  over  the  different  Indians  he  immediately  changed 
his  discourse  and  from  the  instructions  he  occasionally  received  from 
the  British,  he  was  continually  preaching  up  the  necefsity  of  the  In- 
dians to  have  no  intercourse  with  the  Americans;  as  you  will  see  in 
his  form  of  prayers  that  he  learnt  to  all  his  followers.  I  was  informed 
by  a  very  intelligent  young  man  who  has  been  often  at  the  Prophet's 
village,  and  who  has  conversed  with  the  Prophet  and  Tecumseh,  he 
gave  me  the  following  history  of  the  Prophet. 

The  Prophet  with  all  his  brothers  are  pure  Indians  of  the  Shawa- 
noe  nation,  and  when  a  boy,  was  a  perfect  vagabond  and  as  he  grew 
up  he  w*  not  hunt  and  became  a  great  drunkard.  While  he  lived  near 
Greenville  in  the  State  of  Ohio,  where  spirituous  liquor  are  plenty  he 
was  continually  intoxicated ;  having  observed  some  preachers  101  who 
lived  in  the  vicinity  of  Greenville  a  preaching  or  rather  the  motions, 
etc.,  in  preaching  (as  he  cannot  understand  a  word  of  English)  it  had 
such  an  effect  on  him,  that  one  night  he  dremt  that  the  Great  Spirit 
found  fault  with  his  way  of  living,  that  he  must  leave  of  [f]  drinking, 
and  lead  a  new  life,  and  also  instruct  all  the  red  people  the  proper  way 
of  living.  He  immediately  refrained  from  drinking  any  kind  of  spir- 
ituous liquor,  and  recommended  it  strongly  to  all  the  Indians  far 
and  near  to  follow  his  example,  and  laid  down  certain  laws  that  was 
to  guide  the  red  people  in  future.  I  shall  here  give  you  as  many  of 
those  laws  or  regulations  as  I  can  now  remember,  but  I  know  I  have 
forgot  many. 

Ist  Spirituous  liquor  was  not  to  be  tasted  by  any  Indians  on  any 
account  whatever. 

2nd  No  Indian  was  to  take  more  than  one  wife  in  future,  but 
those  who  now  had  two  three  or  more  wives  might  keep  them,  but  it 
would  please  the  Great  Spirit  if  they  had  only  one  wife. 

3d  No  Indian  was  to  be  runing  after  the  women;  if  a  man  was 
single  let  him  take  a  wife. 

1837,  at  the  present  town  of  Argentine.  "Although  his  personal  appearance 
was  marred  by  blindness  in  one  eye,  Tenskwatawa  possessed  a  magnetic  and 
powerful  personality;  and  the  religious  fervor  he  created  among  the  Indian 
tribes,  unless  we  except  that  during  the  recent  'ghost  dance'  disturbance,  has 
been  equaled  at  no  time  since  the  beginning  of  white  contact."  —  JAMES  MOONEY, 
in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

101  These  were  Shaker  missionaries  to  the  Indians,  according  to  Forsyth  (see 
his  sketch  of  Tecumseh  and  the  Prophet  in  vol.  iv  of  Forsytk  Papers).  —  Eo. 



4th  If  any  married  woman  was  to  behave  ill  by  not  paying  proper 
attention  to  her  work,  etc.,  the  husband  had  a  right  to  punish  her 
with  a  rod,  and  as  soon  as  the  punishment  was  over,  both  husband 
and  wife,  was  to  look  each  other  in  the  face  and  laugh,  and  to  bear  no 
ill  will  to  each  other  for  what  had  pafsed. 

5th  All  Indian  women  who  were  living  with  whitemen  was  to  be 
brought  home  to  their  friends  and  relations,  and  their  children  to  be 
left  with  their  fathers,  so  that  the  nations  might  become  genuine 

6th  All  medicine  bags,  and  all  kinds  of  medicine  dances  and  songs 
were  to  exist  no  more;  the  medicine  bags  were  to  be  destroyed  in 
presens  of  the  whole  of  the  people  collected  for  that  purpose,  and  at 
the  destroying  of  such  medicine,  etc.,  every  one  was  to  make  open 102 
confefsion  to  the  Great  Spirit  in  a  loud  voice  of  all  the  bad  deeds  that 
he  or  she  had  committed  during  their  lifetime,  and  beg  for  forgivenefs 
as  the  Great  Spirit  was  too  good  to  refuse. 

7th  No  Indian  was  to  sell  any  of  their  provision  to  any  white 
people,  they  might  give  a  little  as  a  present,  as  they  were  sure  of  get- 
ting in  return  the  full  value  in  something  else. 

8th  No  Indian  was  to  eat  any  victuals  that  was  cooked  by  a  White 
person,  or  to  eat  any  provisions  raised  by  White  people,  as  bread,  beef, 
pork,  fowls,  etc. 

9th  No  Indian  must  offer  skins  or  furs  or  any  thing  else  for 
sale,  but  ask  to  exchange  them  for  such  articles  that  they  may  want. 

ioth  Every  Indian  was  to  consider  the  French,  English,  and  Span- 
iards, as  their  fathers  or  friends,  and  to  give  them  their  hand,  but  they 
were  not  to  know  the  Americans  on  any  account,  but  to  keep  them  at 
a  distance. 

IIth  All  kind  of  white  people's  drefs,  such  as  hats,  coats,  etc., 
were  to  be  given  to  the  first  whiteman  they  met  as  also  all  dogs  not  of 
their  own  breed,  and  all  cats  were  to  be  given  back  to  white  people. 

12th  The  Indians  were  to  endeavour  to  do  without  buying  any 
merchandise  as  much  as  pofsible,  by  which  means  the  game  would  be- 
come plenty,  and  then  by  means  of  bows  and  arrows,  they  could  hunt 
and  kill  game  as  in  former  days,  and  live  independent  of  all  white 

13th  All  Indians  who  refused  to  follow  these  regulations  were  to 
be  considered  as  bad  people  and  not  worthy  to  live,  and  must  be  put  to 

102  "Indians  who  have  been  present  at  some  of  these  confessions,  have  re- 
peated them  to  me,  and  certainly  they  were  ridiculous  in  the  extreme." 

—  T.  FORSYTH  (marginal  note). 

278  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

death.  (A  Kickapoo  Indian  was  actually  burned  in  the  spring  of  the 
year  1809  at  the  old  Kickapoo  Town  for  refusing  to  give  up  his  med- 
icine bag,  and  another  old  man  and  old  woman  was  very  near  sharing 
the  same  fate  at  the  same  time  and  place). 

14th  The  Indians  in  their  prayers  prayed  to  the  earth,  to  be  fruit- 
ful, also  to  the  fish  to  be  plenty,  to  the  fire  and  sun,  etc.,  and  a  certain 
dance  was  introduced  simply  for  amusement,  those  prayers  were  re- 
peated morning  and  evening,  and  they  were  taught  that  a  diviation 
from  these  duties  would  offend  the  Great  Spirit.  There  were  many 
more  regulations  but  I  now  have  forgot  them,  but  those  above  men- 
tioned are  the  principal  ones. 

The  Prophet  had  his  disciples  among  every  nation  of  Indians,  from 
Detroit  in  Michigan  Territory,  to  the  Indians  on  the  Mifsifsippi  and 
[I]  have  since  been  informed,  that,  there  were  disciples  of  the  Prophet, 
among  all  the  Indians  of  the  Mifsouri  and  as  far  north  as  Hudson  Bay 
(see  Tanner's  narrative)  always  reserving  the  supreme  authority  to 
himself,  viz,  that  he  (the  Prophet)  might  be  considered  the  head  of 
the  whole  of  the  different  nations  of  Indians,  as  he  only,  could  see  and 
converse  with  the  Great  Spirit.  As  every  nation  was  to  have  but  one 
village,  by  which  means  they  would  be  always  together  in  case  of  dan- 
ger. The  Pottawatimie  Indians  in  the  course  of  one  season  got  tired  of 
this  strict  way  of  living,  and  declared  off,  and  joined  the  main  poque,103 
as  he  never  would  acknowledge  the  Prophet  as  his  superiour,  seeing 
perfectly  that  he  the  Prophet  was  seeking  enfluence  among  the  differ- 
ent Indian  nations.  Many  Indians  still  follow  the  dictates  of  the 
Prophet  in  a  great  measure.  The  Prophet's  plan  in  the  first  instance 
was  to  collect  by  fair  means  all  the  Indians  he  could,  to  live  in  the 
same  village  with  him,  and  when  he  thought  his  party  sufficiently 
strong,  he  would  oblidge  the  others  to  come  into  measures  by  force, 
and  when  so  afsembled  in  great  numbers,  that  he  would  be  able  to 
give  laws  to  the  white  people.  Tecumseh  104  has  been  heard  to  say, 

103  "The  Main  Poque  was  a  pure  Pottawatimie  Indian,  and  a  great  juggler, 
and  made  the  credulous  Indians  believe  every  thing  he  said,  he  had  great 
influence  among  the  Chipeways,  Ottawas,  Pottawatimies,  Kicapoos,  Sauks,  Fox 
and  other  Indians.     He  died  along  Lake  Michigan  in  summer  of  1816." 

-T.  FORSYTH  (marginal  note). 
See  note  76  for  sketch  of  this  chief.-  ED. 

104  Tecumseh  (properly  Tikamthi  or  Tecumtha)  was  a  celebrated  Shawnee 
chief,  born  in  1768  at  the  Shawnee  village  of  Piqua  (which  was  destroyed  by 
the  Kentuckians  in  1780)  ;  his  father  and  two  brothers  were  killed  in  battle 
with  the  whites.     "While  still  a  young  man  Tecumseh  distinguished  himself 


"We  must  not  leave  this  place"  (meaning  Tipicanoe)  105  "we  must 
remain  stedfast  here,  to  keep  those  people  who  wear  hats,  in  check;" 
he  also  observed  to  the  Indians,  "no  white  man  who  walks  on  the 
earth,  loves  an  Indian,  the  white  people  are  made  up  with  such  ma- 
terials, that  they  will  always  deceive  us,  even  the  British  who  says 
they  love  us,  is  because  they  may  want  our  services,  and  as  we  yet 
want  their  goods,  we  must,  therefore,  shew  them  some  kind  of 
friendship."  -  THOMAS  FORSYTH,  in  unpublished  letter  to  Gen.  Wil- 
liam Clark  (St.  Louis,  Dec.  23,  1812)  ;  in  Forsyth  Papers,  vol.  ix. 

in  the  border  wars  of  the  period,  but  was  noted  also  for  his  humane  character, 
evinced  by  persuading  his  tribe  to  discontinue  the  practice  of  torturing  prisoners. 
Together  with  his  brother  Tenskwatawa  the  Prophet,  he  was  an  ardent  oppon- 
ent of  the  advance  of  the  white  man,  and  denied  the  right  of  the  government  to 
make  land  purchases  from  any  single  tribe,  on  the  ground  that  the  territory, 
especially  in  the  Ohio  valley  country,  belonged  to  all  the  tribes  in  common.  On 
the  refusal  of  the  government  to  recognize  this  principle,  he  undertook  the 
formation  of  a  great  confederacy  of  all  the  western  and  southern  tribes  for 
the  purpose  of  holding  the  Ohio  River  as  the  permanent  boundary  between  the 
two  races.  In  pursuance  of  this  object  he  or  his  agents  visited  every  tribe  from 
Florida  to  the  head  of  the  Missouri  River.  White  Tecumseh  was  organizing 
the  work  in  the  south  his  plans  were  brought  to  disastrous  overthrow  by  the 
premature  battle  of  Tippecanoe  under  the  direction  of  the  Prophet,  Nov.  7, 
x8ix."  He  fought  for  the  British  in  the  War  of  1812,  and  was  created  by  them 
a  brigadier-general,  having  under  his  command  some  2,000  warriors  of  the 
allied  tribes.  Finally,  at  the  battle  on  Thames  River  (near  the  present 
Chatham,  Ontario),  the  allied  British  and  Indians  were  utterly  defeated  by 
General  Harrison,  Oct.  5,  1813 ;  and  in  this  contest  Tecumseh  was  killed,  being 
then  in  his  forty-fifth  year.  He  may  be  considered  the  most  extraordinary 
Indian  character  in  United  States  history.  —  JAMES  MOONEY,  in  Handbook  Amer. 

105  Tippecanoe  was  a  noted  village  site  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Wabash 
River,  just  below  the  mouth  of  Tippecanoe  River,  Indiana.  "It  was  origin- 
ally occupied  by  the  Miami,  the  earliest  known  occupants  of  the  region,  and 
later  by  the  Shawnee,  who  were  in  possession  when  it  was  attacked  and  de- 
stroyed by  the  Americans  under  Wilkinson  in  1791,  at  which  time  it  contained 
one  hundred  and  twenty  houses.  It  was  soon  after  rebuilt  and  occupied  by 
the  Potawatomi,  and  finally  on  their  invitation  became  the  headquarters  of 
Tecumseh  and  his  brother  the  Prophet,  with  their  followers,  whence  the 
name  Prophetstown."  Gen.  W.  H.  Harrison  marched  against  them  with  nine 
hundred  men,  and  near  the  town  his  army  was  attacked  by  the  Indians  (Nov. 
7,  1811),  under  command  of  the  Prophet.  The  battle  of  Tippecanoe  resulted 
in  the  complete  defeat  and  dispersion  of  the  Indians,  with  considerable  loss 
on  both  sides.  The  site  was  reoccupied  for  a  short  time  a  few  years  later. 

—  JAMES  MOONEY,  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

28o APPENDIX  B [Vol. 

The  Kickapoo  Prophet 

Sometime  last  month  (October,  1832)  a  party  of  Kicapoo  Indians 
were  encamped  near  the  River  des  Peres,  and  about  a  mile  from  my 
place  of  residence  (my  farm).  Curiosity  led  me  to  go  and  see  them, 
as  I  was  formerly  acquainted  with  some  of  their  old  people.  I  found 
them  to  be  the  Prophet  or  Preachers  106  party,  in  going  into  their 
camp  I  was  much  surprised  to  find  their  dogs  so  quiet  and  peaceable, 
in  every  camp  or  lodge  of  every  individual,  a  piece  of  flat  wood  hung 
up  about  three  inches  broad  and  twelve  or  fifteen  inches  long  on 
which  were  burned  with  a  hot  iron  (apparently)  a  number  of  straight 
and  crooked  marks,  this  stick  or  board  so  marked  they  called  their 
Bible.  Those  Indians  told  me  that  they  worked  six  days  and  the 
seventh  they  done  no  kind  of  work,  but  prayed  to  the  Great  Spirit, 
that  no  men  of  their  community  were  allowed  to  have  more  than  one 
wife,  that  none,  either  young  or  old,  male  or  female,  were  allowed 
to  paint  themselves,  that  they  never  made,  or  intended  to  make,  war, 
against  any  people  that  they  never  stole,  tell  lies  or  do  any  thing  bad, 
that  those  who  would  not  learn  their  prayers  according  to  the  direction 
of  the  Preacher,  he  or  she  was  punished  with  a  whip  by  a  man  ap- 
pointed for  that  purpose,  that  spirituous  liquor  was  not  to  be  tasted 
by  any  one  belonging  to  the  community  on  pain  of  death  but  they 
were  to  do  unto  all  people,  as  they  wished  to  be  done  by.  The  Kic- 
apoo nation  is  divided  into  two  parties,  one  party  under  the  Prophet 
or  Preacher  the  other,  (which  is  the  largest  party)  are  under  their 
chiefs  now  living  west  of  this  State  (Mifsouri)  where  the  party  under 
the  Prophet  is  on  their  way  to  join  them,  and  no  doubt  will  try  and 
bring  them  all  under  his  control.  I  should  not  be  surprised,  if  this 

ice  This  is  evidently  a  reference  to  Kanakuk,  a  prophet  who  arose  among 
the  Kickapoo  after  they  ceded  their  lands  (1819)  to  the  United  States,  and 
part  of  the  tribe  migrated  to  Spanish  territory.  Kanakuk  exhorted  the  re- 
mainder of  his  people  to  remain  in  Illinois,  to  lead  moral  lives,  to  abandon 
their  old  superstitions,  to  live  in  peace  with  one  another  and  with  the  white 
men,  and  to  avoid  all  use  of  intoxicating  liquors.  Those  of  his  people  who 
remained  in  Illinois  accepted  him  as  their  chief,  and  "many  of  the  Potawatomi 
of  Michigan  became  his  disciples.  He  displayed  a  chart  of  the  path,  leading 
through  fire  and  water,  which  the  virtuous  must  pursue  to  reach  the  'happy 
hunting  grounds,'  and  furnished  his  followers  with  prayer-sticks  [described 
above  by  Forsyth]  graven  with  religious  symbols.  When  in  the  end  the 
Kickapoo  were  removed  to  Kansas  he  accompanied  them  and  remained  their 
chief,  still  keeping  drink  away  from  them,  until  he  died  of  smallpox  in  1852." 
(See  Mooney's  account  in  Fourteenth  Report  of  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology 
[1896],  692-700.)  -Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 

two]          THE  WINNEBAGO  MESCAL-EATERS  281 

preaching  of  the  Prophet  of  the  Kicapoo  Indians,  is  the  commencement 
of  a  religion  which  will  take  place  among  all  the  different  Indian 
nations,  who  are,  and  are  to  be  settled,  in  a  country  west  of  this  State 
(Mifsouri)  and  my  present  impression  is,  that  it  ought  to  be  encour- 
aged by  the  government  as  it  inculcates  peace  and  good  will  to  all 
men.  I  have  been  informed  that  the  above  party  on  their  way  to 
their  place  of  destination,  were  seen  punishing  several  of  their  people 
with  a  whip,  for  something  they  done  wrong.  —  THOMAS  FORSYTH 
(memorandum  at  end  of  vol.  ix  of  Forsyth  Papers). 

The  Winnebago  Mescal-eaters 

In  this  connection,  the  following  note  is  of  especial  interest.  It  is 
furnished  by  Mr.  Thomas  R.  Roddy  (also  known  as  "White  Buf- 
falo" ) .  Among  that  tribe  considerable  progress  has  been  made  in  late 
years  by  a  "new  religion,"  popularly  designated  as  that  of  the  "mescal- 
eaters,"  or  the  "mescal-button."  Our  readers  are  indeed  fortunate  in 
having  this  interesting  account  of  its  history  and  results,  from  so  au- 
thoritative a  source ;  it  is  sent  to  the  editor  by  Mr.  Roddy  from  Winne- 
bago,  Neb.,  under  date  of  April  15,  1909.  -  ED. 

I  enclose  a  short  history  of  the  Mescal-eaters  of  the  Winnebago 
tribe,  as  I  know  them  from  personal  experience  among  them,  and 
from  conversations  with  the  leading  members  of  the  cult.  The  name 
of  Mescal-eaters  is  generally  used,  and  its  members  call  themselves 
by  it,  in  their  talk ;  but  it  is  erroneous,  as  these  people  never  used  the 
mescal-bean  in  any  form.  This  is  a  small  red  bean,  nearly  round,  and 
similar  in  shape  to  the  common  navy  bean;  while  what  the  Winne- 
bagoes  and  many  other  tribes  use  is  called  "peyote,"  107  which  is  a 

107Peyote  (a  name  of  Nahuatl  origin) :  a  kind  of  cactus  (Lophophora  wil- 
liamsii,  Coulter;  also  named  Anhalonium  lewinii),  found  along  the  lower  Rio 
Grande  and  in  Mexico,  which  long  has  been  used  for  ceremonial  and  medicinal 
purposes  by  the  southern  and  Mexican  tribes;  it  has  been  incorrectly  confused 
by  the  whites  with  the  maguey  cactus,  from  which  the  intoxicant  mescal  is 
prepared.  "The  peyote  plant  resembles  a  radish  in  size  and  shape,  the  top 
only  appearing  above  ground.  From  the  center  springs  a  beautiful  white 
blossom,  which  is  later  displaced  by  a  tuft  of  white  down.  North  of  the  Rio 
Grande  this  top  alone  is  used,  being  sliced  and  dried  to  form  the  so-called 
'button.'  In  Mexico  the  whole  plant  is  cut  into  slices,  dried,  and  used  in  de- 
coction, while  the  ceremony  also  is  essentially  different  from  that  of  the  northern 
tribes."  This  plant  has  been  examined  and  tested  at  Washington,  and  "tests 
thus  far  made  indicate  that  it  possesses  varied  and  valuable  medicinal  proper- 
ties, tending  to  confirm  the  idea  of  the  Indians,  who  regard  it  almost  as  a 
panacea."  Among  the  Mexican  tribes,  the  chief  feature  of  the  ceremony  is  a 

282  APPENDIX  B  [Vol. 

cactus  growth,  found  in  southern  Texas  and  Mexico.  It  is  a  round, 
flat  pod,  one  to  two  inches  in  diameter;  it  is  used  in  their  church  ser- 
vices, being  eaten  and  also  made  into  tea,  which  is  passed  to  the  mem- 
bers at  intervals  during  services.  These  services  are  usually  held 
Saturday  nights,  beginning  about  eight  o'clock,  and  lasting  till  about 
the  same  hour  Sunday  morning ;  and  are  of  a  very  religious  and  solemn 
nature.  God  is  their  guide,  and  they  use  the  Bible  and  quotations 
from  it  all  through  the  services;  they  have  short  speeches  by  the  mem- 
bers, singing  of  sacred  songs,  and  playing  on  the  small  medicine  drum  ; 
and  they  use  the  sacred  gourd  rattle,  on  which  are  traced  drawings  of 
Christ,  the  cross  and  crown,  the  shepherd's  crook,  and  other  religious 
emblems.  The  drawings  or  carvings  are  done  with  great  skill  and 
show  the  work  of  an  artist.  Each  member  on  joining  is  presented 
with  one  of  these  musical  gourds,  which  he  uses  during  services. 
Speeches  are  usually  made  in  their  native  Indian  tongue,  but  when 
whites  are  present  the  speech  is  interpreted  into  the  English  language. 
On  this  reservation  the  membership  is  about  three  hundred,  and  they 
have  a  very  comfortable  church.  When  they  visit  where  there  is  no 
church  they  erect  a  large  cloth  tepee,  and  hold  services  here  for  win- 
ning converts.  Their  altar  is  in  the  shape  of  a  heart,  about  eight 
feet  in  length,  and  is  built  of  cement ;  the  members  sit  around  this  altar. 
Medicine-eating  can  be  traced  back  in  this  country  about  200  years ; 
it  was  first  introduced  by  the  Miskarora  [i.e.,  Mescaleros],  a  tribe  of 
old  Mexico,  among  the  Apaches  and  Timgas  of  Oklahoma  -  the 
Apaches  introducing  it  among  the  Comanches,  Kiowas,  Cheyennes, 
Arapahoes,  and  Otoes.  Twelve  years  ago  the  Otoes  brought  the  new 
religion  to  the  Winnebagoes  and  Omahas  of  Nebraska,  where  now 
about  one-third  of  each  tribe  are  members ;  and  they  are  the  most  pros- 
perous people  of  the  tribe.  In  talking  with  Albert  Hensley,  one  of  the 
prominent  leaders,  he  said :  "The  mescal  was  formerly  used  improper- 
ly, but  since  it  has  been  used  in  connection  with  the  Bible  it  is  proving 
a  great  benefit  to  the  Indians.  Now  we  call  our  church  the  Union 
Church,  instead  of  Mescal-eaters.  Our  ways  may  seem  peculiar  to 

dance;  but  among  the  northern  Plains  tribes  "it  is  rather  a  ceremony  of  prayer 
and  quiet  contemplation.  It  is  usually  performed  as  an  invocation  for  the 
recovery  of  some  sick  person.  .  .  The  number  of  'buttons'  eaten  by  one 
individual  during  the  night  varies  from  ten  to  forty,  and  even  more,  the  drug 
producing  a  sort  of  spiritual  exaltation  differing  entirely  from  that  produced  by 
any  other  known  drug,  and  apparently  without  any  reaction."  —  JAMES  MOONEY, 
in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians. 


some  people,  but  our  worship  is  earnest,  and  [we  address]  the  same 
God  as  others  do.  We  are  doing  this  not  to  protect  this  medicine,  but 
for  God,  as  others  do,  and  are  not  trying  to  deceive  other  Christian 
people.  In  doing  so  we  would  destroy  ourselves  and  our  God.  Some 
try  to  stop  our  worshiping,  but  it  is  the  work  of  God  and  cannot  be 
stopped."  Medicine-eating  is  praised  highly  by  the  members,  and  op- 
posed as  bitterly  by  the  other  faction.  I  have  attended  several  of  the 
meetings,  and  have  also  experienced  the  eating  and  drinking  of  the 
"peyote"  medicine,  with  no  bad  effects.  It  is  very  surprising,  the  way 
the  Indians  have  become  familiar  with  the  Bible,  and  how  closely  they 
try  to  follow  the  teachings  of  Jesus.  By  using  the  medicine  in  con- 
nection with  the  Bible,  they  are  able  to  understand  the  Bible.  Many 
members  I  have  known  twenty-five  or  thirty  years,  who  formerly  had 
been  greatly  addicted  to  the  use  of  liquors  and  tobacco,  and  other 
vices;  all  have  quit  these  bad  habits  and  live  for  their  religion.  I 
cannot  see  wherein  their  minds  have  become  impaired,  as  many  talk 
and  write,  but  I  can  see  great  improvements  and  advancement  among 
the  members.  They  are  the  best  business  men  among  this  tribe,  and 
their  credit  is  good  wherever  they  are  known.  John  Rave,  the  leader, 
is  one  of  the  old-type  Indians,  of  fine  personal  appearance,  and  has  used 
the  medicine  twelve  years;  and  any  one  would  be  pleased  to  engage 
him  in  conversation  and  hear  his  explanations  of  the  Bible,  and  talk 
on  the  benefits  and  happiness  enjoyed  through  this  new  religion.  One 
wrong  and  misleading  fact  is  the  name  "Mescal-eaters,"  which  seems 
to  cling  to  the  minds  of  the  general  public.  The  Winnebagoes  have 
the  credit  of  being  the  first  to  use  the  Bible  in  conjunction  with  this 


From  a  mass  of  correspondence  incident  to  the  preparation  of  the 
present  work,  the  editor  has  selected  the  following  extracts  from  letters, 
etc.,  written  by  persons  who  know  from  actual  observation  and  expe- 
rience the  facts  regarding  what  they  state,  and  who  are  reliable  and 
competent  observers.  Rev.  Henry  I.  Westropp  is  a  Jesuit  missionary 
among  the  (Oglala)  Sioux  at  Pine  Ridge  Agency,  S.  Dak.  Franklin 
W.  Calkins  is  the  author  of  various  books  and  magazine  stories  of 
Indian  and  frontier  life;  he  has  seen  much  of  the  Indians,  and  at  one 
time  lived  among  some  of  the  Sioux  and  was  adopted  into  their  tribe. 
Rev.  William  Metzdorf  (a  secular  priest),  of  St.  Francis,  Wis.,  was 
formerly  a  missionary  among  the  Potawatomi  of  Kansas.  Rev.  J. 
Stucki  is  a  Protestant  missionary  among  the  Winnebago  of  Wisconsin, 
at  Black  River  Falls,  Wis.;  and  Thomas  R.  Roddy  is  (as  mentioned 
on  page  281).  These  letters  are  used  here,  to  give  some  idea  of  the 
character  and  present  condition  or  status  of  the  above  tribes.  —  ED. 

The  Sioux 

The  Sioux  have  always  been  a  religious-minded  people,  and  -it  seems 
that  even  before  the  advent  of  the  white  men  they  believed  in  one  God, 
whom  they  called  the  "Great  Holy  One"  -  great,  as  compared  to  a 
numerous  band  of  other  "holy  ones"  that  they  had.  With  such  fruit- 
ful soil  to  work  in,  it  was  easy  for  the  Christian  missionary  to  sow  the 
seed  of  the  gospel.  Their  ideas  of  morality  had  always  been  strict,  and 
these  ideas  still  remain  today.  The  Indian  maidens  are  exceedingly 
bashful;  they  will  run  at  the  approach  of  a  stranger,  or,  if  that  is 
impossible,  hide  their  faces  in  their  shawls ;  they  dare  not  speak  to  any 
one  in  public,  and  at  times  refuse  to  answer  even  necessary  questions. 
None  of  the  Indians,  as  a  rule,  manifest  their  feelings  in  the  way  that 
white  people  do.  Usually  the  Indian  does  not  thank  you  for  any  bene- 
fit; he  cannot  blush,  or  if  he  does  no  one  can  see  it;  his  code  of  honor 
is  the  contrary  of  the  white  man's,  and  his  etiquette  is  very  simple. 
This  has  led  many  to  believe  that  he  is  taciturn,  impassive,  and  un- 

THE  SIOUX  285 

emotional;  and  yet  nothing  is  more  false.  Conversation,  social  din- 
ners, and  smokes  are  the  Indian's  life.  Two  never  talk  at  once ;  each 
one  has  his  turn.  Their  inclination  to  curiosity  may  be  estimated  by 
the  fact  that  they  will  recognize  any  one  passing  their  house,  a  mile 
away,  and  perhaps  tell  him  a  year  afterward  what  kind  of  a  horse  he 
was  riding  -  something  that  they  certainly  could  not  do  unless  they 
were  accustomed  to  scrutinize  everything  most  curiously.  When  any 
one  of  their  kindred  is  sick,  they  must  travel  miles  and  miles  to  show 
their  sympathy;  and  if  he  dies,  this  event  (as  also  his  burial)  is  the 
occasion  for  all  kinds  of  expressions  of  their  sympathy  and  regret.  To 
indicate  this,  they  often  cut  their  hair  and  dress  in  black  for  a  year  or 
more.  Often  they  give  away,  at  the  death  of  a  dear  relative,  all  they 
possess  —  calico,  food,  blankets,  ponies ;  and  even  the  house  is  torn  down. 
This  idea  of  giving  away  everything,  of  doing  "the  big  thing,"  is 
doubtless  a  beautiful  trait,  but  it  prevents  progress.  On  the  occasion 
of  an  Omaha  dance  or  a  Fourth  of  July  celebration,  the  generous  Sioux 
will  stand  up  and  give  away  anything  and  everything.  An  Indian  can 
exercise  no  self-control  in  this  respect;  if  he  feels  sad,  he  would  give 
away  the  globe,  if  he  owned  it.  In  all  his  dealings  he  presents  the 
figure  of  a  grown-up  child ;  and  yet  there  is  scarcely  a  white  man  who 
will  not  cheat  this  child  wherever  he  can.  It  is  a  mistaken  policy  to 
treat  them  as  grown-up  persons.  They  have  land,  cattle,  and  every- 
thing imaginable  issued  to  them;  but  as  long  as  there  is  not  an  over- 
seer with  them  to  hold  them  down,  and  teach  them  how  to  use  the 
land  and  implements  they  get,  these  are  useless.  Like  a  set  of  boys, 
when  tired  of  work  they  run  off  and  play ;  they  cast  everything  aside, 
cattle,  family,  and  all ;  they  join  a  Buffalo  Bill  show,  go  off  to  another 
tribe  on  a  visit,  and  so  on.  If  one  man  gets  a  good  start,  there  will 
be  so  many  visitors  around  that  he  is  scarcely  to  be  envied.  They  are 
great  visitors ;  that  is  their  principal  occupation.  Their  horses  are  run 
down  to  skin  and  bone,  their  places  neglected,  and  everything  thrown 
to  the  wind,  so  that  they  may  go  and  visit  their  relatives,  or  other 
tribes.  The  weekly  dance,  the  semi-monthly  trip  for  rations,  and  trips 
to  the  store  and  the  railroad,  leave  them  but  little  remaining  time  for 
work.  Under  these  circumstances,  acquiring  wealth  or  even  support- 
ing themselves  is  out  of  the  question.  Their  miserable  huts  are  hot- 
beds of  disease ;  dirty  clothes  and  blankets,  ditto.  Food  of  all  and  any 
kind,  or  none  at  all;  carelessness  in  wet  and  cold  seasons;  lack  of 
knowledge  how  to  take  care  of  themselves;  lack  of  medical  attend- 
ance -  all  these  are  working  frightful  havoc  among  them.  Although 

286 APPENDIX  C [Vol. 

they  are  scattered  over  so  immense  a  territory,  the  missionary  is  doing 
what  he  can  to  teach  them,  and  urging  them  to  work  and  stay  at  home. 
He  helps  them  out  of  his  own  pocketbook,  tries  to  secure  by  foresight 
their  seed  in  time,  and  procures  for  them  the  means  to  aid  themselves ; 
but  this  work  is  nothing  to  what  it  could  be,  since  we  so  greatly  lack 
the  necessary  means,  ourselves  living  on  charity.  There  is  no  reason 
why  this  great  and  noble  tribe  should  not  be  saved,  if  we  had  the 
means.  The  missionary  has  great  influence  over  them,  and  so  has  the 
religion  which  they  embrace.  The  tribe  ought  to  double  its  numbers 
every  few  years,  for  their  fertility  is  great.  The  number  of  twins 
born  among  them  surpasses  belief,  and  every  Indian  woman  gives  birth 
to  eight  or  ten  children.  Where  are  they?  you  ask;  go  find  them  in 
the  graveyard. 

There  seems  to  be  an  impression  in  many  quarters  that  the  Indian 
is  a  liar  and  a  thief;  but  nothing  is  farther  from  the  truth.  In- 
dians are,  like  children,  very  unreliable,  and  I  never  take  them  too 
seriously.  They  are  liable  to  say  anything  that  comes  into  their  heads, 
and  their  language  is  full  of  exaggerations.  If  they  mean  to  say  that 
a  man  laughed,  or  was  frightened,  or  hungry,  they  will  say  that  he 
died  of  laughter,  or  fright,  or  hunger.  Burglary  is  unknown  among 
them.  When  one  of  them  leaves  his  tent,  he  puts  a  stick  of  wood  in 
front  of  the  flap,  and  no  one  will  enter  while  he  is  gone.  Knocking  a 
man  on  the  head  for  the  sake  of  his  money  is  unknown.  If  the  Indian 
steals  from  the  white  man,  he  is  practically  taking  back  what  belongs 
to  him ;  and  if,  when  at  times  he  feels  the  gnawing  pangs  of  hunger,  he 
goes  out  and  kills  whatever  cattle  he  may  find,  what  wonder  is  it? 
Wilful  murder  is  also  very,  very  uncommon;  and  when  Indians  are 
brought  before  the  courts  their  troubles  are  usually  caused  by  drink, 
the  worst  enemy  of  these  people.  Drink  is  certainly  the  king  of  all 
the  evils  existing  out  here.  The  Indian  will  pawn  his  last  shirt  for  a 
drink  of  "holy  water,"  as  he  calls  it.  The  Indians  here  (at  Pine 
Ridge)  being  far  removed  from  the  railroad,  liquor  has  not  wrought 
such  ravages  here  as  among  some  other  tribes;  but  unless  the  govern- 
ment takes  strong  measures  against  whisky-sellers  the  evil  will  be  the 
same  here  as  on  other  reservations  —  for  the  Indians  are  nothing  else 
but  children,  and  cannot  resist  a  seducer. 

-  REVEREND  HENRY  I.  WESTROPP,  S  J.,  Pine  Ridge,  S.  Dak. 

You  will  find  in  my  latest  book,  The  Wooing  of  Tokala,  a  clear 
statement  of  my  impressions  regarding  Indian  character.     Although 


this  bpok  is  in  the  form  of  a  novel,  or  story,  it  is  primarily  expository. 
In  its  dealings  with  Siouan  sociology  and,  I  may  boldly  add,  psychology, 
it  is  endorsed  by  all  educated  Sioux,  and  by  all  its  readers  who  have 
known  the  Sioux  tongue  and  tribal  life.  It  is  in  fact  an  intimate  study 
of  the  Indians  at  first  hand,  and  in  it  I  have  given  conscientiously  my 
best  studies  of  the  Dakota  people.  In  the  character  of  Tokala  may  be 
seen  the  chaste  Sioux  maiden  -  not  at  her  best,  because  I  haven't  the 
ability  to  present  her  at  her  best;  nor  do  I  know  of  any  one  who  is 
able  to  set  forth  fully  the  subtle  nuances  of  Indian  character.  But  I 
have  in  that  book  dealt  as  amply  as  I  could  with  the  moral  character 
of  the  Dakota.  Their  standards  of  morality  are  very  high,  and  their 
children  are  trained  in  accordance  with  these.  When  I  lived  among 
them  there  were  only  a  very  few  disorderly  or  bad  characters  in  the 
entire  tribe ;  and  these  were  regarded  in  precisely  the  same  light  as  such 
persons  are  in  any  moral  and  well-regulated  community  of  white 
people.  -  FRANKLIN  WELLES  CALKINS,  Maine,  Minn. 

The  Pottawatomi 

Out  on  the  bare  prairies  of  Kansas  I  lived  with  the  Pottawatomi 
Indians  for  four  years,  and  became  as  one  of  their  tribe;  and  what  I 
here  relate  is  based  mostly  on  my  own  observations,  or  on  traditions 
preserved  in  the  tribe  and  told  to  me  by  the  Indians.  When  the  Pot- 
tawatomis  first  came  into  contact  with  the  whites  they  occupied  lands 
in  southern  Michigan  and  Wisconsin;  about  the  time  of  the  Revolu- 
tionary War  they  gradually  left  Michigan  entirely  and  settled  on  their 
Wisconsin  lands.  About  1850  most  of  them  went  across  the  Missis- 
sippi, following  the  trail  of  the  buffalo,  and  dispersed  over  the  great 
western  plains;  a  smaller  number  remained  in  the  Wisconsin  woods. 
Later,  the  government  gave  those  of  the  plains  a  reservation  on  the 
Kansas  River;  but  part  of  these  lands  were  sold,  and  now  the  remnant 
of  the  tribe,  about  1,200  in  number,  are  living  on  their  reservation  in 
the  northeastern  corner  of  Kansas  -  besides  a  band  who  settled  on  the 
Pottawatomie  reservation  in  Oklahoma,  and  those  who  now  live  on 
reservations  in  the  northern  part  of  Wisconsin.  At  times  the  latter 
Indians  receive  visits  from  their  tribesmen  in  the  south,  who  like  to 
revisit  their  old  Wisconsin  home,  which  some  of  them  still  remember. 

Their  language  is  very  like  that  of  the  Ojibwa,  the  Ottawas,  and 
the  Kickapoos;  and  its  soft  and  harmonious,  but  brief  and  clear-cut, 
sounds  tell  us  that  we  are  dealing  with  a  race  of  fine  feeling,  and  manly 
but  peaceable  character.  In  many  respects  it  is  a  beautiful  language ; 


it  is  the  very  embodiment  of  system  and  regularity,  and  is  very  eu- 
phonic, with  no  harsh,  grating  sounds.  The  general  rule  is,  that  after 
each  consonant  a  vowel  follows;  and  when  two  or  more  consonants 
meet  they  readily  combine  and  flow  together.  It  is  a  language  of 
verbs,  almost  four-fifths  of  its  words  being  of  that  class ;  and  it  abounds 
in  inflections,  every  phase  of  being,  thought,  or  action  being  expressed 
by  some  termination.  In  it  the  letters  n,  f,  1,  r,  v,  x,  y,  z  are  lacking, 
except  in  words  of  foreign  origin;  and  every  written  letter  is  pro- 
nounced. There  are  nine  conjugations  in  this  language,  and  each  one 
can  be  used  affirmatively,  negatively,  and  dubitatively ;  moreover,  a 
verb  can  be  used  to  express  any  phase  of  thought.  There  is  to-day  a 
considerable  literature  in  the  Ojibwa  language,  including  even  a  news- 
paper, the  Anishinabe  Enamiad  (i.e.,  The  Catholic  Indian),  which  is 
published  weekly  by  the  missionaries  in  Harbor  Springs,  Mich.,  and  is 
read  by  many  of  the  Pottawatomis.  I  began  the  preparation  of  a 
Pottawatomi  grammar,  the  first  attempt  at  such  a  book  (and  in  their 
dialect  nothing  has  yet  been  published  except  a  prayer-book)  ;  but  I 
was  called  to  another  field,  and  did  not  finish  it. 

The  idea  that  some  people  have  of  these  Indians,  that  they  are 
wild,  cruel  savages,  or  a  race  who  can  not  be  civilized,  is  entirely 
wrong  and  false.  On  the  contrary,  we  find  that  with  their  bad  habits  - 
which  I  am  sorry  to  say  were  taught  to  them  mostly  by  white 
men  —  they  have  many  very  good  qualities.  If  they  are  not  quite  as 
friendly  toward  the  whites  as  we  could  wish,  we  must  attribute  this 
to  the  fact  that  they  have  not  been  treated  right  by  the  whites.  The 
side  of  their  life  that  I  most  admire  is  the  quiet  and  peaceful  family 
life.  They  very  seldom  quarrel  in  their  homes,  and  the  women  do 
their  work  quietly  and  take  care  of  their  children,  whom  they  love  with 
greater  affection  than  do  many  of  the  white  women.  I  have  never 
seen  an  Indian  cruel  to  his  children,  and  their  patience  with  the  faults 
of  the  children  is  astonishing.  The  curse  of  divorce  is  hardly  known 
among  them;  they  really  believe  in  the  indissolubility  of  the  marriage 
bond,  and,  if  the  married  pair  have  differences  and  become  angered  at 
each  other,  one  of  the  two  goes  to  stay  with  some  neighbor  until  the 
other  asks  him  or  her  to  return  and  promises  to  be  good  again. 

They  dislike  water,  even  for  mere  hygienic  purposes,  and  their 
passion  for  strong  drink  has  become  proverbial;  but  they  know  their 
weakness,  and  I  had  in  my  congregation  a  great  many  Indians  who 
belonged  to  the  Temperance  League  and  never  touched  a  drop  of  any 
intoxicant.  Their  dislike  for  hard  work  is  a  characteristic  which  they 

PECHECHO  (Potawattomi) 


have  in  common  with  many  other  races.  But  a  peculiar  feature  which 
I  often  notice  is  hard  to  explain :  the  Indian  man  seems  to  have  an  ab- 
horrence for  sickness.  If  a  member  of  his  family  is  sick  he  usually 
leaves  the  house,  goes  to  stay  with  some  neighbor,  and  sends  the  neigh- 
bor's wife  to  his  home  to  take  care  of  his  sick  wife  or  child.  Thus  I 
often  arrived  at  a  sick-bed  and  found  the  poor  family  alone,  because  the 
neighbor  had  not  yet  come. 

A  very  large  part  of  the  Pottawatomis  are  still  heathens,  and  stick 
to  their  old  religion  with  the  same  tenacity  which  the  Christian  con- 
verts show  in  their  new  faith.  The  former  are  less  civilized,  and  never 
use  the  English  language  in  their  conversation,  even  when  they  are 
able  to  speak  it.  Naturally  they  sometimes  show  that  they  consider 
the  Christians  as  renegades,  and  too  great  friends  of  the  white  men, 
and  will  not  take  part  in  any  of  their  doings  unless  the  whole  tribe  is 
interested  in  it.  They  believe  in  a  Supreme  Being,  Kitchi  Manito, 
the  creator  and  benefactor  of  all  mankind ;  they  honor  and  adore  him 
in  the  sun,  and  therefore  they  often  call  him  Kisis,  which  means  "the 
sun,"  or  "month."  They  worship  this  God  through  their  so-called 
dances,  which  are  really  religious  ceremonies.  Especially  among  this 
tribe,  there  are  three  great  dances,  each  one  lasting  from  two  to  three 
weeks:  the  first  one,  called  the  "green  bean  dance,"  is  celebrated  early 
in  the  summer,  when  the  bean,  one  of  their  staple  products,  is  ready 
for  the  table.  The  second,  the  most  elaborate  of  all,  the  "green  corn 
dance,"  108  is  celebrated  when  the  corn  is  in  its  milk,  in  the  right  stage 
of  growth  to  rejoice  every  Indian's  heart.  First,  they  all  stack  up  as 
much  hay  as  they  need  to  feed  their  horses  over  winter,  and  as  soon 
as  the  last  haystack  is  completed  they  pack  up  their  tents  and  travel  to 
their  dancing-ground,  where  they  will  stay  until  all  celebrations  are 
over.  Later  on,  in  the  fall,  they  usually  have  a  "Powou,"  a  celebra- 
tion corresponding  to  our  Thanksgiving,  the  turkey  being  the  central 
figure  at  the  dancing-ground.  This  is  a  circular  field  prepared  for 
that  purpose;  it  is  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  chief's  house,  on  the 
border  of  Big  Soldier  Creek,  surrounded  by  trees  and  woods;  the 
outer  circle  of  this  ground  is  raised  a  little,  thus  forming  natural 
benches,  which  the  women  occupy.  In  the  neighborhood  a  great  dance- 
hall  has  been  erected,  built  of  boards;  and  in  this  they  continue  their 
dances,  if  storms  or  heavy  rains  interfere  with  the  outdoor  programme. 

108  Cf.  the  dance  of  this  name  (more  commonly  known  as  "busk")  among 
the  Creeks,  their  solemn  annual  festival,  one  of  rejoicing  over  the  first  fruits 
of  the  year.  See  account  of  this  feast  in  Handbook  Amer.  Indians.  — ED. 

292  APPENDIX  C  [Vol. 

They  consider  their  dancing-ground  a  sacred  place.  For  their  great 
dances  invitations  are  sent  out  to  their  relatives  and  to  neighboring 
tribes ;  and  thus  many  strangers  are  present  on  those  occasions,  as  well 
as  Pottawatomis  from  Wisconsin  —  who  go  to  attend  the  ceremonies 
and  also  to  draw  money  due  them  on  allotments  which  they  had  re- 
ceived on  the  Kansas  reservation.  Catholics  do  not  usually  take  part 
in  these  dances,  except  that  some  of  the  young  fellows  are  drawn  in 
when  they  hear  the  drums,  and  finally  join  in  the  dancing.  These 
dancing  feasts  also  include  speeches,  singing,  and  smoking  -  the  latter 
being  done  with  one  pipe  by  perhaps  a  hundred  persons ;  to  this  prac- 
tice may  be  traced  the  spread  of  some  diseases  among  them.  They  do 
not  like  to  have  their  pictures  taken,  and  any  attempts  to  photograph 
them  at  these  ceremonies  have  usually  ended  in  the  destruction  of  the 
camera.  In  the  center  of  the  dancing-ground  is  a  large  red  cross,  at 
the  foot  of  which  the  eatables  are  deposited  when  they  have  their  din- 
ner. This  cross  is  a  peculiar  feature  in  the  Indian  camps.  I  often 
inquired  for  its  meaning,  but  could  get  no  further  information  than 
that  this  custom  was  as  old  as  the  Indians.  I  think,  however,  that  it 
is  an  old  tradition  of  the  Christian  instruction  which  they  received 
from  the  first  missionaries  among  them,  which  they  did  not  fully 
understand  and  have  adopted  into  their  ceremonial.  At  these  feasts 
they  thank  the  sun  for  the  crops  which  he  has  given  them,  and  the 
warm  weather  which  has  enabled  these  to  grow,  and  they  praise  Kitchi 
Manito.  On  the  last  day  they  have  a  special  ceremony  over  the  sacred 
dog,  which  has  been  killed  and  cooked.  Its  skull  is  placed  before  the 
cross,  and  the  meat  is  distributed  among  the  dancers;  singing  their 
songs  loudly,  they  dance  around  the  skull,  and  finally  jump  over  it. 
On  one  occasion,  toward  the  end  of  the  ceremony  I  saw  an  Indian  step 
into  the  middle  of  the  ring,  and  confess  a  crime  which  he  had  com- 
mitted and  for  which  the  tribe  had  disowned  him.  He  received  par- 
don from  the  chief,  and  as  a  sign  of  reconciliation  he  was  given  a  cup 
of  milk  by  the  chief,  after  which  they  crossed  the  pipes  of  peace.  Out- 
side of  their  dances  the  non-Christian  Indians  show  hardly  any  sign  of 
religion,  except  at  their  funerals.  They  place  their  dead  in  a  sitting 
posture  above  the  ground,  the  back  of  the  corpse  leaning  against  a 
stone  or  a  tree.  Others  deposit  their  dead  in  hollow  trees,  which  they 
cut  off  at  the  top,  lowering  the  body  into  this  hollow  amidst  plaintive 
songs  and  the  monotonous  beating  of  drums.  I  have  seen  such  hollow 
trees  that  were  actually  filled  with  skeletons  from  top  to  bottom. 
Generally  the  body  is  only  partly  covered  with  logs  or  stones  or  earth. 

two]  THE  POTTAWATOMI  293 

They  then  tie  a  dog  near  the  grave,  to  keep  watch  over  it.  If  he  is 
able  to  get  loose  before  he  starves  to  death,  and  goes  home,  it  is  con- 
sidered a  good  omen,  a  sign  that  the  deceased  has  arrived  happily  at 
the  great  hunting-grounds,  and  does  not  need  the  dog  any  more. 
Often,  in  passing  by  new  graves,  I  made  both  dog  and  people  happy, 
by  cutting  the  rope. 

No  orphan  asylums  are  needed  among  these  people.  If  a  mother 
loses  one  of  her  children  she  tries  to  soothe  her  sorrow  by  adopting  an 
orphan  or  waif  of  about  the  same  age ;  and  all  such  children  are  well 
cared  for.  Such  an  adoption  is  a  great  feast  for  the  tribe,  the  central 
figure  being  the  adopted  child;  it  is  well  dressed,  and,  according  to 
the  wealth  of  the  new  mother,  receives  many  and  fine  presents.  I  al- 
ways enjoyed  these  occasions,  on  account  of  the  friendly  and  kind 
spirit  which  I  always  observed,  and  with  which  they  treated  me. 

The  Christians  in  this  tribe  were  converted  by  the  renowned  Jesuit, 
Father  Galligan,  about  fifty  years  ago;  and  although  after  his  death 
they  were  left  entirely  to  themselves,  because  no  priest  spoke  their 
language,  they  adhered  loyally  to  their  adopted  faith.  Once  or  twice 
a  week,  throughout  the  long  period  of  twenty-five  years,  groups  of 
them  met  together,  and  said  their  prayers  in  common,  and  listened  to 
the  teaching  of  some  of  the  older  and  better-instructed  men.  Their 
services  consisted  in  reciting  prayers  and  especially  in  singing  the  old 
religious  songs,  which  had  been  translated  for  them  into  their  language 
by  Father  Galligan  and  Bishop  Baraga ; 109  these  gatherings  lasted 
until  a  late  hour,  and  were  concluded  by  an  elaborate  meal.  In  this 
way  the  faith  of  the  Christians  was  preserved,  and,  although  many  of 
them  were  poorly  instructed,  none  of  them  fell  away  from  their 
adopted  faith ;  and  when  I  first  went  to  stay  with  them  I  found  that 
they  all  were  practical  Catholics,  and  that  they  believed  in  their  re- 
ligion. The  missionary  who  labors  among  them  has  no  reason  to 
complain  about  neglect  of  religious  duty  on  the  part  of  the  Indians; 
and  I  could  always  point  to  them  as  exemplary  church-goers.  They 
receive  the  sacraments  often,  attend  religious  services  regularly,  and 
respond  willingly  to  every  demand  of  the  priest.  There  is,  of  course, 
a  little  side-attraction  connected  with  the  divine  services,  as  they  all, 
after  these  are  ended,  partake  of  a  sumptuous  meal;  thus  every  church 

109  Rev.  (afterward  Bishop)  Frederic  Baraga,  a  native  of  Austria,  began 
a  Catholic  mission  at  La  Pointe,  on  Chequamegon  Bay,  in  1835.  He  spent  the 
rest  of  his  life  in  missionary  labors  in  northern  Michigan  and  Wisconsin,  dying 
in  1868.  See  Wis.  Hist.  Colls.,  vol.  xii,  445,  446,  451.  —  ED. 


day  is  for  them  a  kind  of  feast  day.  Peace,  unity,  and  a  spirit  of  good- 
fellowship  prevail  among  them,  and  recall  to  us  the  love-feasts  of  the 
first  Christians. 

Among  these  Pottawatomis  are  persons,  both  of  pure  and  of  mixed 
blood,  who  are  some  of  my  best  friends,  and  their  friendship  I  appre- 
ciate as  much  as  that  of  white  people;  and  they  are  in  every  respect 
equal  to  our  white  men  and  women.  Among  them  is  the  reverend 
Father  Negauquetl,  a  full-blood  Indian ;  he  pursued  his  studies  in  the 
Sacred  Heart  College  in  Oklahoma  and  later  at  the  Propaganda  in 
Rome,  where  he  was  ordained  a  priest  in  1905 ;  and  he  is  now  working 
among  his  own  people  and  the  whites  in  the  Indian  Territory.  He  is 
the  first  Catholic  priest  of  his  race,  and  speaks  both  English  and  Ital- 
ian perfectly,  besides  the  different  Indian  dialects.  Another  is  a  Miss 
Blandin  (now  Mrs.  Graham),  the  daughter  of  an  English  father  and 
a  full-blooded  Indian  mother;  she  is  highly  accomplished,  an  excellent 
musician,  and  a  graduate  from  the  University  of  Hoi  ton,  Kans.  Many 
of  these  Indians  are  highly  esteemed  by  their  white  neighbors,  and 
move  in  the  best  society.  Along  the  two  Soldier  Creeks  may  be  seen 
beautiful  residences,  with  large  barns,  the  property  of  wealthy  Indians. 
The  finest  cattle  and  horses  are  shipped  to  market  by  them,  and  the 
checks  that  they  sign  are  honored  at  any  bank  in  Kansas.  They  dress 
in  style  and  good  taste,  and  they  and  their  families  appear  in  citizen 
clothes;  they  speak  the  English  language  well,  and  are  in  every  re- 
spect true  Americans.  There  is  another  but  poorer  class  of  Christians 
on  that  reservation  who  have  no  land  of  their  own,  and,  not  being  able 
to  acquire  any  land  on  the  reservation,  they  rent  land  from  other  In- 
dians. These  are  thrifty  farmers,  save  their  money,  and  are  the  best 
of  Catholics.  I  wish  that  I  could  speak  as  highly  of  those  who  are 
non-Christians ;  their  progress  in  civilization  is  slow,  and  most  of  them, 
at  least  the  women,  do  not  know  the  English  language  at  all.  They 
have  struck  a  compromise  in  clothing,  and  appear  only  partly  in  cit- 
izen's dress;  clinging  to  the  blanket  as  if  it  were  a  part  of  their  re- 
ligion. Many  years  will  be  needed  to  civilize  them  fully,  and  it  is  to 
be  feared  that  not  many  of  them  will  be  left  for  that ;  for  every  year 
diseases,  especially  consumption,  erysipelas,  and  smallpox,  carry  many 
of  them  to  the  grave.  The  government  makes  great  efforts  to  be  just 
to  the  Indians,  but  even  this  fact  is,  I  think,  an  explanation  of  their 
slow  advance.  Every  Pottawatomi  man,  woman,  and  child  receives 
from  the  government  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  of  land,  and  some- 
times much  more;  as  this  is  good  hay  land,  it  is  rented,  through  the 

O-CHEK-KA  (Winnebago) 


agent,  for  two  dollars  an  acre,  to  white  people,  for  cutting  the  hay. 
This  secures  to  an  Indian  family  —  for  instance,  the  father  and  mother, 
and  five  children  —  an  income  of  about  two  thousand  dollars,  which  is 
sufficient  for  them  to  live  on  without  doing  a  stroke  of  work.  If  the 
Indian  does  not  work,  we  cannot  expect  him  to  become  a  useful  cit- 
izen ;  he  needs  both  a  teacher  and  a  taskmaster,  who  will  teach  him  at 
once  the  principles  of  Christianity  and  the  love  of  labor,  and  show  him 
that  it  is  a  blessing.  Injustice,  bloody  persecutions,  and  wars  of  ex- 
termination did  much  to  make  the  Indian  that  crafty  and  bloodthirsty 
savage  whom  we  so  often  meet  in  story  and  history ;  but  such  is  not  his 
real  nature.  And  now  when  truthful  and  sympathetic  historians  are 
looking  up  the  records  of  the  Indians,  and  studying  their  history,  char- 
acter, customs,  and  beliefs,  we  must  deeply  regret  that  in  the  past  they 
were  not  given  more  sympathy  and  greater  opportunities,  and  that  the 
unfortunate  conditions  which  tend  to  cause  their  extermination  still 
continue.  -  Rev.  WILLIAM  METZDORF,  St.  Francis,  Wis.  (from  an 
unpublished  lecture  given  by  him  in  Milwaukee,  Jan.  21,  1907). 

The  Winnebago 

As  a  rule,  these  Indians  are  very  sociable  among  themselves,  and 
with  outsiders  whom  they  have  proved  to  be  their  friends.  Toward 
strangers  they  are  very  reserved,  and  this  may  especially  be  said  of  the 
women.  Very  seldom  a  family  lives  alone ;  usually  two  or  more  fam- 
ilies live  close  together.  They  are  peaceable  except  when  under  the 
influence  of  liquor.  They  are  hospitable  even  to  excess.  As  a  rule, 
diligence  and  cleanliness  are  not  their  strongest  points ;  but  their  way 
of  living  (in  tents),  and  their  land  being  unfit  for  cultivation,  will  to 
some  extent  account  for  both.  Their  morals  are  not  all  one  could 
wish,  especially  among  the  younger  generation.  "Firewater"  is  the 
great  enemy  of  these  Indians,  and  there  are  always  unscrupulous  whites 
who  for  the  sake  of  gain  will  furnish  it  to  them.  Some  of  the  In- 
dians are  bad,  but  there  are  also  some  who  are  highly  deserving  of 
respect,  who  might  be  pointed  out  as  examples  for  others  to  follow. 
The  greatest  drawback  to  the  elevation  of  these  people  is  the  poor  soil 
on  which  they  are  located;  they  can  not  make  their  living  on  it,  and 
are  consequently  compelled  to  scatter  in  all  directions,  in  order  to 
seek  work  by  which  to  make  a  living;  and  thus  they  often  come  into 
contact  with  a  class  of  whites  whose  influence  is  anything  but  edify- 
ing. The  "new  religion"  (the  use  of  the  "mescal  button")  when  first 
brought  to  these  Indians  found  quite  a  number  of  adherents;  but  it 

298 APPENDIX  C     

seems  to  have  lost  ground  gradually,  and  many  of  the  Indians  were 
very  much  opposed  to  it.  -  REV.  J.  STUCKI,  Black  River  Falls,  Wis. 
The  Wisconsin  Winnebagoes  have  very  poor  sandy  lands,  and  are 
not  far  advanced  in  farming,  especially  as  they  receive  but  little  en- 
couragement from  the  government  or  its  employees.  The  Winne- 
bagoes are  naturally  bright,  intelligent  people,  more  so  than  the  average 
of  Indian  tribes;  they  are  more  intelligent  than  the  ordinary  white 
people,  or  the  corn-eating  natives  of  Nebraska.  Those  who  live  in 
Wisconsin  earn  their  living  by  hunting  and  trapping,  berry-picking, 
gathering  ginseng,  husking  corn,  digging  potatoes,  cutting  wood,  etc. 
Under  the  present  methods,  they  waste  considerable  time  waiting  for 
the  payment  of  the  government  annuities.  I  look  for  great  advance- 
ment among  the  several  tribes  when  the  trust  funds  are  paid,  and  the 
Indians  are  made  to  mingle  more  with  the  whites,  and  go  out  into  the 
world  to  do  the  best  they  can;  they  will  then  reach  the  top  of  the 
ladder.  Good  education  is  all  right  for  them  if  only  they  have  some- 
thing to  do  when  their  school  days  are  over ;  but  at  the  present  day  there 
is  nothing  for  them  except  to  go  back  to  the  wigwam.  A  Winnebago 
from  Nebraska  has  recently  won  high  honors  in  oratory  at  Yale  Uni- 
versity. In  regard  to  the  "mescal  eating"  among  the  Winnebagoes, 
those  in  Nebraska  sent  (in  the  summer  of  1908)  a  delegation  of  about 
one  hundred  persons  to  Wisconsin,  to  introduce  the  new  religion 
among  their  brothers  there.  They  held  three  or  four  meetings,  and 
made  fifteen  or  twenty  converts;  but  there  was  so  much  opposition  to 
the  movement  that  most  persons  held  back  from  joining  it. 

-  THOMAS  R.  RODDY,  Black  River  Falls,  Wis. 


Documents  forming  the  text  of  this  work 

1'Amerique  Septentrionale  (Paris,  1722).     4  vols.     Illustrated. 

This  work  was  approved  by  the  royal  censor  at  Paris  in  1702,  but  was 
not  published  until  1716  — probably  on  account  of  the  war  between  Eng- 
land and  France  (1701-1713),  which  only  ended  with  the  treaty  of  Utrecht, 
and  the  undesirability  of  publishing  at  that  time  a  work  regarding  Canada, 
which  was  in  danger  of  attack  by  the  English.  The  edition  of  1716  is 
mentioned  by  only  Fevret  de  Fontette;  the  next  one  (1722),  the  edition 
best  known  to  bibliographers,  was  issued  at  both  Paris  and  Rouen;  and  a 
third  edition  appeared  at  Amsterdam  in  1723.  The  work  was  published  in 
four  small  volumes;  it  is  the  second  of  these,  devoted  to  the  history  of  the 
Indian  tribes  who  were  allies  of  the  French  in  Canada,  which  is  here  pre- 
sented (for  the  first  time  in  English  translation).  A  fourth  edition  was 
issued  in  Paris  in  1753;  a  careful  comparison  shows  that  this  is  an  exact 
reproduction  of  the  1722  edition,  save  for  a  few  unimportant  variations, 
chiefly  in  the  color  of  the  ink  used  on  the  title-pages.  It  is  a  curious  fact 
that  La  Potherie's  Histoire  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Memoires  de  Trevoux, 
a  publication  of  that  period  which  aimed  to  record  the  names  of  all  printed 
books  relating  to  America.  This  information  is  chiefly  obtained  from  the 
interesting  paper  of  J.  Edmond  Roy  on  La  Potherie  and  his  works,  in 
Proceedings  and  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Canada,  series  ii,  vol. 
iii,  27-41  —  in  which  the  reader  will  find  fuller  bibliographical  details,  and 
a  brief  synopsis  of  the  Histoire. 

It  is  of  interest  to  note  the  gradual  increase  in  the  prices  quoted  by 
booksellers  for  this  work.  An  early  issue  (undated)  of  Dufosse's  Amer- 
icana prices  the  Histoire  (no.  13857)  at  twenty-five  francs  for  edition  of 
1753;  and  later  (no.  62174),  at  thirty-five  francs,  edition  of  1722;  while 
in  his  "new  series"  that  of  1753,  it  is  quoted  at  forty  francs  (nos.  15851  and 
17181).  In  Chadenafs  Catalogues  may  be  noted  the  following:  Catalogue 
ii  (1893),  no.  11457,  edition  1722,  40  francs;  the  same  in  Catalogue  22 
(1898),  no.  21991,  edition  "1722  or  1753;"  for  the  same  edition,  in  Cat- 
alogue 26  (1900),  no.  26414,  50  francs  (and  in  same  catalogue  the  same 
price  for  the  Amsterdam  edition  of  1723)  ;  in  Catalogue  29  (1902),  no. 
29697,  edition  of  1722  (Paris,  Nyon  et  Didot;  "original  edition  of  this  very 
rare  work"),  80  francs;  the  same  price  for  the  Amsterdam  edition,  in 
Catalogue  33  (1904),  no.  34394;  while  in  Catalogue  41  (1908),  no.  44096, 
and  Catalogue  44  (1910),  no.  48816,  the  price  is  quoted  at  125  francs. 


PERROT,  NICOLAS.  Memoire  sur  les  moeurs  coustumes  et  relligion  des 
sauvages  de  1'Amerique  septentrionale.  Pub.  pour  la  premiere  fois 
par  le  R.  P.  J.  Tailhan  (Leipzig  and  Paris,  1864). 

So  much  information  in  regard  to  Perrot's  manuscript  writings  as  was 
then  available  was  collected  by  his  editor,  Father  Tailhan,  when  he  pub- 
lished the  above  work  in  1864;  for  this,  see  his  preface  at  the  beginning  of 
the  Memoire.  Since  then,  no  farther  discoveries  seem  to  have  been  made, 
unless  the  promised  "Inventaire  sommaire"  of  MM.  Nicolas  and  Wirth, 
of  Mss.  in  the  archives  of  the  Ministere  des  Colonies  at  Paris,  has  succeeded 
in  unearthing  some  of  the  lost  memoirs  of  Nicolas  Perrot.  It  is  more 
probable,  however,  that  these  writings  were  lost  or  destroyed  (unless  some 
duplicate  copies  found  their  way  into  the  government  archives)  in  their 
passage  through  many  hands  in  the  eighteenth  century;  for  they  were  used 
by  La  Potherie,  Charlevoix,  and  Golden,  and  possibly  other  writers  — some 
of  them  being  apparently  preserved  to  us  in  La  Potherie's  second  volume. 

For  prices  on  the  Memoire,  the  catalogues  of  the  French  booksellers 
should  be  consulted,  as  it  is  seldom  offered  by  those  in  the  United  States. 
In  Dufosse's  Bulletin  de  Bouquiniste  this  book  appears  occasionally:  no. 
15180,  at  12  francs;  no.  36982,  at  10  francs;  and  no.  60896,  at  7.50  francs. 
Chadenat  quoted  it  higher:  from  10  to  12  francs  in  the  years  since  1890; 
and  reaches  15  francs  in  Catalogue  43  (1909),  no.  48011;  while  in  two  of 
his  Catalogues  —  23  (1899),  no.  23659;  and  41  (1908),  no.  45118  — he 
mentions  a  copy  of  the  Memoire  on  large  paper,  printed  from  a  large  format 
in  large  quarto  size,  "a  few  copies  only,"  quoted  at  20  francs.  O'Leary  in 
Catalogue  n  (1907),  quoted  at  $2.50  an  unbound  copy. 

MARSTON,  MAJOR  MORRELL,  U.S.A.  Letter  to  Reverend  Dr.  Jedi- 
diah  Morse,  Fort  Armstrong,  111.,  Nov.,  1820.  Ms. 

This  report  on  the  Indian  tribes  in  the  district  under  Major  Morrell's 
command  was  prepared  by  him  in  November,  1620,  at  the  request  of  Rev. 
Dr.  Jedidiah  Morse,  a  special  agent  sent  by  the  government  to  visit  the 
Indian  tribes  of  the  United  States  and  obtain  all  available  information 
about  their  condition  and  needs  for  the  use  of  the  Indian  Bureau  in  its 
dealings  with  them.  Dr.  Morse's  report  was  published  in  1822  (see  title 
below),  and  is  a  most  valuable  document  for  the  study  of  Indian  history  at 
that  period;  but  it  was  long  ago  out  of  print,  and  is  practically  unknown 
to  the  general  public.  For  the  present  work,  the  text  of  Marston's  report 
is  obtained  not  from  the  printed  book,  but  from  a  copy  of  Marston's  orig- 
inal Ms.  which  is  preserved  in  the  Draper  Collection  of  the  Wisconsin 
Historical  Society;  it  is  document  no.  58  in  vol.  I  of  the  Forsyth  Papers 
(pressmark,  "i  T  58").  The  document  is  written,  apparently  by  some 
copyist,  on  fifteen  leaves  of  paper  about  foolscap  size;  the  last  paragraph 
and  the  subscription  and  signature  are  in  Marston's  autograph  writing. 
The  list  of  Indian  tribes  to  which  he  alludes  gives  the  names  of  each  tribe 
in  English,  French,  and  ten  Indian  dialects;  this  paper  has  been  by  some 
oversight  bound  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Forsyth  Papers. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  303 

FORSYTH,  THOMAS.     Manners  and  customs  of  the  Sauk  and  Fox 
tribes  of  Indians.     Ms.,  dated  January  15,  1827. 

This  document  is  a  memoir  on  the  above-named  tribes,  written  by  the 
noted  Indian  agent,  Thomas  Forsyth,  and  sent  by  him  to  Gen.  William 
Clark,  then  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs;  so  far  as  is  now  known,  it  has 
never  before  been  published.  This  manuscript,  written  throughout  by  For- 
syth's  own  hand,  is  contained  in  volume  ix  of  the  Forsyth  Papers  (see  pre- 
ceding title)  ;  it  fills  thirty-four  long  pages,  written  in  a  small  but  very 
legible  hand.  It  is  followed  by  various  other  writings  by  Forsyth:  mis- 
cellaneous memoranda,  containing  scraps  of  information  (largely  etymologi- 
cal) about  tribal  and  place  names  in  the  northwest,  bits  of  tribal  history, 
etc.;  a  copy  of  a  letter  (dated  St.  Louis,  Dec.  23,  1812)  sent  by  Forsyth  to 
Clark,  which  contains  an  interesting  description  of  the  region  extending 
from  Vincennes  to  Mackinaw  and  Green  Bay,  and  from  the  Wisconsin  and 
Mississippi  Rivers  to  Lakes  Erie  and  Huron ;  several  anecdotes  copied  from 
printed  books  of  the  day;  an  interesting  account  of  the  Black  Hawk  War 
by  Forsyth  (whose  official  position,  and  contemporaneous  residence  in  the 
region  affected,  render  him  a  prime  authority  on  that  subject),  entitled 
"Original  causes  of  the  trouble  with  a  party  of  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  under 
the  direction  or  command  of  the  Black  Hawk,  who  was  no  chief;"  and  a 
note  by  him  describing  the  religious  character  and  practices  of  some  Kicka- 
poo  Indians  whom  he  encountered  in  Missouri,  who  were  adherents  of  the 
noted  "Kickapoo  Prophet."  The  above  letter  of  1812  not  only  describes 
the  topographical  features  of  the  region  named,  but  enumerates  and  char- 
acterizes the  various  tribes  inhabiting  it,  and  gives  an  interesting  sketch  of 
the  character  and  methods  of  the  "Shawnee  Prophet"  and  outline  of  the 
so-called  "religion"  inculcated  by  him  among  the  Indians  of  the  northwest 

General  list  of  printed  books  and  manuscript 


ABEL,  ANNIE  HELOISE.     The  history  of  events  resulting  in  Indian 
consolidation  west  of  the  Mississippi  River  (Washington,  1908). 

In  Annual  Report  of  Amer.  Hist.  Association,  1906,  vol.  i,  233-454. 
Covers  the  period  1803-1840;  at  the  end  is  a  good  bibliography  of  the 
subject,  aiming  to  evaluate  the  various  writings  cited. 

ADAMS,  CHARLES  F.,  editor.     Memoirs  of  J.  Q.  Adams   (Phila- 
delphia, 1874-1877).     12  vols. 

"Strictly  speaking,  this  is  an  edition  of  J.  Q.  Adams's  Diary,  and  is 
very  valuable  for  tracing  the  United  States  Indian  policy  from  1825  to 
1829."  — ABEL. 

ADAMS,  HENRY.     History  of  the  United  States  of  America,  1801- 
1817  (New  York,  1889-1891).     9  vols. 


ALLEN,  JOEL  A.     History  of  the  American  bison  (Washington,  1875). 
In  Annual  Report  of  U.S.  Geological  and  Geographical  Survey  of  the 
Territories,  1875,  pp.  443-587- 

vols.  Illustrated. 

Established  (1878)  at  Ashtabula,  O.,  by  Stephen  D.  Feet,  who  remained 
its  editor  until  the  close  of  1910;  now  edited  by  J.  O.  Kinnaman.  It  has 
been  published  successively  at  Beloit,  Wis.,  Chicago,  Salem,  Mass.,  and 
now  (1911)  at  Benton  Harbor,  Mich.  Contains  many  papers  of  arch- 
aeological and  ethnological  value,  by  competent  authorities;  those  concern- 
ing the  old  northwest  are  found  chiefly  in  the  earlier  volumes.  Among 
them  may  be  noted:  Volume  I,  "Location  of  Indian  tribes  in  the  North- 
west Territory  at  the  date  of  its  organization"  (pp.  85-98).  In  recent 
volumes:  xxvi,  S.  D.  Peet,  "Races  and  religions  in  America"  (pp.  34.5-360; 
illustrated)  ;  Warren  Upham,  "Mounds  built  by  the  Sioux  in  Minnesota" 
(pp.  217-222)  ;  xxvii,  C.  Staniland  Wake,  "Asiatic  ideas  among  the  North 
American  Indians"  (pp.  153-161,  189-196)  ;  xxvm,  S.  D.  Peet,  "The  copper 
age  in  America"  (pp.  149-164),  and  "Pottery  in  its  distribution  and  va- 
riety" (pp.  277-292)  ;  xxxi,  J.  O.  Kinnaman,  "Chippewa  Legends"  (pp. 
96-101,  137-143)- 

AMERICAN   ANTIQUARIAN   SOCIETY.     Transactions   and   collections 
(Worcester,  1820;  Cambridge,  1836).     Vols.  i,  ii. 
Largely  devoted  to  Indian  antiquities. 

AMERICAN  ARCHAEOLOGIST.  Vols.  i-n  (Columbus,  O.,  1897-1898). 

mission  monthly  (New  York,  1879-1910 +).  Vols.  1-32.  Illus- 

missionary  herald  (Boston,  1803-1910+).  Vols.  1-106.  Illus- 
trated (after  1865). 

Begun  under  title  of  Massachusetts  Missionary  Magazine]  united  (June, 
1809)  with  The  Panoplist,  begun  three  years  before;  after  1820  styled 
The  Missionary  Herald. 

AMERICAN  FOLK-LORE  SOCIETY.  The  journal  of  American  folk- 
lore (Boston  and  New  York,  1888-1910+).  Vols.  i-xxii. 

Devoted  mainly  to  folk-lore,  but  contains  much  other  ethnological  in- 
formation; includes  many  articles  and  notes  on  our  Indian  tribes;  its 
editors  and  contributors  include  the  leading  authorities  in  its  field.  Not- 
able papers  in  recent  volumes:  Volume  xv  —  "Memorials  of  the  Indian," 
A.  F.  Chamberlain;  "Sac  and  Fox  tales,"  Mrs.  Mary  Lasley  (a  daughter 
of  the  noted  chief  Black  Hawk) ;  "Algonkian  words  in  American  Eng- 
lish," A.  F.  Chamberlain.  Volume  XVIH  —  "Mythology  of  the  Indian  stocks 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  305 

north  of  Mexico,"  A.  F.  Chamberlain;  "The  Algonkian  Manitou,"  Wil- 
liam Jones;  "Who  was  the  medicine-man?"  Francis  LaFlesche;  "The 
Seneca  White  Dog  Feast;"  "Sioux  Games,"  J.  R.  Walker  (completed  in  the 
following  volume).  Volume  XIX  —  "Ojibwa  myths  and  traditions,"  Harlan 
I.  Smith.  Volume  xx-."Some  Dakota  myths,"  Clark  Wissler.  Volume 
xxi  —  "The  test-theme  in  N.  American  mythology,"  Robert  H.  Lowie. 

AMERICAN  HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION.     Papers  (New  York,  1886- 
1891).     5  vols. 

Annual  reports,  1889-1907  (Washington,  1890-1908). 

AMERICAN  MISSIONARY  ASSOCIATION.     American  missionary  (New 

York,  1857-1910+).     Vols.  1-64.     Illustrated  (after  1899). 
AMERICAN  STATE  PAPERS.     Indian  affairs,  1789-1827  (Washington, 
1832-1834).     2  vols. 

Selected  documents  from  the  archives  of  the  Indian  Office,  published 
under  authority  of  Congress;  highly  valuable  for  the  study  of  political 
relations  between  the  Indians  and  United  States,  especially  as  some  of 
the  original  documents  from  which  these  volumes  are  compiled  are  ap- 
parently no  longer  in  existence. 

ANNALES  DE  LA  PROPAGATION  DE  LA  Foi  pour  les  provinces  de  Que- 
bec et  de  Montreal  (Montreal,  1877-1893).     Nos.  1-50. 

Published  by  the  Canadian  branch  (established  1836)  of  the  Association 
de  la  Propagation  de  la  Foi  —  a  missionary  society  of  world-wide  member- 
ship in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  which  has  published  its  Annals  since 
1827  (in  various  languages),  as  a  successor  to  the  well-known  Lettres 
edifiantes.  The  Canadian  Annales  was  a  successor  to  Rapport  sur  les 
missions  du  diocese  de  Quebec,  published  at  intervals  from  1839  to  *874; 
both  devoted  chiefly  to  missions  among  the  Indians. 

pologist (Washington,  1888-1898).     n  vols.     Illustrated. 

Id.,  new  series  (New  York,  1899-1911+).     Vols.  i-xiii. 

This  valuable  periodical  is  also  the  organ  of  the  Amer.  Ethnological 
Society,  and  its  contributors  include  the  leading  scientists  and  thinkers  in 
this  branch  of  knowledge.  Among  notable  papers  in  the  new  series  are 
the  following:  Volume  i,  "Aboriginal  American  zootechny,"  Otis  T. 
Mason  (pp.  45-81)  ;  in,  "Rare  books  relating  to  the  American  Indians," 
Ainsworth  R.  Spofford  (pp.  270-285)  ;  "Significance  of  certain  Algonquian 
animal  names,"  Alexander  F.  Chamberlain  (pp.  669-683)  ;  "Aboriginal 
copper  mines  of  the  Isle  Royale,  Lake  Superior,"  W.  H.  Holmes  (pp.  684- 
696)  ;  vi,  "Some  principles  of  Algonquian  word-formation;"  William 
Jones  (pp.  369-412)  ;  Vli,  "Popular  fallacies  respecting  the  Indian,"  Henry 
W.  Henshaw  (pp.  104-182)  ;  vm,  "Recent  progress  in  American  anthro- 
pology, 1902-1906"  (pp.  441-558)  ;  x,  "The  tomahawk,"  papers  by  W.  H. 
Holmes  and  W.  R.  Gerard  (pp.  264-280)  ;  "Wooden  bowls  of  the  Algon- 
quian Indians,"  C.  C.  Willoughby  (pp.  423-504;  illustrated);  xi,  "Tat- 


tooing  of  the  North  American  Indians,"  A.  T.  Sinclair  (pp.  362-400) ; 
"The  various  uses  of  buffalo  hair  by  the  Indians,"  D.  I.  Bushnell  (pp. 
401-425);  XH,  "Clan  organization  of  the  Winnebago,"  Paul  Radin  (pp. 

ARMSTRONG,  BENJAMIN  G.  Early  life  among  the  Indians  (Ashland, 
Wis.,  1892). 

Reminiscences,  dictated  by  Armstrong  to  Thos.  P.  Wentworth;  relate 
chiefly  to  the  Indians  of  northern  Wisconsin,  the  treaties  of  1835-1854,  etc. 

ARMSTRONG,  PERRY  A.  The  Sauks  and  the  Black  Hawk  War 
(Springfield,  111.,  1887).  Illustrated. 

Compiled  from  the  best  printed  sources,  and  from  interviews  with  old 
pioneers,  etc.  Contains  much  information  regarding  the  Sauk  tribe,  and 
biographical  sketches  of  noted  Indian  chiefs. 

The  piasa,  or,  the  devil  among  the  Indians  (Morris,  111.,  1887). 

AUPAUMUT,  HENDRICK.     Narrative  of  an  embassy  to  the  western 

Indians  (Philadelphia,  1826). 

"From  the  original  manuscript,  with  prefatory  remarks  by  Dr.  B.  H. 
Coates;"  in  Memoirs  of  the  Penn.  Historical  Society,  vol.  ii,  61-131.  The 
author  was  a  chief  of  the  N.Y.  Stockbridge  tribe,  and  was  sent  in  1792 
by  the  U.S.  secretary  of  war  on  the  mission  above  mentioned.  He  in- 
fluenced the  western  tribes  against  Tecumseh,  and  aided  Gen.  Harrison  in 
the  campaign  wherein  Tecumseh  was  defeated.  In  1821  the  Stockbridges 
removed  to  Wisconsin,  and  Aupaumut  died  there,  some  time  after  1825. 
(Wis.  Hist.  Collections,  vol.  xv,  40,  41.) 

AVERY,  ELROY  McK.  A  history  of  the  United  States  and  its  people, 
from  their  earliest  records  to  the  present  time  (Cleveland,  1904- 
1910+).  15  vols.  Illustrated. 

Its  special  feature  is  in  the  valuable  and  elegant  illustrations  which 
abound  in  every  volume  — maps  and  plans,  portraits,  views  of  historical 
scenes  and  buildings,  reproductions  of  celebrated  paintings,  etc.  Volumes 
I  and  IV  are  of  interest  in  connection  with  the  present  work. 

AVER,  EDWARD  E.     Collection  of  historical  documents. 

One  of  the  finest  collections  of  Americana  (both  printed  and  Ms.)  in  the 
United  States ;  it  has  long  been  in  charge  of  the  Newberry  Library,  Chicago. 
It  includes  most  of  the  printed  works  of  value  relating  to  the  Indians,  and 
many  manuscripts;  among  the  latter  are  a  considerable  number  relating 
to  the  Indians  of  the  old  northwest,  especially  as  connected  with  the  fur  trade. 

BARBER,  EDWIN  A.     Indian  music. 

Catlinite :  its  antiquity  as  a  material  for  tobacco  pipes. 

These  articles  appeared  in  the  Amer.  Naturalist,  vol.  xvii,  267-274  and 
745-764  respectively. 

BARROWS,  WILLIAM.  The  Indian's  side  of  the  Indian  question  (Bos- 
ton, 1887). 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  307 

BEACH,  W.  W.  The  Indian  miscellany:  containing  papers  on  the 
history,  antiquities,  arts,  languages,  religions,  traditions,  and  super- 
stitions of  the  American  aborigines  (Albany,  1877). 

Contains  many  valuable  articles  regarding  the  Indians;  reprinted  "from 
magazines  and  other  ephemera,"  in  order  to  preserve  the  information  they 

BEAUCHAMP,  REV.  W.  M.  The  Iroquois  trail,  or  foot-prints  of  the 
Six  Nations,  in  customs,  traditions,  and  history  ( Fayetteville,  N.Y., 

Includes  the  "Sketches  of  Ancient  History  of  the  Six  Nations"  (Lewiston, 
N.Y.,  1826)  by  David  Cusick,  a  Tuscarora  Indian;  and  notes  and  com- 
ments thereon  by  Beauchamp,  long  a  missionary  among  the  Iroquois,  and 
an  acknowledged  authority  on  Iroquois  lore,  history,  and  antiquities. 

[Various  papers  relating  to  the  N.Y.  Iroquois  tribes  -  their  his- 
tory, arts  and  industries,  etc.] 

These  are  published  as  Bulletins  of  the  N.Y.  State  Museum  (1897- 
1907),  nos.  16,  18,  32,  41,  50,  73,  78,  89,  108;  they  are  valuable  contribu- 
tions to  our  knowledge  of  those  tribes. 

BECKWITH,  HIRAM  W.     The  Illinois  and  Indiana  Indians  (Chicago, 


This  is  no.  27  of  the  Fergus  Hist.  Series',  the  author  was  a  prominent 
antiquarian  of  Illinois. 

BIGGS,  W.  Narrative,  while  he  was  a  prisoner  with  the  Kickapoo 
Indians  (s.L,  1826). 

BLACKBIRD,  ANDREW  J.  History  of  the  Ottawa  and  Chippewa  In- 
dians of  Michigan;  a  grammar,  and  personal  and  family  history 
of  the  author  (Ypsilanti,  Mich.,  1887). 

Written  by  an  Indian  chief  well  known  in  Southern  Michigan. 

BLACK  HAWK.     Life  of  Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak  (Boston,  1834). 

This  purports  to  be  the  story  of  his  life,  as  dictated  by  him  to  Antoine 
Leclaire  (a  half-breed  government  interpreter),  and  edited  by  J.  B.  Patter- 
son; not  considered,  by  well-informed  students,  as  altogether  trustworthy. 

BLANCHARD,  RUFUS.  Discovery  and  conquests  of  the  Northwest, 
with  the  history  of  Chicago  (Wheaton,  111.,  1879). 

Written  by  a  pioneer  antiquarian,  who  did  much  to  preserve  records 
of  early  Chicago  and  Northwestern  history;  in  that  work  the  maps  pub- 
lished by  him  made  a  prominent  feature. 

BLOOMFIELD,  JULIA  K.  The  Oneidas  (New  York,  1907).  Illus- 

Treats  mainly  of  the  missionary  enterprises  conducted  among  the  Oneidas, 
especially  those  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  on  the  Oneida  reserva- 
tion in  Wisconsin. 


BOYD,  GEORGE.     Papers,  1797-1846.     Ms.     8  vols. 

These  papers  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  State  Historical 
Society.  Col.  Boyd  was  U.S.  Indian  agent  at  Mackinac  during  1818-1832, 
and  at  Green  Bay  1832-1840. 

BRINTON,  DANIEL  G.     American  hero-myths:  a  study  in  the  native 
religions  of  the  western  continent  (Philadelphia,  1882). 

The  American  race:  a  linguistic  classification  and  ethnographic 

description  of  the  native  tribes  of  North  and  South  America  (New 
York,  1891). 

Essays  of  an  Americanist  (Philadelphia,  1890). 

Classed  under  these  heads:  "ethnologic  and  archaeologic;  mythology  and 
folk-lore;  graphic  systems,  and  literature;  and  linguistic." 

Myths  of  the  New  World:  a  treatise  on  the  symbolism  and 

mythology  of  the  red  race  of  America  (New  York,  1868). 

A  third  edition,  revised,  was  issued  at  Philadelphia  in  1896.  The 
works  of  this  able  and  scholarly  investigator  that  are  here  mentioned  are 
those  of  more  general  interest;  besides  these,  he  edited  or  wrote  numerous 
others,  of  great  value  on  certain  special  topics. 

BROWER,  J.  V.  Memoirs  of  explorations  in  the  basin  of  the  Missis- 
sippi (St.  Paul,  1898-1903).  7  vols. 

Written  by  a  learned  Minnesota  antiquarian,  long  a  prominent  officer 
in  the  Minn.  State  Historical  Society. 

BRUNSON,  REV.  ALFRED.     Journals  and  letter-books.     Ms. 

Brunson  was  a  pioneer  Methodist  preacher  in  Wisconsin,  and  an  Indian 
agent.  These  papers  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical 

BUCK,  DANIEL.  Indian  outbreaks  (Mankato,  Minn.,  1904).  Illus- 

Written  by  a  former  judge  of  the  Minnesota  supreme  court,  a  resident 
of  that  state  since  1857.  He  claims  "to  treat  all  questions  with  judicial 
fairness,"  and  says  that  "the  Indian  side  of  the  trouble  has  been  given  a 
hearing"  in  his  book. 

BUREAU  OF  AMERICAN  ETHNOLOGY.  Annual  reports  to  the  secre- 
tary of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  (Washington,  1879-1908). 
26  vols.  Illustrated. 

These  publications  contain  monographs,  written  by  the  trained  experts 
on  the  staff  of  the  Bureau,  on  the  history,  character,  mode  of  life,  customs, 
mythology  and  religion,  etc.,  of  the  North  American  Indians ;  and  on  various 
general  and  special  aspects  of  the  science  of  ethnology.  They  constitute  a 
mass  of  data  and  scientific  theory  quite  indispensable  for  the  thorough 
study  of  these  subjects,  and  of  the  utmost  value  to  all  students  therein. 
Among  the  papers  of  especial  interest  for  the  field  covered  by  this  work  are 
the  following:  "On  the  evolution  of  language  .  .  .  from  the  study  of  In- 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  309 

dian  languages,"  and  "Wyandot  government:  a  short  study  of  tribal  so- 
ciety," J.  W.  Powell  (First  Report} ;  "Sign  language  among  the  N. 
American  Indians,"  Garrick  Mallery  (ibid)  ;  "Animal  carvings  from 
mounds  of  the  Mississippi  valley,"  H.  W.  Henshaw,  and  "Art  in  shell  of 
the  ancient  Americans,"  W.  H.  Holmes  (Second  Report)  ;  "On  masks,  lab- 
rets,  and  certain  aboriginal  customs,"  W.  H.  Dall,  and  "Omaha  sociology," 
J.  Owen  Dorsey  (Third  Report)  ;  "Ancient  pottery  of  the  Mississippi 
valley,"  and  "Origin  and  development  of  form  and  ornament  in  ceramic 
art,"  W.  H.  Holmes  (Fourth  Report)  ;  "Burial  mounds  of  the  northern  sec- 
tion of  the  United  States,"  Cyrus  Thomas  (Fifth  Report)  ;  "A  study  of  the 
textile  art  in  its  relation  to  the  development  of  form  and  ornament,"  W.  H. 
Holmes  (Sixth  Report)  ;  "Indian  linguistic  families  of  America  north  of 
Mexico,"  J.  W.  Powell,  and  "The  Mide'wiwin  or  'grand  medicine  society' 
of  the  Ojibwa,"  W.  J.  Hoffman  (Seventh  Report)  ;  "Picture  writing  of  the 
American  Indians,"  Garrick  Mallery  (Tenth  Report)  ;  "A  study  of  Siouan 
cults,"  J.  Owen  Dorsey  (Eleventh  Report)  ;  "The  Menomini  Indians,"  W.  J. 
Hoffman,  and  "The  Ghost-dance  religion  and  the  Sioux  outbreak  of  1890," 
James  Mooney  (Fourteenth  Report)  ;  "The  Siouan  Indians,"  W.  J.  McGee, 
and  "Siouan  sociology,"  J.  Owen  Dorsey  (Fifteenth  Report) ;  "Indian  land 
cessions  in  the  United  States,"  C.  C.  Royce  (Eighteenth  Report)  ;  "The 
wild-rice  gatherers  of  the  upper  lakes,"  A.  E.  Jenks  (Nineteenth  Report)  ; 
"Iroquois  cosmogony,"  J.  N.  B.  Hewitt  ( Twenty-first  Report)  ;  "American 
Indian  games,"  Stewart  Culin  (Twenty-fourth  Report). 

BUREAU  OF  AMERICAN  ETHNOLOGY.  Bulletins  (Washington,  1887- 
1910).  45  vols.  Illustrated. 

Of  the  same  character  as  the  papers  in  the  Reports,  save  that  they  more 
often  are  bibliographical  and  linguistic  in  scope,  or  devoted  to  subjects  of 
more  limited  interest  Among  these  are  bibliographies  of  the  Siouan, 
Iroquoian,  and  Algonquian  languages,  by  J.  C.  Pilling  (nos.  5,  6,  and  13, 
respectively)  ;  "The  problem  of  the  Ohio  mounds,"  and  "Catalogue  of  pre- 
historic works  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,"  Cyrus  Thomas  (nos.  8  and 
12) ;  "Handbook  of  the  Indians  north  of  Mexico,"  edited  by  Frederick 
W.  Hodge  (no.  30) ;  "Tuberculosis  among  certain  tribes  of  the  United 
States"  [among  which  are  the  Oglala  Sioux  and  the  Menomini],  Ales 
Hrdlicka  (no.  42). 

(Washington,  1900-1910+). 

Annals  of  the  Catholic  Indian  missions  of  America  (Washing- 
ton, 1878,  1880,  1881). 

BURTON,  C.  M.  Collections  of  documents  relating  to  the  early 
history  of  Michigan.  Ms. 

Mr.  Burton,  a  resident  of  Detroit,  has  been  collecting  these  docu- 
ments during  some  forty  years,  "covering  more  than  two  centuries  in  the 
history  of  Michigan  and  the  region  of  the  Great  Lakes."  They  include 
many  originals,  as  well  as  many  transcripts  from  French  and  Canadian 
archives;  and  consist  of  letters,  diaries,  military  order-books,  Indian  and 


French  deeds  and  contracts,  records  of  old  Catholic  churches,  fur-trade 
accounts,  etc.  Of  special  interest  regarding  Indian  affairs  are  the  papers 
of  LaMothe  Cadillac,  the  founder  of  Detroit  (published  in  the  Collections 
of  the  Michigan  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society,  vols.  xxxiii  and  xxxiv)  ; 
the  Montreal  papers,  1682-1804,  copied  from  notarial  records  in  Montreal; 
the  papers  of  John  Askin,  a  prominent  fur-trader  before  1813;  and  those 
of  John  R.  Williams  and  William  Woodbridge  (for  a  time,  superintendent 
of  Indian  affairs). 

BURTON,  FREDERICK  R.  American  primitive  music,  with  especial  at- 
tention to  the  songs  of  the  Ojibways  (New  York,  1909).  Illus- 

A  careful  study  of  Indian  music,  in  both  its  technique  and  its  meaning 
and  use.  Burton  collected  among  the  Ojibwas  a  large  number  of  songs, 
which  are  here  presented  with  their  original  words  and  music,  and  the 
story  and  meaning  of  each.  At  the  end,  twenty-eight  of  these  are  harmon- 
ized for  pianoforte  accompaniment,  and  have  an  English  translation. 

CALKINS,  FRANKLIN  W.  The  wooing  of  Tokala  (New  York  and 
Chicago,  1907). 

Although  in  the  form  of  a  story,  this  book  was  intended  rather  as  a 
study  of  Indian  character;  it  depicts  life  among  a  group  of  Dakota  Indians, 
and  "primitive  conditions  as  they  existed  among  the  Sioux  previous  to  and 
during  the  American  Civil  War."  Adopted  into  one  of  their  tribes,  with 
whom  he  lived  a  considerable  time,  the  author  has  obtained  his  material 
from  personal  experience  and  observation. 

Indian  tales  (Chicago  [1893]).     Illustrated. 

Accounts  of  various  experiences  of  the  author  and  other  white  persons 
among  Indians  in  Iowa  and  Nebraska,  1860-1880. 

CAMPBELL,  HENRY  C.,  and  others.  Wisconsin  in  three  centuries, 
1634-1905  (New  York  [1906]).  4  vols.  Illustrated. 

CANFIELD,  W.  W.  The  legends  of  the  Iroquois  told  by  "The  Corn- 
planter"  (New  York,  1902). 

A  highly  interesting  collection  of  legends  related,  toward  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  by  the  noted  Seneca  chief  Cornplanter  to  a  white 
friend  — whose  notes  of  these  conversations  are  here  reproduced,  with  much 
information  obtained  from  other  prominent  Iroquois  chiefs,  by  Mr.  Can- 

CARR,  LUCIEN.  The  food  of  certain  American  Indians,  and  their 
methods  of  preparing  it  (Worcester,  1895). 

In  Proceedings  of  Amer.  Antiquarian  Society,  vol.  x,  part  i. 

Dress  and  ornaments  of  certain  American  Indians  (Worcester, 


Id.,  vol.  xi,  381-454. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  311 

CARR,  LUCIEN.     The  Mascoutins. 

Proceedings  of  American  Antiquarian  Society,  vol.  xiv,  448-462. 

Mounds    of    the    Mississippi    Valley,    historically    considered 

(Frankfort,  1883). 

In  Memoirs  of  Geol.  Survey  of  Kentucky,  vol.  ii. 

CARVER,  JONATHAN.  Travels  through  the  interior  parts  of  North 
America,  1766-1768  (London,  1778).  Illustrated. 

An  account  of  travels  in  the  region  of  the  Great  Lakes  and  upper 
Mississippi  River;  it  obtained  great  favor  with  the  public,  appearing, 
during  some  eighty  years,  in  thirty  editions  and  reissues,  and  in  several 
foreign  languages.  Some  parts  of  this  narrative  are  plagiarized  from 
Hennepin,  Charlevoix,  and  other  early  writers,  a  fact  which  has  caused 
Carver's  veracity,  and  the  genuineness  of  his  account,  to  be  discredited  by 
some  critics  —  even  to  the  extent  of  supposing  him  to  be  illiterate,  and  in- 
capable of  writing  such  a  book.  The  controversy  is  summarized  by  John  T. 
Lee  in  his  "Bibliography  of  Carver's  Travels"  (Proceedings  of  Wis.  Hist. 
Soc.,  1909,  pp.  143-183)  ;  he  adduces  evidence  to  show  that  Carver  must 
have  been  the  author  of  the  Travels,  and  a  man  of  respectable  character  and 

CASEY,  M.  P.     Indian  contract  schools. 

In  Catholic  World,  Aug.,  1900. 

CASS,  LEWIS.  Considerations  on  the  present  state  of  the  Indians,  and 
their  removal  to  the  west  of  the  Mississippi. 

Remarks  on  the  policy  and  practice  of  the  United  States  and 

Great  Britain  in  their  treatment  of  the  Indians. 

These  articles  appeared  in  the  North  Amer.  Review,  January,  1830, 
and  April,  1827,  respectively. 

CATLIN,  GEORGE.  Illustrations  of  the  manners,  customs,  and  con- 
dition of  the  North  American  Indians,  with  letters  and  notes  writ- 
ten during  eight  years  of  travel  and  adventure,  tenth  edition  ( Lon- 
don, 1866).  2  vols.  Illustrated. 

A  work  of  prime  importance,  especially  as  it  shows  the  Indian  tribes  of 
the  west  and  south  at  a  time  (1832-1838)  when  they  still  retained  much  of 
their  primitive  mode  of  life.  Catlin  relates  his  adventures  while  traveling 
among  them,  and  adds  a  wealth  of  information  on  their  customs,  character, 
beliefs,  etc.  —  which  are  illustrated  by  three  hundred  and  sixty  drawings  from 
his  original  paintings. 

Adventures  of  the  Ojibbeway  and  loway  Indians  in  England, 

France,  and  Belgium,  third  edition  (London,  1852).     2  vols.  in  I. 

Catlin's  "notes  of  eight  years'  travels  and  residence  in  Europe  with  his 


North  American  Indian  collection"  —  which  contained  nearly  six  hundred 
paintings,  made  by  Catlin  during  eight  years'  residence  among  the  Indian 
tribes;  and  included,  besides  many  portraits,  pictures  of  scenery,  Indian  vil- 
lages, customs,  games,  religious  ceremonies,  etc.,  all  from  life;  a  catalogue 
of  these  appears  at  end  of  his  vol.  I.  Catlin  also  exhibited  in  Europe  many 
Indian  curios  —  robes,  weapons,  ornaments,  pipes,  cradles,  etc.  During  1845- 
1846,  he  acted  as  interpreter  and  guide  for  some  Indians  (thirty-five  in  all) 
who  had  been  carried  to  Europe  for  the  purpose  of  public  exhibition;  and 
here  he  describes  their  novel  experiences  and  the  traits  of  character  they 
displayed,  this  last  being  the  chief  value  of  his  book. 

CATON,  J.  D.  The  last  of  the  Illinois,  and  a  sketch  of  the  Potto- 
watomies  (Chicago,  1876). 

No.  3  of  Fergus  Historical  Series. 

CHAMBERLAIN,  ALEXANDER  F.  The  contributions  of  the  American 
Indian  to  civilization  (Worcester,  1904). 

In  Proceedings  of  Amer.  Antiquarian  Society,  vol.  xvi,  91-126. 

CHARLEVOIX,  PIERRE  F.  X.  DE.  Histoire  et  description  generale  de 
la  Nouvelle  France,  avec  le  Journal  Historique  d'un  voyage  fait 
par  ordre  du  roi  dans  1'Amerique  Septentrionnale  (Paris,  1744). 
3  vols. 

A  standard  authority  on  early  Canadian  history,  description  of  New 
France,  and  account  of  the  Indian  tribes  therein.  A  translation  of  this  val- 
uable work  was  made  by  John  G.  Shea,  with  many  excellent  and  scholarly 
annotations;  published  in  six  volumes  (New  York,  1866-1872).  A  reprint 
of  Shea's  edition  appeared  in  New  York,  1900,  edited  by  Noah  F.  Morrison. 

CHASE,  LEVI  B.     Early  Indian  trails  (Worcester,  1897). 

In  Collections  of  Worcester  Society  of  Antiquities,  vol.  xiv,  105-125. 
CHICAGO  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.     Collection  of  documents  relating  to 
the  early  history  of  Illinois.     Ms. 

A  very  large  and  valuable  collection  of  documents  (most  of  them  orig- 
inals) relating  to  the  history  of  the  northwest  territory,  and  chiefly  of 
Illinois.  Notable  among  these  are  the  papers  of  Gen.  Henry  Dearborn, 
Gov.  Ninian  Edwards,  John  Kinzie,  and  Pierre  Menard  (the  last  two, 
noted  Indian  traders)  ;  and  the  transcripts  from  early  records  of  Kaskaskia 
and  Fort  Chartres  churches.  Some  of  the  Edwards  papers  were  published 
in  vol.  iii  (1884)  of  the  Collections  of  this  society. 

CHIPPEWA  ALLOTMENTS  of  lands,  and  timber  contracts  (Washing- 
ton, 1889). 

Senate  Docs.,  Report  no.  2710,  soth  congress,  second  session.  Report  of 
"Select  Committee  on  Indian  Traders,"  containing  evidence,  documents,  etc., 
proving  gross  mismanagement,  abuses,  and  spoliation  in  the  affairs  of  the 
Chippewa  reservations  in  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota. 

CHOUTEAU,  AUGUSTE.     Papers  and  correspondence,  1787-1819.  Ms. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  313 

Chouteau  was  probably  the  most  enterprising  and  influential  of  the 
pioneer  fur-traders  in  the  Missouri  River  Valley,  and  closely  connected  with 
the  founding  of  St  Louis,  of  which  event  he  left  a  manuscript  account. 
The  documents  here  mentioned  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Mercantile 
Library,  St.  Louis. 

CHRISTIAN  JOURNAL,  1817-1830.     14  vols. 

Edited  by  Bishop  J.  H.  Hobart,  and  contains  numerous  papers  relating 
to  the  Oneida  Indians  of  Wisconsin. 

CLARK,  GEORGE  ROGERS.     Letters,  journals,  etc.,  1760-1859.     Ms. 
65  vols. 

This  highly  valuable  collection  of  manuscripts  is  in  the  possession  of 
the  Wisconsin  State  Historical  Society;  it  includes  many  early  original 
documents,  various  subsidiary  collections  of  papers,  and  a  great  deal  of 
correspondence  between  L.  C.  Draper  and  the  descendants  of  the  Western 
pioneers.  Much  of  this  matter  relates  to  Clark's  conquest  of  Illinois  (1778), 
and  his  campaigns,  soon  afterward,  to  St.  Louis  and  in  the  Wabash  country. 
A  selection  from  these  papers  is  announced  for  this  year  (1911),  in  three 
volumes,  edited  by  Prof.  J.  A.  James  of  Northwestern  University. 

CLARK,  W.  P.     The  Indian  sign  language  (Philadelphia,  1885). 

The  author,  an  army  officer,  spent  over  six  years  among  the  Indian  tribes, 
and  acquired  at  first-hand  the  sign  language  and  the  explanations  of  it 
made  by  the  Indians  themselves.  To  these  he  adds  much  valuable  infor- 
mation regarding  their  customs,  beliefs,  superstitions,  modes  of  life,  etc.; 
and  he  writes  in  a  spirit  of  appreciation  for  the  abilities  and  good  traits  of 
those  Indians  who  have  not  been  demoralized  by  contact  with  the  whites. 
He  makes  interesting  comparisons  between  the  Indian  sign  language  and 
that  taught  in  schools  for  deaf-mutes.  The  book  contains  a  map  showing 
the  Indian  reservations,  etc. 

CLARK,  WILLIAM.     Papers.     Ms.     29  vols. 

This  collection  of  documents  contains  the  records  of  Clark  and  his  suc- 
cessors in  the  office  of  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs  at  St.  Louis.  It  is  in 
the  possession  of  the  Kansas  Historical  Society. 

CLARKE,  PETER  DOOYENTATE.     Origin  and  traditional  history  of  the 
Wyandotts,  etc.,   (Toronto,  1870). 

In  this  little  volume  are  collected  the  traditions  of  Wyandott  (Huron) 
tribal  history  and  legend,  obtained  from  the  few  surviving  ancients  of  that 
people  by  the  author  (himself  a  Wyandott)  ;  and  much  of  this  material  is 
apparently  not  to  be  found  elsewhere. 

COLDEN,  CADWALLADER.     The  history  of  the  five  Indian  nations  de- 
pending on  the  province  of  New  York  (New  York,  1727). 

The  above  title  refers  only  to  Part  I  of  Colden's  work.  It  was  reprinted, 
but  in  a  garbled  form,  in  London,  1747  and  1750  — containing,  however, 
Part  n,  of  which  a  Ms.  copy  is  preserved  in  the  collections  of  the  N.Y. 
State  Historical  Society.  The  book  was  reprinted  (1866)  by  J.  G.  Shea. 


COLESON,  A.     Narrative  of  her  captivity  among  the  Sioux  Indians 

(Philadelphia,  1864). 
COLTON,  C.     Tour  of  the  American  lakes,  and  among  the  Indians  of 

the  Northwest  Territory,  in  1830  (London,  1833).     2  vols. 
[CONDITION  of  Indian  tribes  in  Montana  and  Dakota  (Washington, 

Senate  Report,  no.  283,  48th  congress,  first  session.  Report  of  a  "Select 
Committee  to  examine  into  the  condition  of  the  Sioux  and  Crow  Indians." 
Shows  the  destitution  then  prevailing  among  those  tribes,  and  calls  for 
government  aid  to  them;  also  scores  the  management  of  the  agency  stores. 

CONDITION  OF  THE  INDIAN  TRIBES  :  report  of  the  Joint  Special  Com- 
mittee appointed  under  joint  resolution  of  March  3,  1865  (Wash- 
ington, 1867). 

This  report  and  its  documentary  appendix  constitute  a  full  survey  of 
the  status  of  the  Indian  tribes  at  that  time.  The  committee  (J.  R.  Doolittle, 
chairman)  stated  that  the  Indian  population  was  rapidly  decreasing,  mainly 
through  disease,  vicious  habits,  and  the  loss  of  their  old-time  hunting 
grounds  —  all  these  causes  being  in  large  measure  traceable  to  the  encroach- 
ments, bad  influence,  and  whiskey  of  the  whites.  The  committee  recom- 
mended that  the  Indian  Bureau  be  retained  in  the  Department  of  the 
Interior;  and  that  more  efficient  government  control  and  inspection  be  pro- 
vided for  Indian  affairs. 

sessions  1-16.  1875-1910.  Illustrated. 

The  sessions  of  this  learned  body  have  been  held  biennially  at  various 
places  since  1875  (at  Nancy),  the  last  one  whose  proceedings  are  yet  pub- 
lished being  at  Vienna  (1908).  These  volumes  contain  many  articles  re- 
lating to  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  central  United  States.  Among  these  may 
be  noted:  Various  articles  on  the  mound-builders  (second  session,  Luxem- 
burg) ;  Algic  cosmogony  (third  session,  Brussels)  ;  "sacred  hunts"  of  the 
Indians  (eighth  session,  Paris)  ;  "Contributions  of  American  archaeology  to 
human  history"  (fourteenth  session,  Stuttgart)  ;  two  papers  on  the  Indians 
of  the  Mississippi,  and  one  on  customs  and  rites  of  the  Iowa  Foxes  (fif- 
teenth session,  Quebec)  ;  "Types  of  dwellings  and  their  distribution  in 
Central  North  America"  (sixteenth  session,  Vienna).  The  seventeenth 
session  was  held  at  Mexico  City,  September,  1910. 

COPWAY,  GEORGE.  The  traditional  history  and  characteristic  sketches 
of  the  Ojibway  nation  (London,  1850;  Boston,  1851).  Illus- 

The  author  (an  Ojibwa  chief,  his  Indian  name  Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh) 
states  that  he  has  resided  "six  years  among  the  pale-faces,"  and  has  attended 
school,  twenty  months  in  all,  in  Illinois.  He  recounts  the  traditions  and 
legends  of  his  people,  describes  their  customs,  beliefs,  character,  etc.  ;  and 
shows  their  condition  under  British  and  American  domination. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  315 

COPWAY,  GEORGE.  The  organization  of  an  Indian  territory  east  of 
the  Missouri  River  (New  York,  1850). 

Copway  urged  Congress  to  erect  a  new  Indian  Territory,  which  should 
improve  upon  the  old  one  by  being  set  aside  for  northern  bands  only,  and 
by  providing  at  the  outset  for  Indian  self-government. 

CORRESPONDENCE  on  the  subject  of  the  emigration  of  Indians,  1831- 
1833  (Washington,  1834).  5  vols. 

This  is  found  in  Senate  Documents,  vols.  vii-xi,  23rd  congress,  first  ses- 
sion (1833-1834). 

COUES,  ELLIOTT.  The  fur-bearing  animals  of  North  America  (Bos- 
ton, 1877). 

CULIN,  STEWART.  American  Indian  games  (Washington,  1905). 

In  Report  of  Bureau  Amer.  Ethnology,  1902-1903. 

CURTIS,  EDWARD  S.  The  North  American  Indian  (New  York,  1907- 
— ).  20  vols.,  each  accompanied  by  a  portfolio  of  supplementary 

This  magnificent  work  (first  begun  in  1898)  well  carries  out  the  author's 
aim,  to  present  a  true  picture  of  Indian  life  in  its  natural  surroundings  and 
primitive,  homely  phases  —  especially  in  view  of  the  rapid  and  often  de- 
structive changes  therein  which  are  taking  place  throughout  the  continent. 
The  illustrations  (most  of  which  are  20x24  inches  in  size)  are  from  photo- 
graphs made  by  Curtis  during  his  residence  among  the  various  tribes,  and 
they  are  unusually  accurate  and  artistic.  They  are  accompanied  by  descrip- 
tive text  and  account  of  the  author's  experiences  among  the  Indians,  with 
which  is  combined  much  historical  and  ethnological  information.  He  also 
records  many  Indian  myths,  related  to  him  by  the  elders  of  the  tribes,  and 
much  about  their  rites  and  ceremonies.  The  work  is  an  interesting  revela- 
tion of  Indian  life  and  character. 

CURTIS,  NATALIE,  editor.  The  Indians'  book;  an  offering  by  the 
American  Indians  of  Indian  lore,  musical  and  narrative,  to  form  a 
record  of  the  songs  and  legends  of  their  race  ( New  York  and  Lon- 
don, 1907).  Illustrated,  chiefly  from  drawings  made  by  Indians. 
Contains  Indian  songs,  with  original  native  music  and  words,  English 
translation,  and  explanatory  notes;  some  twenty  tribes  are  thus  represented, 
of  whom  the  Winnebago  and  Dakota  (and  indirectly  the  Abenaki)  belong 
to  the  subject  of  the  present  work.  A  valuable  contribution  to  the  literature 
of  the  Indians'  higher  life. 

[CUTLER,  JERVIS.]  A  topographical  description  of  the  state  of  Ohio, 
Indiana  Territory,  and  Louisiana  (Boston,  1812). 

"Comprehending  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  Rivers,  and  their  principal 
tributary  streams;  the  face  of  the  country  .  .  .  and  a  concise  account 
of  the  Indian  tribes  west  of  the  Mississippi."  By  a  U.S.  army  officer. 


DAVIDSON,  ALEXANDER,  and  Bernard  Stuve.  A  complete  history  of 
Illinois,  1673-1873  (Springfield,  111.,  1874). 

DAVIDSON,  J.  N.  In  unnamed  Wisconsin:  studies  in  the  history  of 
the  region  between  Lake  Michigan  and  the  Mississippi  (Mil- 
waukee, 1895). 

DAVIS,  ANDREW  M.     Indian  games. 

In  Bulletin  of  Essex  Institute,  vol.  xvii,  89-144. 

DELLENBAUGH,  FREDERICK  S.  The  North-Americans  of  yesterday: 
a  comparative  study  of  North-American  Indian  life,  customs,  and 
products,  on  the  theory  of  the  ethnic  unity  of  the  race  ( New  York, 
1901).  Illustrated. 

A  valuable  and  scholarly  work,  presenting  the  results  of  recent  research 
in  the  languages,  industries,  mode  of  life,  customs,  beliefs,  government, 
history,  etc.,  of  the  North  American  tribes ;  contains  a  list  of  these,  with  the 
respective  stocks  to  which  they  belong.  Both  text  and  the  numerous  fine 
illustrations  are  based  largely  on  material  in  the  Bureau  of  American 

DENSMORE,  FRANCES.  Chippewa  music  (Washington,  1910).  Il- 

A  collection  of  songs,  both  ritual  and  social,  in  all  numbering  two 
hundred;  the  Indian  words  and  English  translation,  with  music,  and  full 
description  of  rites,  customs,  etc.  This  is  Bulletin  45  of  the  Bureau  of  Amer. 

DILLON,  JOHN  B.     Decline  of  the  Miami  nation. 

In  Publications  of  Indiana  Historical  Society,  vol.  i,  121-143. 
DODGE,  CHARLES  R.     A  descriptive  catalogue  of  useful  fiber  plants 
of  the  world,  including  the  structural  and  economic  classifications 
of  fibers  (Washington,  1897). 

Published  by  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

DODGE,  RICHARD  IRVING.  Our  wild  Indians :  thirty-three  years'  per- 
sonal experience  among  the  red  men  of  the  Great  West  (Hartford, 
Conn.,  1883).  Illustrated. 

An  interesting  record  of  Indian  customs  and  character,  by  an  army 
officer;  highly  commended  by  his  superior,  Gen.  W.  T.  Sherman,  who 
nevertheless  dissents  from  Dodge's  estimate  of  Indian  character.  The  author 
advocates  military  rather  than  civilian  control  for  the  tribes. 

DOMINION  OF  CANADA.  Report  concerning  Canadian  archives  (Ot- 
tawa, 1872-1910+). 

These  reports  contain  many  calendars  of  documents  contained  in  the 
Dominion  archives,  and  are  indispensable  to  the  student  of  Canadian  history. 
Many  of  those  documents  relate  to  Indian  affairs. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  317 

DONALDSON,  THOMAS.  The  George  Catlin  Indian  gallery  in  the 
United  States  National  Museum;  with  memoir  and  statistics 
(Washington,  1885).  Illustrated. 

In  Report  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  1885,  part  ii.  A  catalogue  of  the 
paintings  and  curios  in  the  great  Catlin  collection^  which  was  transferred 
to  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  1879-1881.  The  pictures  are  arranged  under 
the  tribal  names,  each  accompanied  by  extracts  (narrative  or  descriptive) 
from  Catlin's  own  books,  an  outline  drawing  from  the  same  source,  and 
much  additional  information  furnished  by  Donaldson  as  editor. 

The  Six  Nations  of  New  York  (Washington,  1892).     Illus- 

An  Extra  Bulletin,  Eleventh  Census  of  the  U.S.  A  valuable  account  of 
the  Iroquois  people  in  modern  times,  presenting  not  only  statistics  of  popu- 
lation and  property,  but  observations  on  their  character,  government,  social 
conditions,  mode  of  life,  etc.  Well  illustrated  with  maps,  portraits,  etc. 

DORMAN,  RUSHTON  M.  The  origin  of  primitive  superstitions,  and 
their  development  into  the  worship  of  spirits,  and  the  doctrine  of 
spiritual  agency,  among  the  aborigines  of  America  (Philadelphia, 

DORSEY,  J.  OWEN.     Migrations  of  Siouan  tribes. 
In  Amer.  Naturalist,  vol.  xx,  211-222. 

[Papers  on  "Omaha  sociology,"  "Siouan  sociology,"  "A  study 

of  Siouan  cults."] 

In  Reports  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology:  1881-1882,  pp.  311-370; 
1893-1894,  pp.  205-244;  1889-1890,  pp.  xliii-xlvii,  351-544,  respectively. 

DRAKE,  BENJAMIN.  Life  of  Tecumseh,  and  of  his  brother  the  Pro- 
phet, with  a  historical  sketch  of  the  Shawanoe  Indians  (Cincin- 
nati, 1841). 

A  plain  narrative,  based  on  letters  written  by  Gen.  Harrison  to  the  War 
Department  in  1809-1813,  interviews  with  old  pioneers,  etc.  Another  edi- 
tion was  issued  in  1852. 

DRAKE,  FRANCIS  S.  The  Indian  tribes  of  the  United  States  (Phila- 
delphia, 1884).  2  vols.  Illustrated. 

DRAKE,  SAMUEL  G.  Biography  and  history  of  the  Indians  of  North 
America  (Boston,  1832).  Illustrated. 

A  popular  work,  but  compiled  from  the  best  authorities  of  Drake's  time. 
Other  titles,  used  in  some  editions,  were:  "The  book  of  the  Indians,"  and 
"Aboriginal  races  of  North  America."  Later  editions  contain  many  ad- 
ditions and  corrections.  A  revision  of  the  fifteenth  (Phila.,  1860)  was 
issued  in  1880  (New  York). 


DUNN,  JACOB  P.  Indiana,  a  redemption  from  slavery  (Boston, 

In  Amer.  Commonwealths  series.  This  is  a  new  and  enlarged  edition 
of  his  book  first  published  in  1888.  The  author  is  secretary  of  the  Indiana 
Historical  Society,  and  a  trained  and  careful  investigator. 

True  Indian  stories,  with  glossary  of  Indiana  Indian  names 

(Indianapolis,  1908). 

Narratives  of  military  and  other  events  in  early  Indiana  history,  re- 
lating to  the  Indians,  and  accounts  of  their  leading  chiefs. 

EASTMAN,  CHARLES  A.  Indian  boyhood  (New  York,  1902).  Il- 

An  interesting  picture  of  Indian  boys'  life,  as  it  records  the  experiences 
and  impressions  of  the  writer  (a  Sioux  Indian)  in  boyhood  and  early 

The  soul  of  the  Indian:  an  interpretation  (Boston,  1911). 

The  author,  writing  as  an  Indian,  aims  "to  paint  the  religious  life  of 
the  typical  American  Indian  as  it  was  before  he  knew  the  white  man."  A 
valuable  contribution  to  our  data  for  a  real  understanding  of  the  Indian 

EASTMAN,  CHARLES  A.  (Ohiyesa)  and  Elaine  Goodale.  Sioux 
folk  tales  retold  (Boston,  1909).  Illustrated. 

EASTMAN,  MARY  H.  The  American  aboriginal  portfolio  (Phila- 
delphia, [1853]).  Illustrated. 

Descriptive  sketches  of  Indian  life  and  customs,  accompanied  by  hand- 
some steel  engravings  from  drawings  by  Capt.  S.  Eastman,  U.S.A.  (ap- 
parently the  same  plates  as  those  in  SchoolcrafVs  Indian  Tribes). 

Chicora,  and  other  regions  of  the  conquerors  and  the  conquered 

(Philadelphia,  1854).     Illustrated. 

Sketches  of  Indian  life,  beliefs,  etc. 

Dahcotah,  or,  life  and  legends  of  the  Sioux  around  Fort  Snel- 

ling  (New  York,  1849).     Illustrated. 

Written  from  intimate  knowledge  and  direct  observation  of  the  Sioux 
Indians,  who  related  many  of  their  legends  to  the  author  (whose  father 
and  husband  were  army  officers  in  the  Northwest) . 

EDWARDS,  NINIAN  W.  History  of  Illinois  from  1778  to  1833,  and 
life  and  times  of  Ninian  Edwards  (Springfield,  111.,  1870). 

Contains  full  account  of  the  Black  Hawk  War,  and  many  letters  from 
high  officials  to  Gov.  Edwards. 

EGGLESTON,  EDWARD,  and  L.  E.  Seelye.  Tecumseh  and  the  Shaw- 
nee  prophet  (New  York,  1878).  Illustrated. 

Also  includes  sketches  of  Indian  chiefs  and  American  officers  famous  in 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  319 

the  frontier  wars  of  Tecumseh's  time.  A  popular  narrative,  but  based  on 
reliable  authorities. 

ELLIS,  GEORGE  E.  The  red  man  and  the  white  man  in  North  Amer- 
ica (Boston,  1882). 

Discusses  traits  of  character  of  the  Indians,  their  relations  with  the  white 
people,  missions,  our  policy  toward  the  red  men,  their  capacity  for  civiliza- 
tion, etc. 

EMERSON,  ELLEN  RUSSELL.  Indian  myths,  or  legends,  traditions, 
and  symbols  of  the  aborigines  of  America  compared  with  those  of 
other  countries  (Boston,  1884).  Illustrated. 

A  valuable  work,  showing  much  research  and  learning. 

EVARTS,  JEREMIAH.  Essays  on  the  present  crisis  in  the  condition  of 
the  American  Indians  (Boston,  1829). 

"These  essays,  twenty-four  in  number,  were  first  published  in  the 
National  Intelligencer  under  the  pseudonym  of  'William  Penn.'  They  con- 
stitute a  very  fine  exposition  of  the  wrongs  committed  against  the  Indians 
and  bear  few  traces  of  having  been  written  from  the  absolutely  missionary 
point  of  view."  — ABEL. 

,  editor.  Speeches  on  the  passage  of  the  bill  for  the  removal  of 

the  Indians,  delivered  in  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  April- 
May,  1830  (Boston,  1830). 

FARRAND,  LIVINGSTON.  Basis  of  American  history,  15001900  (New 
York,  1904).  Illustrated. 

This  is  volume  II  of  The  American  Nation',  a  history  (Albert  B.  Hart, 

FEATHERSTONHAUGH,  G.  W.  A  canoe  voyage  up  the  Minnay  Sotor 
(London,  1847).  2  vols. 

FIELD  COLUMBIAN  MUSEUM.  Publications:  anthropological  series 
(Chicago,  1895-1905).  Vols.  i-ix. 

FIELD,  THOMAS  W.  An  essay  towards  an  Indian  bibliography,  be- 
ing a  catalogue  of  books  relating  to  the  history,  antiquities,  lan- 
guages, customs,  religion,  war,  literature,  and  origin  of  the  Amer- 
ican Indians,  in  the  library  of  Thomas  W.  Field  (New  York, 


FILLMORE,  JOHN  C.     The  harmonic  structure  of  Indian  music. 

In  Amer.  Anthropologist,  new  series,  vol.  i,  297-318.  The  author  was  a 
professional  musician,  of  long  experience  and  fine  taste. 

A  study  of  Omaha  Indian  music     .     .     .     with  a  report  on  the 

structural  peculiarities  of  the  music  (Cambridge,  1893). 

This  paper,  with  another  on  Omaha  music  by  Alice  C.  Fletcher,  ap- 
peared in  Archaeological  and  Ethnological  Papers  of  Peabody  Museum,  vol.  i, 
no.  5. 


FINLEY,  JAMES  B.  Life  among  the  Indians;  or,  personal  reminis- 
cences and  historical  incidents  illustrative  of  Indian  life  and  char- 
acter (Cincinnati,  1868). 

Written  by  a  Methodist  missionary  among  the  Indians,  chiefly  the 
Wyandotts;  contains  much  regarding  the  history  of  this  tribe  and  others  in 
their  relations  with  the  whites,  from  1800  on. 

History  of  the  Wyandott  mission  at  Upper  Sandusky,  Ohio 

(Cincinnati,  1840). 

FLETCHER,  ALICE  C.  A  study  of  the  Omaha  tribe:  the  import  of  the 

In  Report  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  1897,  pp.  577-586. 

Indian  education  and  civilization  (Washington,  1888). 

Published  in  Ex.  Docs.  no.  95,  48th  congress,  second  session.  A  special 
report  from  the  Bureau  of  Education;  reviews  missionary  and  educational 
work  among  the  Indians  from  the  earliest  of  such  enterprises  to  the  time  of 
this  report;  gives  abstracts  of  treaties  with  the  tribe,  and  description,  sta- 
tistics, and  other  valuable  data  for  each  of  the  Indian  reservations.  A  con- 
densed and  excellent  book  of  reference  for  the  subject 

Indian  song  and  story  from  North  America  (Boston,  1900). 

"Contains  the  music  of  the  ghost,  love,  and  other  songs  in  the  Omaha 
language."  Miss  Fletcher  has  made  a  specialty  of  Indian  music,  and  has 
spent  many  years  in  the  study  of  some  of  the  plains  tribes. 

FORSYTH,  THOMAS.  Letter-books,  memoirs,  etc.,  1804-1833.  Ms. 
9  vols. 

These  papers  and  books  are  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical 
Society.  They  are  all  original  documents  (save  two  letter-books,  which  are 
transcripts  from  the  originals),  and  concern  the  affairs  of  Forsyth's  agency 
at  Rock  Island  (1812-1830),  the  fur-trade,  and  the  Indian  tribes  of  that 
region ;  they  include  many  letters  from  William  Clark  and  Gov.  Ninian 
Edwards,  and  much  official  correspondence,  besides  the  two  memoirs  (by 
Forsyth  and  Marston)  reproduced  in  the  present  volume. 

FOWKE,  GERARD.  Archaeological  history  of  Ohio :  the  mound-builders 
and  later  Indians  (Columbus,  1902). 

Stone  art  (Washington,  1896). 

In  Report  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  1891-1892,  pp.  47-178. 
FRAZER,  J.  G.     Totemism  (Edinburgh,  1887). 
FROBENIUS,  LEO.     The  childhood  of  man:  a  popular  account  of  the 

lives,  customs,  and  thoughts  of  the  primitive  races  (Philadelphia, 

1909).     Illustrated. 

Based  on  the  latest  authorities,  and  shows  extensive  research.  This 
edition  is  a  translation  from  the  German  by  the  well-known  ethnographer, 
A.  H.  Keane. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  321 

FULTON,  A.  R.  The  red  men  of  Iowa  (Des  Moines,  la.,  1882). 

A  history  of  the  Indian  tribes  who  resided  in  Iowa;  sketches  of  chiefs; 
traditions,  etc.;  a  general  account  of  the  Indian  tribes  and  wars  of  the 
Northwest;  etc.  The  material  was  obtained  from  writings  of  local  his- 
torians, interviews  with  pioneers,  etc. 

GALE,  GEORGE.  The  Upper  Mississippi :  or  historical  sketches  of  the 
mound-builders,  the  Indian  tribes,  and  the  progress  of  civilization 
in  the  Northwest;  from  A.D.  1600  to  the  present  time  (Chicago, 

GALLATIN,  ALBERT.  A  synopsis  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  North  Amer- 

In  Transactions  and  Collections  of  the  Amer.  Antiquarian  Society,  1838, 
vol.  ii. 

GANNETT,  HENRY.     A  gazetteer  of  Indian  Territory  (Washington, 


Issued  as  Bulletin,  no.  248  of  the  U.S.  Geological  Survey. 
GARLAND,  HAMLIN.     The  red  men's  present  needs. 

in  North  American  Review,  April,  1902. 
GERARD,  W.  R.     Plant  names  of  Indian  origin  (New  York,  1896). 

In  Garden  and  Forest,  vol.  ix. 

GREEN  BAY  AND  PRAIRIE  DU  CHIEN  PAPERS.     Ms.    99  vols. 

Of  similar  character  to  the  "Grignon,  Lawe,  and  Porlier  Papers,"  ex- 
cept that  they  relate  to  the  regions  of  both  Green  Bay  and  Prairie  du  Chien. 
They  were  obtained  from  the  estates  of  Morgan  L.  Martin,  Green  Bay 
(one  of  the  most  prominent  among  the  early  American  pioneers  in  Wis- 
consin), and  Hercules  L.  Dousman,  of  Prairie  du  Chien,  a  leading  fur- 
trader  (for  some  years  a  representative  of  the  American  Fur  Company). 
This  collection  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society. 

GRIFFIN,  A.  P.  C.  List  of  references  on  the  relations  of  the  Indians 
to  the  U.S.  government  (Washington,  1902).  Ms. 

In  library  of  Wisconsin  State  Historical  Society. 
GRIGNON,  LAWE,  and  Porlier  Papers,  1712-1873.     Ms.     65  vols. 

This  collection,  consisting  of  letters,  accounts,  legal  documents,  etc., 
which  had  accumulated  for  a  century  and  a  half  in  the  possession  of  the 
families  bearing  the  above  names,  who  were  the  chief  factors  in  the  fur-trade 
that  centered  in  or  passed  through  Green  Bay,  Wis.,  is  now  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society.  "A  miscellaneous  and  highly 
valuable  collection  of  letters  and  varied  documents  both  in  French  and 
English  —  social,  commercial,  ecclesiastical,  political,  and  military  —  throwing 
a  flood  of  light  on  the  early  history  of  the  region  ranging  from  Mackinac 
to  the  upper  Mississippi,  and  between  Lake  Superior  and  the  Illinois  coun- 
try." -  THWAITES. 


GARNEAU,  F.  X.     Histoire  du  Canada  depuis  sa  decouverte  jusqu'a 
nos  jours  (Montreal,  1882). 

The  above  is  the  fourth  edition.  An  English  translation,  annotated, 
was  published  by  Andrew  Bell,  third  edition  (Montreal,  1866). 

HADDON,  ALFRED  C.     The  study  of  man  (New  York,  1898).     Il- 

Treats  of  measurements  and  head-form  in  anthropology,  the  origin  of 
some  primitive  vehicles,  and  the  sources  of  various  games  and  other  amuse- 

HAILMANN,  WILLIAM  N.     Education  of  the  Indian    (St.  Louis, 

No.  19  of  Monographs  on  Education  in  U.S.,  issued  by  the  educational 
department  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition. 

HAINES,  ELIJAH  M.     The  American  Indian  (Chicago,  1888).     Il- 

A  popular  cyclopedia  of  Indian  ethnology;  includes  also  chapters  on 
relations  between  the  red  men  and  the  whites,  the  history  of  the  "Order  of 
Red  Men,"  Indian  vocabularies,  and  the  meaning  of  Indian  geographical 
names;  is  based  on  the  works  of  standard  authorities. 

HALE,  HORATIO.     Hiawatha  and  the  Iroquois  confederation :  a  study 

in  anthropology  (Salem,  1881). 
Indian  migrations  as  evidenced  by  language,  comprising  the 

Huron-Cherokee,  Dakota,  and  other  stocks  (Chicago,  1883). 
,  editor.     The  Iroquois  Book  of  Rites  (Philadelphia,  1883). 

From  Ms.  records  made  by  the  Indians  themselves,  containing  the  rituals 
used  in  their  council  meetings;  Hale  (who  was  an  accomplished  linguist 
and  ethnologist)  copied  and  translated,  with  the  assistance  of  the  most 
learned  Iroquois  chiefs,  these  rituals  —  to  which  he  has  added  glossary,  anno- 
tations, etc.,  and  a  critical  introduction  describing  the  organization,  govern- 
ment and  laws,  traditions,  character,  policy,  and  language  of  the  Iroquois 

HARRISON,  J.  B.     The  latest  studies  on  Indian  reservations  (Phila- 
delphia, 1887). 

Published  by  the  Indian  Rights  Association. 

HARRISON,  WILLIAM  H.     Aborigines  of  the  Ohio  Valley  (Chicago, 

No.  26  of  Fergus  Hist.  Series.  This  book  also  contains  speeches  by 
Miami  chiefs  in  a  council  at  Ft.  Wayne,  Sept.  4,  1811;  and  an  account  (from 
a  Ms.)  of  the  history,  customs,  etc.,  of  the  Northwestern  Indians. 

HARSHBERGER,    J.    W.     Maize:    a   botanical   and   economic   study 
(Philadelphia,  1893). 

Contributions  of  Botanical  Laboratory  of  Univ.  Pennsylvania,  vol.  i,  no.  2. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  323 

HARVEY,  HENRY.     History  of  the  Shawnee  Indians,  from  the  year 
1 68 1  to  1854,  inclusive  (Cincinnati,  1855). 

The  author  was  sent  by  the  Society  of  Friends  as  a  missionary  among 
the  Shawnees,  and  was  with  that  tribe  when  they  were  obliged  to  surrender 
their  homes  and  lands  in  Ohio  (1832). 

HEARD,  ISAAC  V.  D.     History  of  the  Sioux  war  and  massacres  of 
1862  and  1863  (New  York,  1865).     Illustrated. 

Written  by  a  member  of  Sibley's  expedition  against  the  Sioux  in  1862, 
from  first-hand  sources  of  various  kinds. 

HEBBERD,  S.  S.     History  of  Wisconsin  under  the  dominion  of  France 
(Madison,  Wis.,  1890). 

HENNEPIN,  Louis.     Description  de  la  Louisiane.     .     .     Les  moeurs 
et  la  maniere  de  vivre  des  sauvages  (Paris,  1683). 

A  translation  of  this  work,  with  annotations,  by  J.  G.  Shea,  was  pub- 
lished at  New  York  in  1880.  A  reprint  of  the  English  edition  of  1698, 
edited  by  R.  G.  Thwaites,  with  numerous  annotations,  was  issued  in  1903, 
at  Chicago. 

HEWITT,  J.  N.  B.     Iroquois  cosmogony  (Washington,  1903). 

In  Report  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  1899-1900. 
HODGE,   FREDERICK  W.,   editor.     Handbook  of  American   Indians 

north  of  Mexico:  parts  I  and  2  (Washington,  1907  and  1910). 


This  is  Bulletin  no.  30,  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology.  This  great  work  — 
actually  begun  in  1885,  and  its  central  idea  conceived  in  1873  —  forms  a 
most  valuable  Indian  cyclopedia.  It  has  been  prepared  by  the  trained 
specialists  of  the  Bureau,  aided  by  others  from  the  various  government 
bureaus  and  the  great  museums  of  the  country;  and  it  represents  the  latest 
data  and  the  most  reliable  conclusions  thus  far  reached  by  experts  in  Amer- 
ican ethnology  and  archaeology.  "It  has  been  the  aim,"  says  its  editor,  "to 
give  a  brief  description  of  every  linguistic  stock,  confederacy,  tribe,  sub- 
tribe,  or  tribal  subdivision,  and  settlement  known  to  history  or  even  to 
tradition,  as  well  as  the  origin  and  derivation  of  every  name  treated,  when- 
ever such  is  known."  These  tribal  descriptions  (including  history,  location, 
population,  etc.)  are  followed  by  full  bibliographical  references  to  authori- 
ties for  each  variant  of  the  tribal  name.  Special  subjects,  such  as  "Dreams 
and  visions,"  "Food,"  "Pueblos,"  "War,"  are  fully  discussed  by  expert 
writers;  and  biographical  sketches  of  noted  Indians  are  furnished.  At  the 
end  is  a  synonymy  of  all  the  names  and  variants  mentioned  in  the  articles 
on  tribes;  and  a  full  bibliography  of  printed  books  and  other  sources.  These 
occupy  respectively  one  hundred  and  fifty-eight  and  forty-three  pages  of 
fine  type,  giving  the  information  in  the  shortest  form  possible;  and  both 
these  features  will  be  prized  for  reference  by  students. 

HOFFMAN,    WALTER    J.     The    Menomini    Indians    (Washington, 
1896).     Illustrated. 


A  valuable  monograph  on  that  tribe,  written  by  a  careful  and  trained 
ethnologist;  he  treats,  with  much  detail,  their  history,  government,  cult 
societies,  myths,  and  folk-tales,  games  and  dances,  dwellings  and  furniture, 
industries  and  occupations,  food,  etc.  An  extensive  vocabulary  of  their 
language  is  added  at  the  close.  In  the  fourteenth  Report  of  Bureau  of 
Amer.  Ethnology. 

HOFFMAN,  WALTER  J.     The  Mide'wiwin  or  "grand  medicine  socie- 
ty" of  the  Ojibwa  (Washington,  1891). 

In  Report  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  1885-1886,  pp.  149-300.  This 
paper  is  of  special  interest  as  describing  the  proceedings  and  ceremonies  of 
an  Indian  secret  society. 

HOLMES,  W.  H.     Aboriginal  pottery  of  the  eastern  United  States 
(Washington,  1903). 

In  Report  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  1898-1899.  Other  archaeologi- 
cal papers  by  Holmes  concerning  the  field  of  this  work  are  published  in 
the  second,  third,  fourth,  sixth,  and  thirteenth  of  the  Bureau's  Reports. 

Sacred  pipestone  quarries  of  Minnesota,  and  ancient  copper  mines 

of  Lake  Superior. 

In  Proceedings  of  Amer.  Assoc.  for  Advancement  of  Science,  1892,  pp. 

,  and  others.     Arrows  and  arrow-makers :  a  symposium. 

In  Amer.  Anthropologist,  vol.  iv,  45-74. 

HORNADAY,  WILLIAM  F.     The  extermination  of  the  American  bison, 
with  a  sketch  of  its  discovery  and  life  history. 

In  Report  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  1887,  part  ii,  pp.  367-548. 
HOUGH,  FRANKLIN  B.,  editor.     Proceedings  of  the  commissioners 
of  Indian  affairs,  appointed  by  law  for  the  extinguishment  of  In- 
dian titles  in  the  state  of  New  York  (Albany,  1861). 

"Published  from  the  original  manuscript  in  the  library  of  the  Albany 

HOUGH,  WALTER.     Fire-making  apparatus  in  the  United  States  Na- 
tional Museum  (Washington,  1890). 
In  Report  U.S.  National  Museum,  1888. 

HOY,  P.  R.     How  and  by  whom  were  the  copper  implements  made? 
(Racine,  1886). 

HULBERT,  ARCHER  B.     The  historic  highways  of  America  (Cleve- 
land, 1902-1903).     1 6  vols.     Illustrated. 

This  series  undertakes  to  show  the  intimate  connection  of  America's 
history  and  development  with  the  highways  and  waterways  which  connected 
the  seaboard  with  the  vast  interior  of  this  continent  —  traced  successively  by 
.herds  of  buffalo,  by  Indian  trade  and  migration,  and  by  white  pioneers, 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  325 

and  followed  in  later  years  by  the  great  transcontinental  railroads.  The 
following  volumes  are  those  of  special  interest  for  students  of  Indian  his- 
tory: I,  "Paths  of  the  mound-buildings  Indians  and  great  game  animals;" 
II,  "Indian  thoroughfares;"  and  vii,  "Portage  paths:  the  keys  to  the  conti- 

HUNTER,  JOHN  DUNN.     Manners  and  customs  of  several  Indian 
tribes  located  west  of  the  Mississippi  (Philadelphia,  1823). 

Contains  biographical  sketch  of  the  author,  and  account  of  his  captivity 
among  the  Kickapoo  Indians;  description  of  Missouri  and  Arkansas  ter- 
ritories, and  their  products;  account  of  customs,  mode  of  life,  industries, 
character,  etc.,  of  Indians  therein;  and  chapters  on  their  materia  medica, 
and  practice  of  surgery  and  medicine. 

The  Indian  sketch-book  (Cincinnati,  1852). 

ILLINOIS   STATE    HISTORICAL   LIBRARY.      Collections    (Springfield, 
1906-1910+).     Illustrated. 

These  publications  contain  valuable  original  documents  relating  to  the 
early  history  of  Illinois,  ably  edited  by  experienced  and  scholarly  investi- 
gators. The  "Virginia  Series"  is  useful  for  readers  interested  in  the 
French  element  of  Illinois  history,  and  in  the  Indians;  it  includes  "Cahokia 
records,  1778-1790,"  "Kaskaskia  records"  (for  the  same  period),  and  "George 
Rogers  Clark  papers"  — the  last  to  be  published  (1911)  in  three  volumes. 

ILLINOIS  STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.     Transactions    (Springfield, 

Journal   (Springfield,  1908-1911+). 

INDIAN  AFFAIRS.     Report  on  the  fur  trade  (Washington,  1828). 
In  Senate  Committee  Reports,  2oth  congress,  second  session. 

Information  in  relation  to  the  Superintendency  of  Indina  Affairs 

in  the  Territory  of  Michigan,  1820-1821  (Washington,  1822). 

Contains  accounts  of  Lewis  Cass  as  superintendent,  letters  by  him  relat- 
ing to  the  Indian  tribes,  etc. 

INDIAN  AFFAIRS,  OFFICE  OF  (War  Department).     Reports  (Wash- 
ington, 1825-1848). 

(Department  of  the  Interior).     Report  of  the  Commissioner 

(Washington,  1849-1910+). 

Both  these  series  constitute  an  official  record  of  Indian  affairs,  of  prime 

Records.    Ms. 

These  date  from  1800  only,  as  in  that  year  the  earlier  records  were 
destroyed  by  fire;  and  since  then  various  injuries  and  losses  have  occurred 
through  removals,  lack  of  proper  facilities  for  their  care,  etc.  Still,  they 
constitute  the  most  important  materials  extant  for  study  of  Indian  history 
and  affairs  -  in  which  much  aid  is  rendered  by  the  description  of  these  rec- 


ords  contained  in  Van  Tyne  and  Leland's  Guide  to  the  Archives,  second 
edition    (Washington,  1908),  pp.  205-209. 

INDIAN  BIOGRAPHY.  [Chronological  list  of  famous  American  In- 
dians, with  biographies.] 

In  National  Cyclopedia  of  American  Biography,  index  vol.,  p.  169. 

INDIAN  BOARD  for  the  emigration,  preservation,  and  improvement  of 
the  aborigines  of  America.  Documents  and  proceedings  relating 
to  the  formation  and  progress  of  a  board  [for  the  purpose  above 
stated],  (New  York,  1829). 

INDIAN  COMMISSIONERS,  BOARD  OF.  Annual  reports  (Washington, 

Journal  of  the  second  annual  conference  with  the  representatives 

of  the  religious  societies  cooperating  with  the  government,  and  re- 
ports of  their  work  among  the  Indians  (Washington,  1873). 

INDIANS,  LAWS  RELATING  TO.  Laws  of  the  colonial  and  state  govern- 
ments, relating  to  Indians  and  Indian  affairs,  1633-1831  (Wash- 
ington, 1832). 

A  compilation  from  the  revised  statutes  of  the  United  States; 

and  acts  of  Congress     .     .     .     relating  to  Indian  affairs,  not  em- 
braced in  or  repealed  by  the  revision  of  the  United  States  statutes 
(Washington,  1875). 

[INDIAN  POLICY  of  the  Government.  Various  articles  in  reviews  and 
magazines,  1874-1882.] 

In  Presbyterian  Quarterly  and  Princeton  Review,  July,  1875,  Jan-  and 
Oct.,  1876;  Catholic  World,  Oct.  and  Nov.,  1877,  Oct.,  1881;  Methodist 
Quarterly  Review,  July,  1877;  Nation,  July  20,  1876,  Sept.  6,  1877,  July  4 
and  Nov.  28,  1878,  June  30,  1881;  North  Amer.  Review,  March,  1879,  July, 
1881,  March,  1882;  Penn.  Monthly,  March,  1879,  Oct.,  1880;  International 
Review,  June,  1879;  Harper's  Magazine,  April,  1878,  April,  1881;  Catholic 
Presbyterian,  April,  1881,  Feb.,  1882;  Amer.  Law  Review,  Jan.,  1881;  Amer. 
Catholic  Quarterly,  July,  1881.  These  are  papers  by  able  writers,  on  Pres. 
Grant's  policy,  the  legal  status  of  the  Indians,  their  education  at  Hampton 
and  Carlisle,  and  the  "Indian  problem"  in  general. 

INDIAN  RIGHTS  ASSOCIATION.  Annual  report  of  the  executive  com- 
mittee (Philadelphia,  1883-1911+). 

Publications  (Philadelphia,  1893-1909).     59  pamphlets. 

Besides  these,  the  Association  has  published  other  pamphlets,  of  occa- 
sional character. 

INDIAN  TERRITORY,  GENERAL  COUNCIL.     Journal  of  annual  session, 
1873  (Lawrence,  Kans.,  1873). 
This  council,  the  fourth  of  its  kind,  sat  during  May  5-15,  1873;  it  was 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  327 

"composed  of  delegates  duly  elected  from  the  Indian  tribes  legally  resident" 
in  Indian  Territory. 

INDIAN  TREATIES,  and  laws  and  regulations  relating  to  Indian  affairs. 
Washington,  1826. 

Compiled  by  order  of  Secretary  of  War  Calhoun,  who  ordered  one 
hundred  and  fifty  copies  to  be  "printed  for  the  use  of  the  Department." 
Contains  also  a  supplementary  collection  of  treaties  and  other  documents 
relative  to  Indian  affairs,  "to  the  end  of  the  Twenty-first  Congress"  (i.e.,  to 
February,  1831). 

Treaties  between  the  United  States  of  America  and  the  several 

Indian  tribes,  from  1778  to  1837  (Washington,  1837). 

Published  by  the  Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs.  Under  an  alphabeti- 
cal list  of  the  tribes  is  a  tabular  enumeration  of  the  treaties,  with  concise 
abstract  of  the  provisions  in  each.  This  is  followed  by  the  full  texts  of 
the  treaties,  in  chronological  order.  Some  of  the  minor  treaties  can  be 
found  only  here. 

A  compilation  of  all  the  treaties  between  the  United  States  and 

the  Indian  tribes  now  in  force  as  laws  (Washington,  1873). 

Indian  affairs:  laws  and  treaties  (Washington,  1903,  1904). 

First  edition,  Senate  Document,  no.  452,  57th  congress,  first  session; 
second  edition,  Senate  document,  no.  319,  58th  congress,  second  session. 

INGERSOLL,  ERNEST.  Wampum  and  its  history  (Philadelphia,  1883). 
In  Amer.  Naturalist,  vol.  xvii,  467-479. 

nationale des  Americanistes.] 

IOWA  STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.  Annals  (Iowa  City,  1863- 
1910+).  Illustrated. 

JAMES,  GEORGE  WHARTON.  Indian  basketry  (New  York,  1901; 
Pasadena,  Cal.,  1902).  Illustrated. 

What  the  white  race  may  learn  from  the  Indian   (Chicago, 

1908).     Illustrated. 

Valuable  as  calling  attention,  in  vigorous  and  interesting  style,  to  various 
admirable  features  in  the  mode  of  life,  and  the  social,  mental,  and  moral 
traits,  of  the  Indian  peoples.  The  author  knows  the  Indians  well  from 
personal  acquaintance  and  extensive  observation,  and  well  advocates  the 
thesis  stated  in  the  title  of  his  book. 

JENKS,  ALBERT  E.  The  childhood  of  Ji-shib,  the  Ojibwa  and  .  .  . 
pen  sketches  (Madison,  Wis.,  1900). 

JESUIT  RELATIONS  (Paris,  1640-1672;  Quebec,  1869  [3  vols.]  ;  Cleve- 
land, 1896-1901  [73  vols.]). 

The  annual  reports  sent  by  the  Jesuit  missionaries  among  the  Indians 


to  their  superiors  in  France;  the  original  publications  are  rare  and  costly. 
The  Quebec  reprint  was  published  by  the  Canadian  government.  The 
Cleveland  reissue  (edited  by  Reuben  G.  Thwaites  and  Emma  Helen  Blair) , 
entitled  The  Jesuit  Relations  and  Allied  Documents,  added  to  the  original 
Relations  many  later  ones,  with  letters  and  other  documents  written  by  the 
Jesuit  missionaries;  also  portraits,  maps,  and  other  illustrations  —  the  whole 
accompanied  by  a  page-to-page  English  translation  and  copious  annotations, 
bibliographical  data,  etc.  These  missionary  reports  have  always  been  ac- 
cepted as  authorities  of  the  first  importance,  on  all  matters  relating  to  the 
Indians  from  Labrador  to  Minnesota,  and  from  Hudson's  Bay  to  the  Ohio 
River;  and  they  are  especially  valuable  because  they  show,  depicted  by 
educated  men,  aboriginal  life  and  character  in  their  primitive  conditions,  as 
yet  untouched  or  but  slightly  afifected  by  contact  with  Europeans. 

JOHNSON,  ELIAS.  Legends,  traditions,  and  laws  of  the  Iroquois,  or 
Six  Nations,  and  history  of  the  Tuscarora  Indians  (Lockport,  N.Y., 

Written  by  a  Tuscarora  chief;  although  in  rather  desultory  and  scrappy 
form,  contains  considerable  information  of  value. 

JONES,  REV.  PETER.  History  of  the  Ojebway  Indians;  with  especial 
reference  to  their  conversion  to  Christianity  (London  [1862?]). 

An  Ojibwa  chief  by  birth  (his  Indian  name  Kahkewaquonaby),  and 
converted  to  the  Christian  faith  in  his  youth,  the  author  was  a  missionary 
among  his  people  for  more  than  twenty-five  years,  until  his  death  (June  29, 
1856).  His  account  of  the  Ojibwas  is  descriptive,  historical,  and  ethnologi- 
cal ;  and,  like  Copway's,  contains  valuable  data  regarding  those  tribes, 
especially  authoritative  as  furnished  by  Ojibwas  of  high  standing. 

JONES,  WILLIAM.     Fox  texts  (Leyden,  1907). 

Contains  folk-tales  (in  history,  mythology,  tradition,  etc.)  collected  by 
Jones  (himself  a  Fox  Indian)  from  the  elders  of  his  tribe;  with  English 
translations.  "Among  the  best  records  of  American  folk-lore  that  are  avail- 
able." This  is  volume  I  of  the  Publications  of  the  Amer.  Ethnological 
Society  of  New  York.  The  author,  a  trained  and  enthusiastic  ethnologist, 
was  slain  (while  in  the  prime  of  manhood)  by  hostile  natives  in  Luzon,  P.I., 
March  28,  1909. 

KANSAS  STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.  Transactions  (Topeka,  1881- 
1910+).  Vols.  i-x.  Illustrated. 

KEANE,  AUGUSTUS  H.  Man  past  and  present  (Cambridge,  Eng., 
1899).  Illustrated. 

An  account  of  the  various  races  of  man,  their  origin,  relations,  and  de- 
velopment; contains  abundant  references  to  the  best  authorities. 

The  world's  people:  a  popular  account  of  their  bodily  and  men- 
tal characteristics,  beliefs,  traditions,  and  political  and  social  insti- 
tutions (London,  1908).  Illustrated. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  329 

KEATING,  WILLIAM  H.  Narrative  of  an  expedition  to  the  sources  of 
the  St.  Peter's  River,  Lake  Winnepeek,  Lake  of  the  Woods,  etc., 
1823  (Philadelphia,  1824).  2  vols.  Illustrated. 

This  expedition  was  conducted  by  Major  Stephen  H.  Long,  sent  by  the 
War  Department  to  explore  the  almost  unknown  wilderness  of  Northern 
Minnesota.  "One  of  the  earliest  and  best  accounts  of  the  Sioux  and  Chip- 
peways  that  we  have"  (Eames).  Volume  n  contains  a  comparative  vocabu- 
lary of  the  Sauk,  Sioux,  Chippeway,  and  Cree  languages. 

KELTON,  DWIGHT  H.  Indian  names  of  places  near  the  Great  Lakes 
(Detroit,  1888). 

KINGSFORD,  WILLIAM.  The  history  of  Canada.  Indexed.  (Toron- 
to, 1887-1898).  10  vols. 

KINZIE,  JULIETTE  A.  M.  Wau-Bun,  the  "early  day  of  the  North- 
west" (New  York,  1856). 

A  new  edition  of  this  book,  with  an  introduction  and  notes  by  R.  G. 
Thwaites,  has  been  published  (Chicago,  1901).  The  author  was  wife  of 
the  noted  Chicago  early  trader,  John  H.  Kinzie;  and  her  book  throws  much 
light  on  early  Illinois  history  and  Indian  character. 

KOHL,  J.  G.  Kitchi-Gami :  wanderings  round  Lake  Superior  (Lon- 
don, 1860). 

"One  of  the  most  exhaustive  and  valuable  treatises  of  Indian  life  ever 
written.  It  is  wholly  the  result  of  personal  experiences.  Kohl  lived  inti- 
mately with  the  Indian  tribes  round  Lake  Superior,  and  endeavored  to 
penetrate  the  thick  veil  of  distrust,  ignorance,  and  superstition  of  the  tribes 
with  whom  he  lived."  —  WILBERFORCE  EAMES. 

LAFITAU,  J.  F.  Moeurs  des  sauvages  Ameriquains,  comparees  aux 
moeurs  des  premiers  temps  (Paris,  1724).  2  vols.  Illustrated. 

A  valuable  early  account  of  the  Indian  tribes;  one  of  the  standard 

LA  FLESCHE,  FRANCIS.  The  middle  five;  Indian  boys  at  school 
(Boston,  1900). 

A  story,  drawn  from  actual  experiences  and  persons,  of  the  (mission) 
school  life  of  some  Omaha  boys ;  written  by  one  of  them. 

LAHONTAN,  ARMAND  Louis  DE.  Voyages  dans  1'Amerique  septen- 
trionale  (Amsterdam,  1728).  2  vols.  Illustrated. 

An  interesting  account  of  travels  in  the  interior  of  the  North  American 
continent,  and  of  the  savage  tribes  dwelling  therein.  The  English  edition 
of  1703  has  been  reprinted  (Chicago,  1905),  edited  and  annotated  by  R.  G. 

LAKE  MOHONK  [N.Y.]  CONFERENCE  of  Friends  of  the  Indian.  Pro- 
ceedings of  first  to  twenty-seventh  annual  meetings  (Boston,  1883- 


Since  the  acquisition  of  insular  possessions  by  the  United  States,  their 
inhabitants  are  added  to  the  scope  of  this  conference. 

LAPHAM,  INCREASE  A.  The  antiquities  of  Wisconsin,  as  surveyed 
and  described  (Washington,  1885). 

In  Contributions  to  Knowledge  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  vol.  vii.  Lap- 
ham  was  a  pioneer  scientist  of  unusual  ability  and  intellectual  breadth. 

A  geographical  and   topographical  description   of  Wisconsin; 

with  brief  sketches  of  its  history     .     .     .     antiquities  ( Milwaukee, 


The  number,  locality,  and  times  of  removal  of  the  Indians  of 

Wisconsin  (Milwaukee,  1870). 

LARIMER,  MRS.  S.  L.     The  capture  and  escape;  or,  life  among  the 

Sioux  (Philadelphia,  1870). 
LE  SUEUR,  Pierre,  and  others.     Early  voyages  up  and  down  the 

Mississippi  by  Cavelier,  St.  Cosme,  Le  Sueur,  Gravier,  and  Guig- 

nas  (Albany,  N.Y.,  1861). 

These  narratives  of  early  exploration  were  translated  and  annotated  by 
J.  G.  Shea,  in  the  above  book. 

LEUPP,  FRANCIS  E.  The  Indian  and  his  problem  (New  York, 

Of  especial  interest,  as  written  by  the  late  commissioner  of  Indian  af- 
fairs; he  has  urged  the  abolition  of  the  reservation  system  and  of  the  Indian 
Office,  the  Indians  to  become  citizens  of  the  U.S.,  on  the  same  footing  as 
the  whites. 

LINCOLN,  BENJAMIN.  Journal  of  a  treaty  held  in  1793  with  the  In- 
dian tribes  northwest  of  the  Ohio  by  commissioners  of  the  United 
States  (Boston,  1836). 

In  Collections  of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  third  ser.,  vol.  v, 

LONG,  J.  Voyages  and  travels  of  an  Indian  interpreter  and  trader, 
describing  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  North  American  In- 
dians (London,  1791). 

An  early  and  valued  account  of  the  tribes  in  Canada  and  the  region 
of  the  Great  Lakes  to  the  Mississippi  River.  Contains  an  extensive  vocabu- 
lary of  the  Chippewa  language,  and  other  linguistic  data.  The  author  was 
in  the  service  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  and  traveled  among  the  In- 
dians for  nineteen  years.  A  French  translation  was  published  at  Paris  in 
1794,  and  had  another  edition  in  1810.  This  important  work  has  been 
reprinted  in  Thwaites's  Early  Western  Travels,  vol.  ii. 

LUNDY,  JOHN  P.  Zea  maize,  as  it  relates  to  the  incipient  civilization 
of  Red  Men  all  the  world  over. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  33 1 

In  Proceedings  of  Phila.   Numismatic   and  Antiquarian    Society,    1883, 
pp.  15-22. 
McCoy,  REV.  ISAAC.     Correspondence  and  journals,  1808-1847.  Ms. 

These  documents  are  in  possession  of  the  Kansas  Historical  Society,  and 
contain  much  information  on  "the  actual  removal  of  the  Indians,  especially 
of  the  northern  tribes  after  1830.  McCoy  surveyed,  or  superintended  the 
survey,  of  several  of  the  early  reservations  in  Kansas,  and  located  most  of 
the  tribes  that  went  there.  The  government  placed  great  reliance  on  him, 
and  his  truly  kindly  disposition  toward  the  emigrants  softened  the  rigor 
of  the  Jacksonian  measures."  —  ABEL. 

The  annual  register  of  Indian  affairs  within  the  Indian    (or 

Western)  Territory  (Shawanoe  Baptist  Mission,  Ind.  Ten,  1835- 
1837),  nos.  1-4. 

Contains  valuable  information  about  Indian  Territory  and  the  tribes 
settled  therein;  missions  and  schools  among  them,  supported  by  various 
religious  denominations. 

History  of  Baptist  Indian  missions  (New  York,  1840). 

Covers  the  period  from  1818;  is  especially  full  regarding  the  Ottawas 
and  Potawatomi. 

McGuiRE,  JOSEPH  D.     Pipes  and  smoking  customs  of  the  American 
aborigines,  based  on  material  in  the  U.S.  National  Museum. 
In  Report  of  U.S.  National  Museum,  1897,  part  i,  pp.  351-645. 

McKENNEY,  THOMAS  L.  Sketches  of  a  tour  to  the  [Great]  Lakes, 
of  the  character  and  customs  of  the  Chippeway  Indians,  and  of 
incidents  connected  with  the  treaty  of  Fond  du  Lac  (Baltimore, 
1827).  Illustrated. 

The  author  was  associated  with  Lewis  Cass  in  negotiating  the  above 
treaty  (Aug.  5,  1826),  and  belonged  to  the  U.S.  Indian  Department.  At 
the  end  of  the  volume  are  given  the  text  of  the  treaty,  a  journal  of  the 
proceedings  therein,  and  a  Chippewa  vocabulary;  and  the  book  has  numer- 
ous illustrations.  Gives  interesting  accounts  of  Indian  life,  and  descriptions 
of  the  Lake  region,  as  they  appeared  at  that  time. 

—  Memoirs,  official  and  personal,  with  sketches  of  travels  among 
the  Northern  and  Southern  Indians;  second  edition,  2  vols.  in  I 
(New  York,  1846) .  Illustrated. 

The  author  was  U.S.  superintendent  of  the  Indian  trade  during  1816- 
1822,  and  later  (1824-1830)  chief  of  the  Indian  Bureau  (the  first  to  hold 
that  post).  Volume  I  recounts  his  experiences  in  these  offices;  volume  II 
contains  his  reflections  on  the  origin  of  the  Indians,  their  claims  on  us  for 
aid  and  justice,  and  a  plan  for  their  preservation  and  "the  consolidation  of 
peace  between  them  and  us." 

and  James  Hall.     History  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  North  Amer- 


ica,  with  biographical  sketches  and  anecdotes  of  the  principal  chiefs 
(Philadelphia,  1854).     3  vols.     Illustrated. 

A  smaller  reprint  (in  royal  octavo)  from  the  folio  edition  of  1848.  Con- 
tains one  hundred  and  twenty  large  and  well-colored  "portraits  from  the 
Indian  Gallery  in  the  Department  of  War,  at  Washington."  Revised  and 
enlarged  by  McKenney,  who  probably  wrote  the  unsigned  historical  sketch 
of  the  Indian  race  in  volume  in;  Hall  contributed  the  "Essay  on  the  history 
of  the  North  American  Indians,"  which  follows.  It  contains  one  hundred 
and  twenty  large  colored  portraits  of  Indian  chiefs,  from  the  original 
paintings,  mostly  by  an  artist  named  King,  who  was  employed  by  the  gov- 
ernment to  paint  portraits  of  the  chiefs  who  visited  Washington. 

McKENNEY,  THOMAS  L.  and  Matthew  Irwin.  The  fur  trade  and 
factory  system  at  Green  Bay,  1816-1821. 

In  Wisconsin  Historical  Collections,  vol.  vii,  269-288. 

McKENZiE,  FAYETTE  A.  The  Indian  in  relation  to  the  white  popu- 
lation of  the  United  States  (Columbus,  O.,  1908). 

Reviews  the  policy  of  the  U.S.  government  toward  the  Indians,  the 
political  status  of  the  latter,  their  lands  and  funds,  education,  missions, 
and  other  topics;  contains  much  useful  and  recent  information  as  to  the 
advancement  and  present  status  of  the  Indians ;  and  advocates  the  abolition 
of  the  reservation,  final  allotment  of  lands,  Indian  citizenship,  provision  of 
better  training  and  opportunities  on  industrial  lines,  etc. 

MCLAUGHLIN,  JAMES.  My  friend  the  Indian  (Boston,  1910). 

The  author  was  Indian  agent  and  inspector  for  many  years. 

McMASTER,  JOHN  B.  A  history  of  the  people  of  the  United  States, 
1783-1861  (New  York,  1884-1900).  5  vols. 

MAIR,  CHARLES.  The  American  bison  —  its  habits,  methods  of  cap- 
ture and  economic  use  in  the  northwest,  with  reference  to  its 
threatened  extinction  and  possible  preservation. 

In  Proceedings  and  Transactions  of  Royal  Society  of  Canada,  first  ser., 
vol.  viii,  sec.  2,  pp.  93-108. 

MALLERY,  GARRICK.  Sign  language  among  North  American  In- 
dians, compared  with  that  among  other  peoples  and  deaf-mutes 
(Washington,  1881).  Illustrated. 

In  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  first  Report,  263-552. 

Picture-writing  of  the  American  Indians  (Washington,  1893). 


Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  Tenth  Report,  25-807. 
MANYPENNY,  GEORGE  W.     Our  Indian  wards  (Cincinnati,  1880). 
The  author  was  commissioner  of  Indian  affairs  during  1853-1857,  and 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  333 

chairman  of  the  Sioux  Commission  of  1876.  He  recounts  the  history  of  the 
Indian  peoples  in  their  relations  with  the  whites,  from  the  time  of  the  first 
encounter  between  the  two  races;  contrasts  the  military  with  the  civil  ad- 
ministration of  Indian  affairs;  and  urges  that  justice,  protection^  and  better 
industrial  opportunities  be  furnished  to  these  "our  wards." 

MARGRY,  PIERRE.  Decouvertes  et  etablissements  des  Francais  dans 
Fouest  et  dans  le  sud  de  1'Amerique  Septentrionale  (1614-1754)  : 
memoires  et  documents  originaux  (Paris,  1876-1886).  6  vols. 

The  following  volumes  are  concerned  with  the  northwest:  I  (1614-1684), 
explorations  and  discoveries  on  the  Great  Lakes,  and  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi 
Rivers;  V  (1683-1724),  formation  of  a  chain  of  posts  between  the  St.  Law- 
rence and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico;  VI  (1679-1754),  exploration  of  affluents  of 
the  Mississippi,  and  discovery  of  the  Rocky  Mountains. 

MARSH,  REV.  CUTTING.  Letters  and  journals,  1830-1856.  Ms. 
39  vols.  and  55  letters. 

These  documents  are  deposited  with  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society. 
The  author  was  a  missionary  of  the  American  Board  of  Foreign  Missions 
and  of  a  Scottish  missionary  society,  among  the  Stockbridge  Indians  of  Wis- 
consin; and  his  papers  relate  chiefly  to  religious  and  educational  matters. 
Marsh's  reports  to  the  Scottish  Society  for  1831-1848  have  been  published 
(nearly  in  full)  in  Wisconsin  Historical  Collections,  vol.  xv,  39-204. 

MARTIN,  HORACE  F.     Castorologia,  or  the  history  and  traditions  of 

the  Canadian  beaver  (Montreal,  1892). 

MASON,  EDWARD  G.     Illinois  in  the  i8th  century  (Chicago,  1881). 
No.  12  in  Fergus  Historical  Series. 

Early  Illinois  (Chicago,  1889-1890).     In  4  parts. 

Nos.  31-34  of  Fergus  Historical  Series.  Is  chiefly  devoted  to  Mcnard, 
Todd,  and  Rocheblave  papers. 

MASON,  OTIS  T.  Woman's  share  in  primitive  culture  (New  York, 
1894).  Illustrated. 

The  origins  of  inventions:  study  of  industry  among  primitive 

people   (London,  1895).     Illustrated. 

Valuable  monographs  by  this  distinguished  writer  (who  was  one  of  the 
foremost  scientists  in  America,  and  curator  of  ethnology  in  the  U.S.  National 
Museum  from  1884  until  his  death  in  1908)  are  noted  as  follows:  "Cradles 
of  the  American  aborigines"  (Report  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  1887) ; 
"N.  American  bows,  arrows,  and  quivers"  (id.,  1893)  ;  "Migration  and  the 
food  quest"  (id.,  1894)  ;  "Influence  of  environment  upon  human  industries 
or  arts"  (id.,  1895) ;  "Aboriginal  skin-dressing"  (Report  of  U.S.  National 
Museum,  1889)  ;  "Primitive  travel  and  transportation"  (id.,  1894)  ;  "Abor- 
iginal American  basketry"  (id.,  1902).  All  these  are  abundantly  illustrated. 

MATSON,  N.     French  and  Indians  of  Illinois  River  (Princeton,  111., 



From  old  Mss.,  local  traditions,  etc.,  the  author  has  gleaned  interesting 
data  regarding  the  Indian  tribes  in  Illinois,  and  the  early  settlement  of  that 
region  by  the  French. 

MATSON,  N.  Memories  of  Shaubena,  with  incidents  relating  to  the 
early  settlement  of  the  West  (Chicago,  1878  [second  edition  in 

A  memoir  of  this  noted  Potawatomi  chief,  based  largely  on  information 
furnished  to  the  writer  by  Shaubena  himself;  contains  also  much  informa- 
tion regarding  the  "Black  Hawk  War." 

researches  (Lansing,  1887-1910+).  Vols.  1-38.  Illustrated. 

MICHILLIMACKINAC  PARISH.  Register  of  baptisms  and  marriages, 
1741-1821.  Ms. 

The  original  of  this  important  register  is  preserved  in  the  parish  church 
of  St.  Anne  at  Mackinac.  At  the  beginning  is  an  abstract  of  earlier  entries 
dating  back  to  1695,  copied  from  an  old  register  which  is  now  lost;  there 
are  also  some  records  of  burials,  1743-1806.  A  facsimile  transcription  of 
the  volume  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society,  in  whose 
Collections  are  published  a  translation  of  the  entire  document  (vol.  xviii, 
469-514,  and  xix,  1-162). 

MINNESOTA  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.  Collections  (St.  Paul,  1850- 
1910+).  Vols.  i-xiv.  Illustrated. 

Contain  many  important  papers  regarding  the  Indians  of  Minnesota. 
Notable  among  these  are:  "Dakota  superstitions,"  G.  H.  Pond  (1867,  pp. 
32-62)  ;  "History  of  the  Ojibways,"  William  W.  Warren  (of  Ojibwa 
blood),  and  another  account  by  Edward  D.  Neill,  a  scholarly  and  careful 
investigator  (vol.  v,  21-510)  ;  "Protestant  missions  in  the  Northwest," 
Stephen  R.  Riggs  (vol.  vi,  117-188)  ;  "A  Sioux  story  of  the  war,  1862," 
Chief  Big  Eagle  (pp.  382-400)  ;  "Prehistoric  man  at  the  headwaters  of  the 
Mississippi  River,"  J.  V.  Brower  (vol.  viii,  232-269)  ;  "The  Ojibways  in 
Minnesota,"  Joseph  A.  Gilfillan  (vol.  ix,  55-128)  ;  several  papers  on  history 
of  missions  in  Minnesota  (vol.  x,  156-246)  ;  "The  Dakotas  or  Sioux  in 
Minnesota  as  they  were  in  1834,"  Samuel  W.  Pond  (vol.  xii,  319-501). 

Documents  relating  to  the  early  history  of  Minnesota.     Ms. 

These  collections  contain  many  original  manuscripts  of  great  value  for 
the  history  of  the  upper  Mississippi  region.  Of  especial  interest  are  the 
papers  of  Henry  H.  Sibley,  first  governor  of  Minnesota ;  journals  of  Charles 
Larpenteur,  Indian  trader  during  forty  years;  letters  received  by  Major 
Lawrence  Taliaferro  (dated  1813-1840)  from  prominent  government  of- 
ficials; and  papers  connected  with  the  Sioux  outbreak  in  1862. 

MISSOURI  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  (St.  Louis).  Documents  relating  to 
the  early  history  of  Missouri.  Ms. 

A  large  and  valuable  collection,  mainly  concerned  with  the  history  of 
the  region  west  of  the  Mississippi.  Among  them  are  a  considerable  num- 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  335 

her  relating  to  the  subject  of  the  present  work,  especially  as  follows:  On 
trade  and  Indian  affairs  in  Upper  Louisiana,  prior  to  1800;  papers  and 
letters  connected  with  William  Clark's  official  life;  Stephen  W.  Kearny's 
journals  of  trips  up  the  Mississippi  (1820)  and  Missouri  (1824)  ;  Sibley 
manuscripts  (1803-1836),  largely  on  Indian  affairs;  and  the  Sublette  and 
Vasquez  collections,  containing  hundreds  of  letters,  business  papers,  etc., 
relating  to  the  fur-trade  during  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

MOONEY,  JAMES.     The  ghost-dance  religion  and  the  Sioux  outbreak 
of  1890  (Washington,  1896). 

In  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  Report  for  1892-1893,  part  ii,  pp.  641- 

II 10. 

Mescal  plant  and  ceremony  (Detroit,  1896). 

In  Therapeutic  Gazette,  third  ser.,  vol.  xii.  Cf.  also  papers  by  D.  W. 
Prentiss  and  F.  P.  Morgan  on  same  subject  (ibid.). 

MOOREHEAD,  WARREN  K.     Fort  Ancient,  the  great  prehistoric  earth- 
work of  Warren  County,  Ohio  (Cincinnati,  1890). 

Primitive  man  in  Ohio  (New  York,  1892). 

Prehistoric  implements  (Cincinnati,  1900). 

Tonda,  a  story  of  the  Sioux  (Cincinnati,  1904).     Illustrated. 

MORGAN,  LEWIS  H.     League  of  the  Ho-de-no-sau-nee,  or  Iroquois 

(Rochester,  N.Y.,  1851).     Illustrated. 

This  is  a  book  of  prime  authority  on  the  subject  of  the  famous  Iroquois 
League,  and  on  the  character,  beliefs,  customs,  language,  etc.,  of  the  tribes 
composing  it.  Morgan  was  adopted  into  the  Seneca  tribe,  and  made  a 
careful  study  of  the  Iroquois  peoples  and  their  life.  On  a  large  map  of  the 
Iroquois  country  he  shows  all  the  villages  and  geographical  features,  with 
the  Indian  name  of  each  —  a  table  of  these,  with  meanings  in  English,  and 
identification  of  locality,  appearing  at  end  of  volume. 

Indian  migrations. 

In  North  American  Review,  Oct.,  1869  and  Jan.,  1870;  reprinted  in 
Beach's  Ind.  Miscellany,  158-257. 

Systems   of   consanguinity   and   affinity   of   the  human   family 

(Washington,  1871). 

In  Contributions  to  Knowledge  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  vol.  xvii. 

Houses  and  house-life  of  the  American  aborigines   (Washing- 
ton, 1881).     Illustrated. 

In  Contributions  to  Amer.  Ethnology  of  U.S.  Geographical  and  Geologi- 
cal Survey,  vol.  iv. 

Ancient  society;  or  researches  in  the  lines  of  human  progress 

from   savagery   through   barbarism   to   civilization    (New   York, 

Morgan  was  a  profound  student  of  social  evolution  and  the  origins  of 
civilization,  and  his  books  are  valuable  contributions  to  those  subjects. 


MORSE,  REV.  JEDEBIAH.  A  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War  of  the 
United  States,  comprising  a  narrative  of  ...  the  actual  state 
of  the  Indian  Tribes  in  our  country  (New  Haven,  1822),  [with 
map  showing  locations  of  the  tribes] . 

Pp.  11-96  are  occupied  with  Dr.  Morse's  report  to  the  secretary  of  war 
(then  John  C.  Calhoun)  on  his  mission  from  the  government  to  ascertain 
the  condition  of  the  Indian  tribes,  performed  in  the  summer  of  1820.  The 
rest  of  the  volume  (pp.  97-406)  is  devoted  to  numerous  appendices  illus- 
trative of  the  subject  — reports  from  missionaries,  traders,  civil  and  military 
officials;  speeches  by  Indian  chiefs;  extracts  from  some  printed  works;  de- 
scriptions of  little-known  regions ;  and  statistical  tables  showing  the  condition 
of  the  tribes,  the  dealings  of  our  government  with  them,  the  schools  estab- 
lished for  them,  etc.  It  is  a  valuable  collection  of  the  best  material  obtain- 
able at  that  time,  and  furnished  by  competent  observers,  mainly  eyewitnesses 
of  what  they  related. 

NEILL,  EDWARD  DUFFIELD.  The  history  of  Minnesota;  from  the 
earliest  French  explorations  to  the  present  time  (Minneapolis, 
1878,  1882). 

First  issued  in  1858 ;  both  above  editions  (the  third  and  fourth)  revised 
and  enlarged  by  adding  much  new  material,  to  keep  pace  with  later  dis- 
covery and  research.  Written  by  a  scholarly  and  able  historian;  contains 
much  about  the  Indian  tribes  in  Minnesota.  The  opening  chapters  of  the 
first  edition  were  reprinted  as  a  separate  (Phila.,  1859)  under  the  title 
Dahkotah  Land,  and  Dahkotak  Life. 

History  of  the  Ojebways  and   their  connection  with  the  fur 


In  Minn.  Historical  Society  Collections,  vol.  v,  395-410. 

NOBLE  LIVES  of  a  noble  race  (Odanah,  Wis.,  1909).     Illustrated. 

Interesting  as  being  mainly  the  work  of  the  Indian  children  in  the 
Franciscan  industrial  school  at  the  Odanah  mission.  Contains  also  bio- 
graphical sketches  of  missionaries  and  other  friends  of  the  Indians. 

NORTH   DAKOTA   STATE   HISTORICAL   SOCIETY.     Collections    (Bis- 

mark,  1906-1910+),  vols.  i-iii. 
OGG,  FREDERICK  A.     The  opening  of  the  Mississippi :  a  struggle  for 

supremacy  in  the  American  interior  (New  York,  1904). 

A  history  of  discovery,  exploration,  and  contested  rights  of  navigation  on 

the  Mississippi,  prior  to  the  end  of  the  War  of  1812-1815;  gives  special 

attention  to   the    physiographic   aspects   of  the  history  of  the   Mississippi 

basin,  and  the  economic  importance  of  the  great  river. 

(Columbus,  1887-1910+),  vols.  i-xix. 
OTIS,  ELWELL  S.     The  Indian  question  (New  York,  1878). 

An  able  and  vigorous  presentation  of  this  subject  from  the  standpoint  of 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  337 

an  army  officer.  He  shows  that  the  Indian  population  is  certainly  not  de- 
creasing; reviews  the  policy  of  colonial  and  U.S.  governments  toward  the 
Indian  tribes,  also  the  treaty  system;  regards  the  Indian  as  incapable  of 
white  civilization;  and  advocates  military  control  of  the  reservations. 

OWEN,  MARY  ALICIA.     Folk-lore  of  the.  Musquakie  Indians  of  North 
America  (London,  1904).     Illustrated. 

This  is  vol.  51  of  Publications  of  the  Folk-lore  Society  [of  Great  Britain]. 
A  monograph  on  the  folk-lore  and  customs  of  the  Musquakie  Indians  of 
Iowa,  better  known  as  the  Sauk  and  Foxes,  by  a  lady  who  for  many  years 
has  known  these  Indians  personally  and  well.  During  this  long  acquain- 
tance she  collected  a  considerable  quantity  of  specimens  of  their  ceremonial 
implements  and  their  beadwork,  articles  which  represented  their  genuine 
native  industries  and  their  actual  usages  in  ceremonials;  this  collection  she 
presented  to  the  Folk-lore  Society,  accompanied  by  careful  descriptive  notes 
and  the  above  monograph.  These  writings  are  printed  as  above,  and  are 
illustrated  by  eight  plates  (two  in  colors)  from  photographs.  A  unique 
and  important  contribution  to  the  history  of  those  tribes. 

PARKMAN,  FRANCIS.     The  conspiracy  of  Pontiac  and  the  Indian  war 
after  the  conquest  of  Canada  (Boston,  1870). 
The  sixth  edition,  revised  and  enlarged. 

La  Salle  and  the  discovery  of  the  great  West  (Boston,  1879). 

The  eleventh  edition,  revised  and  enlarged,  of  "Discovery  of  the  great 


The  old  regime  in  Canada  (Boston,  1874). 

A  half -century  of  conflict  (Boston,  1892).     2  vols. 

Covers  the  period  1700-1748 ;  includes  full  account  of  the  Fox  War. 

PARKMAN    CLUB   OF    MILWAUKEE.     Papers    (Milwaukee,    1896- 
1897).     2  vols. 

A  series  of  eighteen  short  monographs  on  various  topics  of  Wisconsin 
and  Northwestern  history.  Among  them  are:  "Nicholas  Perrot,"  G.  P. 
Stickney  (no.  i)  ;  "Voyages  of  Radisson  and  Groseilliers,"  Henry  C.  Camp- 
bell (no.  2);  "Chevalier  Henry  de  Tonty,"  Henry  E.  Legler  (no.  3); 
"Aborigines  of  the  Northwest,"  F.  T.  Terry  (no.  4)  ;  "Jonathan  Carver," 
J.  G.  Gregory  (no.  5)  ;  "Eleazer  Williams,"  W.  W.  Wight  (no.  7)  ;  "Charles 
Langlade,"  M.  E.  Mclntosh  (no.  8)  ;  "Pere  Rene  Menard,"  H.  C.  Campbell 
(no.  ii )  ;  "George  Rogers  Clark  and  his  Illinois  campaign,"  Dan  B.  Starkey 
(no.  iz)  ;  "The  use  of  maize  by  Wisconsin  Indians,"  G.  P.  Stickney  (no. 
13)  ;  "Claude  Jean  Allouez,"  J.  S.  La  Boule  (no.  17). 

PEET,  STEPHEN  D.     Myths  and  symbols,  or  aboriginal  religions  in 
America  (Chicago,  1905).     Illustrated. 

Discusses  such  subjects  as  Totemism  and  mythology;  The  serpent  symbol 
in  America ;  Sky  worship ;  Phallic  worship  and  fire  worship ;  The  rain 
god;  Personal  divinities  and  culture  heroes;  etc.  Written  by  the  editor 
(1878-1910)  of  the  American  Antiquarian. 


PITEZEL,  JOHN  H.  Lights  and  shades  of  missionary  life  during  nine 
years  spent  in  the  region  of  Lake  Superior  (Cincinnati,  1857). 

PITTMAN,  PHILIP.  The  present  state  of  the  European  settlements 
on  the  Mississippi;  with  a  geographical  description  of  that  river, 
illustrated  by  plans  and  draughts  (London,  1770). 

This  important  work,  now  exceedingly  rare,  has  been  reprinted  by  the 
A.  H.  Clark  Co.  (Cleveland,  1906),  edited  and  annotated  by  F.  H.  Hodder. 
Pittman  was  a  British  military  engineer,  and  gives  an  accurate  account, 
written  from  personal  observation  of  the  Mississippi  settlements  just  after 
the  English  occupation  of  that  country  as  a  result  of  the  peace  of  1763.  An 
authority  in  early  Western  history,  of  the  highest  importance. 

POKAGON,  SIMON.  O-gi-maw-kwe  mit-i-gwa-ki  -  "Queen  of  the 
woods"  (Hartford,  Mich.,  1899). 

A  partly  autobiographical  story  and  a  chapter  on  the  Algonquin  lan- 
guage, written  by  the  noted  Potawatomi  chief  Pokagon;  to  this  the  pub- 
lisher (C.  H.  Engle)  has  added  a  biographical  sketch  and  other  datzu 

An  Indian  on  the  problems  of  his  race. 

In  Amer.  Review  of  Reviews,  Dec.,  1895. 

The  future  of  the  red  man. 

In  Forum,  Aug.,  1897. 

POOLE,  D.  C.  Among  the  Sioux  of  Dakota:  eighteen  months'  ex- 
perience as  an  Indian  agent  (New  York,  1881). 

An  interesting  narrative  by  an  army  officer,  of  his  experiences  among 
the  Sioux;  he  describes  their  character  and  mode  of  life,  the  difficulties 
arising  from  their  relations  with  the  white  settlers,  and  the  perplexities  en- 
countered in  the  administration  of  the  agency  system.  Written  in  a  spirit  of 
fairness,  and  appreciation  of  the  good  traits  in  Indian  character. 

POWELL,  JOHN  W.     The  North  American   Indians    (New  York, 


In  N.  S.  Shaler's  U.S.  of  America,  vol.  i,  190-272. 

Sketch   of    the   mythology    of    the    North    American    Indians 

(Washington,  1881). 

In  First  Report  of  Bureau  Amer.  Ethnology,  17-69. 

Indian  linguistic  families  of  America  north  of  Mexico  (Wash- 
ington, 1891). 

In  Seventh  Report  of  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  7-142. 

Technology,  or  the  science  of  industries. 

In  Amer.  Anthropologist,  new  series,  vol.  i,  319-349. 

American  view  of  totemism  (London,  1902). 

In  Man,  vol.  ii,  no.  75. 

PRESBYTERIAN  CHURCH  in  United  States,  General  Assembly.    The 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  339 

church  at  home  and  abroad    (Philadelphia,    1887-1898).     Vols. 
1-24.     Illustrated. 

PRESBYTERIAN  CHURCH.  Presbyterian  monthly  record  (Philadel- 
phia, 18501886).  Vols.  1-37. 

Woman's    Board    of    Home    Missions.     The    home    mission 

monthly  (New  York,  1887-1910+).     Vols.  1-24.     Illustrated. 

Women's  Foreign  Missionary  Societies.     Woman's  work  for 

woman  (Philadelphia,  Chicago,  and  New  York,  1871-1910+). 
Vols.  1-25. 

After  1904  styled  Woman's  Work. 

PROTESTANT  EPISCOPAL  CHURCH,  Board  of  Missions.  The  spirit 
of  missions  (New  York,  1836-1910+).  Vols.  1-75.  Illustrated 
(after  1873). 

In  volume  for  1874  is  a  map  of  the  U.S.,  showing  the  Indian  reserva- 
tions at  that  time. 

RADISSON,  PETER  ESPRIT.  Voyages  of  Peter  Esprit  Radisson,  being 
an  account  of  his  travels  and  experiences  among  the  North  Amer- 
ican Indians,  from  1652  to  1684  (Boston,  1885). 

Transcribed  from  original  manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library  and  the 
British  Museum;  edited  by  Gideon  D.  Scull;  published  by  the  Prince 
Society.  Radisson  and  his  companion,  Medart  des  Groseilliers,  explored  the 
wilderness  about  Lakes  Michigan  and  Superior  (1654-1656),  and  spent  a 
winter  with  the  Sioux  Indians  in  the  vicinity  of  Lake  Pepin  (1659-1660)  — 
perhaps  the  first  white  men  to  visit  those  lands;  so  these  narratives  are  of 
special  interest  and  value. 

RAMSEY,  ALEXANDER.     Annual  report  of  the  superintendent  of  In- 
dian affairs  in  Minnesota  territory  (Washington,  1849). 
Senate  Executive  Document,  no.  i,  3ist  congress,  first  session. 

RATZEL,  FRIEDRICH.  The  history  of  mankind  (London,  1896).  3 
vols.  Illustrated. 

Translated  from  the  second  German  edition.  A  popular  but  reliable 
guide  to  anthropological  and  ethnological  study;  and  gives  a  well-written 
and  systematic  account  of  the  races  of  man  throughout  the  world ;  and  con- 
tains over  one  thousand  one  hundred  illustrations  of  excellent  quality, 
chiefly  obtained  from  material  in  the  great  museums. 

RAU,  CHARLES.  Ancient  aboriginal  trade  in  North  America;  and 
North  American  stone  implements  (Washington,  1873). 

In  Report  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  1872,  pp.  348-408. 
REBOK,  HORACE  M.     The  last  of  the  Mus-Qua-Kies  and  the  Indian 
Congress,  1898  (Dayton,  O.,  1900).     Illustrated. 
A  historical  sketch  of  the  Fox  and  Sac  tribes. 


REYNOLDS,  JOHN.  The  pioneer  history  of  Illinois,  1673-1818  (Chi- 
cago, 1887).  Illustrated. 

First  issued  at  Belleville,  111.,  1852;  the  second  edition  is  much  improved. 
The  author  was  governor  of  Illinois  during  1832-1834, 

My  own  times,  1800-1855  (Chicago,  1879). 

A  revised  edition  of  an  earlier  publication  by  the  Chicago  Historical 

RJGGS,  STEPHEN  R.  Tah-koo  Wah-kan,  or,  the  gospel  among  the 
Dakotas  (Boston,  1869). 

A  valuable  account  of  the  Dakota  Sioux,  their  pagan  customs,  their  native 
religious  beliefs  and  worship,  Protestant  mission  work  among  them,  their 
outbreak  in  1862  and  its  results.  An  appendix  contains  notes  on  their  med- 
ical practices,  and  their  songs  and  music.  Written  by  a  noted  missionary, 
also  remarkable  for  his  linguistic  ability;  he  compiled  a  Dakota  grammar 
and  dictionary  (Washington,  1890;  Dorsey's  ed.),  and,  with  his  fellow- 
missionary  Thomas  S.  Williamson,  translated  the  entire  Bible  into  that 
language  —  published  at  Cincinnati  (1842),  and  later  at  New  York  (1871- 
1872,  and  1880). 

Mary  and  I:  forty  years  with  the  Sioux  (Chicago,  [1880]). 

An  interesting  narrative  of  his  experiences  (1837-1877)  as  a  missionary 
among  the  Sioux;  mainly  devoted  to  religious  and  educational  work,  but 
incidentally  discloses  considerable  relating  to  Indian  life  and  character. 

RIGHT-HAND  THUNDER.  The  Indian  and  white  man;  or,  the  In- 
dian in  self-defense  (Indianapolis,  1880). 

Written  by  an  Indian  chief;  edited  by  D.  W.  Risher. 

ROBINSON,  DOANE.  Sioux  Indians -a  history  (Cedar  Rapids,  la., 
1908).  Illustrated. 

A  full  and  authoritative  history,  from  the  best  original  sources,  of  the 
Sioux  of  Dakota;  written  by  the  superintendent  of  the  South  Dakota  His- 
torical Society. 

,  editor.  The  South  Dakotan,  a  monthly  magazine  ( Sioux  Falls, 

S.Dak.,  1900-1904). 

ROOSEVELT,  THEODORE.  The  winning  of  the  West  (New  York, 
1889-1896).  4vols. 

ROYAL  SOCIETY  OF  CANADA.  Proceedings  and  transactions  (Otta- 
wa, 1882-1910+). 

Contains  much  valuable  material  regarding  the  Indian  tribes  of  the 
northern  and  eastern  United  States,  as  well  as  numerous  articles  and  papers 
on  Canadian  history,  biography,  etc. 

ROYCE,  CHARLES  C.  Indian  land  cessions  in  the  United  States 
(Washington,  1900). 

In  the  Eighteenth  Report  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology,  part  ii.     De- 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  341 

scribes  the  policy  toward  the  Indians  of  Spaniards,  French,  and  English 
respectively,  of  the  several  English  colonies,  and  of  the  United  States; 
enumerates  the  treaties  and  acts  of  Congress  authorizing  allotments  of  land 
in  severalty;  and  presents  a  schedule  of  land  cessions  (from  1784  to  1894), 
with  descriptive  and  historical  data  and  remarks  for  each,  and  maps. 

ROYCE,  CHARLES  C.  An  inquiry  into  the  identity  and  history  of  the 
Shawnee  Indians. 

In  Amer.  Antiquarian,  vol.  iii,  177-189. 

RUSH,  BENJAMIN.  An  oration  .  .  .  containing  an  enquiry 
into  the  natural  history  of  medicine  among  the  Indians  in  North 
America,  and  a  comparative  view  of  their  diseases  and  remedies, 
with  those  of  civilized  nations  (Philadelphia,  [1774]). 

RUTTENBER,  E.  M.  History  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  Hudson's  River 
(Albany,  N.Y.,  1872).  Illustrated. 

A  reliable  account,  with  numerous  annotations,  and  careful  citation  of 
authorities,  of  the  tribes  along  the  Hudson,  some  of  which  are  mentioned 
by  Perrot  and  La  Potherie  as  being  more  or  less  connected  with  the  affairs 
of  the  western  tribes. 

SCHOOLCRAFT,  HENRY  R.  Notes  on  the  Iroquois;  or  contributions 
to  American  history,  antiquities,  and  general  ethnology  (Albany, 
1847).  Illustrated. 

Largely  historical  and  archeological ;  contains  also  several  Iroquois  tra- 
ditions, a  chapter  on  their  language,  and  various  miscellanies. 

Oneota:  or,  characteristics  of  the  red  race  of  America  (New 

York,  1845).     Illustrated. 

"From  original  notes  and  manuscripts." 

Algic  researches  (New  York,  1839).     2  vols. 

"Comprising  inquiries  respecting  the  mental  characteristics  of  the  North 
American  Indians." 

Historical   and   statistical   information   respecting   the  history, 

condition  and  prospects  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  United  States 
(Philadelphia,  1851-1857).     6  vols.     Illustrated. 

"Collected  and  prepared  under  the  direction  of  the  Bureau  of  Indian 
Affairs,  per  act  of  Congress  of  March  sd,  1847.  Published  by  authority  of 
Congress."  Schoolcraft  used  not  only  his  own  extensive  knowledge,  and  the 
unusual  opportunities  furnished  by  his  marriage  to  an  Indian  woman  of 
high  rank;  but  the  information  and  experience  of  many  persons  throughout 
the  country  who  were  conversant  with  Indian  character  and  life,  and  several 
original  Ms.  accounts,  previously  unpublished.  His  work  is  a  cyclopedia  of 
the  best  information  then  available,  much  of  which  is  not  to  be  found  else- 
where; and  it  contains  much  valuable  material  (also  some  of  little  im- 
portance) for  the  study  of  Indian  ethnology,  archaeology,  history,  languages, 


etc.  The  illustrations  are  largely  steel  engravings,  mostly  from  drawings 
by  Capt.  S.  Eastman,  U.S.A. ;  and  include  many  colored  plates.  In  vol.  vi, 
the  title  becomes  "History  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  United  States,"  etc. 

SCHOOLCRAFT,  HENRY  R.  The  American  Indians,  their  history,  con- 
dition and  prospects,  from  original  notes  and  manuscripts,  new 
revised  edition  (Rochester,  1851). 

Personal  memoirs  of  a  residence  of  thirty  years  with  the  Indian 

tribes  on  the  American   frontiers,  with  brief  notices  of  passing 
events,  facts,  and  opinions,  A.D.  1812  to  A.D.  1842  (Philadelphia, 

SCHULTZ,  J.  W.     My  life  as  an  Indian  (New  York,  1907). 
SHARP,  MRS.  ABIGAIL  G.     History  of  the  Spirit  Lake  massacre,  and 

captivity  of  Miss  Abbie  Gardner  (Des  Moines,  1885). 
SHEA,  JOHN  GILMARY.     History  of  the  Catholic  missions  among 

the  Indian  tribes  of  the  United  States,  1529-1854  (New  York, 

1855).     Illustrated. 

A  valuable  work,  by  a  leading  authority  in  Catholic  history.  He  relates 
the  labors  of  Catholic  missionaries  — Spanish,  French,  and  English,  includ- 
ing even  mention  of  the  Northmen  in  Greenland  and  Vinland  — in  North 
America,  with  abundant  reference  to  original  authorities,  and  adds  lists  of 
the  French  missionaries. 

Discovery  and  exploration  of  the  Mississippi  Valley:  with  the 

original  narratives  of  Marquette,  Allouez,   Membre,   Hennepin, 
and  Anastase  Douay  (New  York,  1853). 

Translations  of  above  narratives  (with  annotations  and  biographical 
sketches)  by  Shea. 

Historical  sketch  of  the  Tionontates,  or  Dinondadies,  now  called 


In  Historical  Magazine,  vol.  v. 

History  of  the  Catholic  Church  in  the  United  States  from  the 

first  attempted  colonization  to  the  present  time  ( New  York,  1 886- 
1892).     4  vols. 

SMITH,  ERMINNIE  A.     Myths  of  the  Iroquois  (Washington,  1883). 
In  Second  Report  of  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology. 

SMITH,  GEN.  THOMAS  A.  Letters,  reports,  and  military  orders, 
1812-1818.  Ms. 

This  officer  served  in  the  War  of  1812,  and  during  1815-1818  was  at  the 
head  of  the  Western  Military  Department,  with  headquarters  at  St.  Louis. 
His  letters,  orders,  etc.,  despatched  in  his  official  capacity,  and  letters  and 
reports  from  his  subordinate  officers  at  Forts  Smith,  Osage,  Armstrong,  and 
Crawford,  constitute  this  valuable  collection.  It  is  in  the  possession  of  the 
State  Historical  Society  of  Missouri,  at  Columbia. 


SMITHSONIAN  INSTITUTION.     Annual  reports  of  the  Boards  of  Re- 
gents (Washington,  D.C.,  1847-1910+).     Illustrated. 

The  appendices  to  these  reports  contain  "miscellaneous  memoirs  of  in- 
terest to  collaborators  and  correspondents  of  the  Institution,  teachers,  and 
others  engaged  in  the  promotion  of  knowledge."  Among  these  are  often 
found  papers  on  archaeological  and  ethnological  subjects,  written  by  experts, 
and  largely  based  on  material  found  in  the  National  Museum.  Among 
these  may  be  noted,  in  recent  reports,  the  following:  Otis  T.  Mason,  "In- 
fluence of  Environment  upon  Human  Industries  or  Arts"  (1895)  ;  Thomas 
Wilson,  "Prehistoric  Art"  (1896)  ;  Havelock  Ellis,  "Mescal,  a  new  Artificial 
Paradise"  (1897;  reprinted  from  Contemporary  Review,  Jan.,  1897);  Alice 
C.  Fletcher,  "The  Import  of  the  Totem"  [in  the  Omaha  tribe],  (1897) ; 
W.  A.  Phillips,  "Stone  Implements  from  the  southern  Shores  of  Lake  Mich- 
igan" (1897);  O.  T.  Mason,  "Traps  of  the  American  Indians"  (1901); 
W.  H.  Holmes,  "Traces  of  Aboriginal  Operations  in  an  Iron  Mine  near 
Leslie,  Mo."  (1903) ;  id.,  "The  Contributions  of  American  Archeology  to 
History"  (1904);  Georg  Friederici,  "Scalping  in  America"  (1906). 

Reports  of  the  United  States  National  Museum  (Washington, 

1883-1910+).     Illustrated. 

In  recent  issues  of  these  Reports  are  the  following  papers  among  those 
"describing  and  illustrating  collections"  in  the  Museum:  J.  D.  McGuire, 
"Pipes  and  Smoking  Customs  of  the  American  Aborigines"  (1897) ;  O»  T. 
Mason,  "The  Man's  Knife  among  the  North  American  Indians"  (1897) ; 
id.,  "A  Primitive  Frame  for  Weaving  narrow  Fabrics"  (1898)  ;  id.,  "Abo- 
riginal American  Harpoons"  (1900)  ;  id.,  "Aboriginal  American  Basketry" 

Smithsonian  contributions  to  knowledge,  vols.  i-xxxiv  (Wash- 
ington, 1848-1910+).     Illustrated. 

Notable  articles  therein :  E.  G.  Squier,  "Ancient  Monuments  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi Valley"  (vol.  i)  ;  id.,  "Aboriginal  Monuments  of  the  State  of  New 
York"  (vol.  ii)  ;  Charles  Whittlesey,  "Description  of  Ancient  Works  in 
Ohio"  (vol.  iii)  ;  I.  A.  Lapham,  "The  Antiquities  of  Wisconsin"  (vol.  vii)  ; 
C.  Whittlesey,  "Ancient  Mining  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Superior"  (vol.  xiii)  ; 
Lewis  H.  Morgan,  "Systems  of  Consanguinity  and  Affinity  of  the  Human 
Family"  (vol.  xvii)  ;  Charles  Rau,  "The  Archaeological  Collection  of  the 
U.S.  National  Museum"  (vol.  xxii)  ;  id.,  "Prehistoric  Fishing  in  Europe  and 
North  America"  (vol.  xxv). 

SOCIETY  FOR  PROPAGATING  THE  GOSPEL  among  the  Indians  and 
others  in  North  America,  1787-1887.     [Boston,  1887.] 

A  centennial  publication,  containing  historical  sketches  of  the  society, 
lists  of  officers,  enumeration  of  its  publications,  etc.  See  the  Reports  and 
other  matter  issued  by  the  society,  for  accounts  of  its  work. 

SOUTH  DAKOTA  STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.     Historical  collections 
(Aberdeen,  1902-1908+).     Illustrated. 


Vol.  ii  is  devoted  to  a  "History  of  the  Sioux  Indians,"  by  Doane  Robin- 
son, secretary  of  the  society. 

SQUIER,  E.  G.,  and  E.  H.  Davis.  Ancient  monuments  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi valley  (Washington,  1848).  Illustrations. 

In  Contrib.  to  Knowledge  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  vol.  i. 
STARR,  FREDERICK.     American  Indians  (Boston,  1899).     Illustrated. 

"Intended  as  a  reading  book  for  boys  and  girls  in  school,"  for  which 
purpose  it  is  admirable. 

STEARNS,  ROBERT  E.  C.     Ethno-conchology:  a  study  of  primitive 


In  Report  of  Smithsonian  Institution,  1887,  part  ii,  pp.  297-334. 
STEVENS,  FRANK  E.     The  Black  Hawk  War,  including  a  review  of 

Black  Hawk's  life  (Chicago,  1903).     Illustrated. 

By  far  the  most  extensive  and  full  account  of  the  Black  Hawk  War,  and 
of  the  life  and  deeds  of  that  noted  chief;  based  on  the  best  printed  sources, 
interviews,  and  correspondences  and  numerous  original  documents.  Contains 
over  three  hundred  portraits  and  views,  of  great  historical  value. 

STEWARD,  JOHN  F.  Lost  Maramech  and  earliest  Chicago:  a  history 
of  the  Foxes  and  of  their  downfall  near  the  great  village  of  Mara- 
mech (Chicago,  1903).  Illustrated. 

The  story  of  the  Fox  tribe,  as  found  in  original  sources,  chiefly  Mss. 
from  Paris  archives.  This  author  locates  at  Maramech  Hill  (near  the 
junction  of  Big  Rock  Creek  with  the  Fox  River  of  Illinois)  the  great  battle 
of  1730,  when  the  Fox  tribe  was  almost  exterminated. 

STICKNEY,  GARDNER  P.     Nicholas  Perrot. 

The  use  of  maize  by  Wisconsin  Indians. 

Both  these  papers  are  in  Parkman  Club  Publications,  q.v. 

Indian  use  of  wild  rice. 

In  Amer.  Anthropologist,  vol.  ix,  115-121. 

STITES,  SARA  H.  Economics  of  the  Iroquois  (Bryn  Mawr,  Pa., 

In  Monograph  Series  of  Bryn  Mawr  College,  vol.  i,  no.  3. 
STURTEVANT,  LEWIS.     Indian  corn  and  the  Indian   (Philadelphia, 

In  Amer.  Naturalist,  vol.  xix. 

TANNER,  JOHN.  Narrative  of  captivity  and  adventures  during 
thirty  years'  residence  among  the  Indians  in  the  interior  of  North 
America  (New  York,  1830). 

"Prepared  for  the  press  by  Edwin  James,  M.D."  A  detailed  narrative 
of  Tanner's  experiences  among  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  northwest;  their 


customs  and  mode  of  life,  etc.    To  this  Dr.  James  has  added  much  linguistic 
and  ethnological   information. 

TAYLOR,  EDWARD  L.     Monuments  to  historical  Indian  chiefs. 

In  Publications  of  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical  Society,  vol. 
ix,  1-31,  xi,  1-29. 

TECUMSEH.     Letters,   notes,  memoirs,  etc.,  relating  to  Tecumseh, 
1780-1840.     Ms.     13  vols. 

A  collection  by  L.  C.  Draper  of  materials  for  an  intended  life  of  this 
great  chief;  includes  much  and  valuable  unpublished  material  regarding 
Tecumseh's  life,  travels  among  the  various  tribes,  influence  on  his  fellow- 
Indians,  battles,  etc.  It  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  State  His- 
torical Society. 

TEXTOR,  LUCY  E.     Official  relations  between  the  United  States  and 
the  Sioux  Indians  (Palo  Alto,  Cal.,  1896). 

Leland  Stanford  University  Publication.  Contains  a  full  resume  of  the 
Indian  policy  of  the  United  States. 

THOMAS,  CYRUS.    Indians  of  North  America  in  historic  times  ( Phila- 
delphia, 1903).     Illustrated. 

In  History  of  North  America  (Guy  C.  Lee,  editor),  vol.  ii.  Written  "in 
conference  with  W.  J.  McGee." 

Introduction  to  the  study  of  North  American  archaeology  (Cin- 
cinnati, 1898;  reprinted  in  1903). 

Burial  mounds  of  the  northern  section  of  the  United  States 

(Washington,  1887). 

In  Fifth  Report,  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology. 

Catalogue  of  prehistoric  works  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains 

(Washington,  1891). 

Bulletin  12,  Bureau  of  Amer.  Ethnology.  A  bibliography  of  the  writings 
of  this  eminent  scientist,  prepared  by  himself  a  short  time  before  his  death, 
is  published  in  Amer.  Anthropologist,  new  series,  vol.  xii,  339-343. 

THOMAS,  WILLIAM  I.  Source  book  for  social  origins:  ethnological 
materials,  psychological  standpoint,  classified  and  annotated  biblio- 
graphies for  the  interpretation  of  savage  society  (Chicago,  1909). 

THWAITES,  REUBEN  G.  France  in  America,  1497-1763  (New  York, 

This  is  vol.  vii  in  The  American  Nation  (A.  B.  Hart,  editor). 

The  story  of  Wisconsin  (Boston,  1899). 

Revised  and  enlarged  from  edition  of  1890. 

Wisconsin:  the  Americanization  of  a  French  settlement  (Bos- 
ton, 1908). 


THWAITES,  REUBEN  G.     How  George  Rogers  Clark  won  the  North- 
west, and  other  essays  in  Western  history  (Chicago,  1903). 

Father  Marquette  (New  York,  1902). 

The  story  of  the  Black  Hawk  War  (Madison,  Wis.,  1892). 

In  Wisconsin  Historical  Collections,  vol.  xii. 

(editor).     Early  western  travels,  1748-1846  (Cleveland,  1904- 

1907).     32  vols.     Illustrated. 

"A  series  of  annotated  reprints  of  some  of  the  best  and  rarest  contempo- 
rary volumes  of  travel,  descriptive  of  the  Aborigines  and  social  and  eco- 
nomic conditions  in  the  Middle  and  Far  West,  during  the  period  of  early 
American  settlement."  A  most  valuable  contribution  to  American  history, 
inasmuch  as  the  works  here  reprinted  are  seldom  found  except  in  the  large 
collections  of  Americana,  and  were  thus  accessible  to  but  few  students ;  and 
as  this  edition  furnishes  with  them  copious  annotations  and  other  aids  to  the 
reader,  the  results  of  modern  research.  Among  these  writings  are  some  that 
relate  to  the  tribes  considered  in  the  present  work,  or  to  the  history  of  the 
period  which  it  covers;  the  more  important  of  these  are  noted  as  follows: 

Volume  I.  Conrad  Weiser's  journal  of  a  tour  to  the  Ohio,  1748 ;  George 
Croghan's  letters  and  journals,  1750-1765 ;  Charles  F.  Post's  journals  of 
Western  tours,  1758-1759;  Thomas  Morris's  Journal  of  .  .  .  expe- 
riences on  the  Maumee,  1764.  (London,  1791).  [These  documents  are  espe- 
cially valuable  because  they  furnish  the  history  of  English  relations  with 
the  French  and  Indians  upon  the  western  borders  during  the  last  French 
War,  and  its  sequel,  Pontiac's  conspiracy.  Two  of  the  authors,  Weiser  and 
Croghan,  were  government  Indian  agents;  the  third,  Post,  was  a  Mora- 
vian missionary;  and  the  fourth,  Morris,  was  a  British  army  officer.] 

Volume  n.  J.  Long's  Voyages  and  travels  of  an  Indian  interpreter  and 
trader  (London,  1791).  [The  author  spent  twenty  years  in  the  fur-trade 
and  among  the  northern  tribes,  and  presents  a  graphic  picture  of  Indian  and 
Canadian  life,  and  of  conditions  and  methods  in  the  fur-trade;  also  many 
vocabularies  of  Indian  words,  and  observations  on  their  analogies.] 

Volume  v.  John  Bradbury's  Travels  in  the  interior  of  America,  in  1809- 
1811  (London,  1819).  [Bradbury  was  a  zealous  and  indefatigable  observer, 
and  traveled  through  most  of  the  regions  of  the  Mississippi  valley,  and  up 
the  Missouri.  His  book  is  one  of  the  best  existing  authorities  of  this  period.] 

Volume  vi.  H.  M.  Brackenridge's  Journal  of  a  voyage  up  the  River 
Missouri,  1811  (Baltimore,  1816).  [A  reliable  early  authority.] 

Volume  viii.  Estwick  Evans's  Pedestrious  tour  .  .  .  through  the 
Western  states  and  territories,  1818  (Concord,  N.H.,  1819).  [Evans  traveled 
along  Lake  Erie  to  Detroit,  and  down  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  to  the 

Volume  xin.  Thomas  NuttalPs  Journal  of  travels  into  the  Arkansas  Ter- 
ritory, 1819;  with  observations  on  the  manners  of  the  aborigines  (Phila- 
delphia, 1821).  [The  author  was  a  scientist  of  high  standing,  who  in  the 
pursuit  of  knowledge  traveled  more  than  five  thousand  miles,  through  a 
region  of  which  most  was  still  the  possession  of  wild  Indian  tribes;  of 
these  he  has  given  minute  and  reliable  accounts.] 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  347 

Volumes  xxii-xxv.  Prince  Maximilien's  Voyage  in  the  interior  of  North 
America,  1832-1834.  English  translation  (London,  1843).  [An  elaborate 
account  —  descriptive,  historical,  ethnological,  and  scientific  —  of  the  region 
between  the  Mississippi  and  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and  of  the  Indian  tribes 
dwelling  therein;  magnificently  illustrated  by  a  special  artist  who  accom- 
panied the  expedition.] 

THWAITES,  REUBEN  G.  (editor).  [See  also  Jesuit  Relations;  and 
Wisconsin  Historical  Society,  Collections  and  Proceedings.] 

TURNER,  FREDERICK  J.  The  character  and  influence  of  the  Indian 
trade  in  Wisconsin;  a  study  of  the  trading  post  as  an  institution 
(Baltimore,  1891). 

In  Johns  Hopkins  Univ.  Studies ,  vol.  ix,  543-615.  A  revised  and  en- 
larged form  of  an  address  given  before  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society, 
Jan.  3,  1889  (printed  in  Proceedings  of  the  society,  1889,  pp.  52-98). 

Rise  of  the  new  West,  1819-1829  (New  York,  1906). 

This  is  vol.  xiv  of  The  American  Nation  (A.  B.  Hart,  editor). 

The  significance  of  the  frontier  in  American  history  (Madison, 

Wis.,  1893). 

In  Proceedings  of  Wis.  Historical  Society,  1893,  pp.  79-112. 
TYLOR,  EDWARD  B.     Primitive  culture:  researches  into  the  develop- 
ment of  mythology,  philosophy,  religion,  language,  art,  and  cus- 
tom (London,  1903).     2  vols. 

First  published  in  1871 ;  above  is  fourth  edition,  revised. 
UPHAM,  WARREN,  and  others.     Minnesota  in  three  centuries:  1655- 
1908  ([New  York],  1908).     4  vols.     Illustrated. 

Written  by  the  secretary  and  other  members  of  the  Minnesota  Histori- 
cal Society,  largely  from  original  material  in  the  collections  of  that  society. 

U.S.  DEPARTMENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR.  Statistics  of  Indian  tribes, 
Indian  agencies,  and  Indian  schools  of  every  character;  corrected 
to  January  I,  1899  (Washington,  1899). 

Half-breed  scrip.     Chippewas  of  Lake  Superior  (Washington, 


"The  correspondence  and  action  under  the  7th  clause  of  the  second 
article  of  the  treaty  with  the  Chippewa  Indians  of  Lake  Superior  and  the 
Mississippi  .  .  .  concluded  at  La  Pointe,  Sept.  30,  1854,"  including  also 
reports  of  government  commissions  appointed  in  1871  and  1872. 

VERWYST,  REV.  CHRYSOSTOMUS.  Life  and  labors  of  Rt.  Rev.  Fred- 
eric Baraga  (Milwaukee,  1900).  Illustrated. 

A  carefully-prepared  narrative  (from  original  sources)  of  the  noted 
Bishop  Baraga's  missionary  labors  among  the  Indian  tribes  in  the  north- 
ern peninsula  of  Michigan  (1831-1867).  Contains  much  valuable  informa- 


tion    about  the   Indians,  their  mode   of  life,   character,  beliefs,  etc.;    and 
includes  sketches  of  earlier  missionaries. 

VERWYST,  REV.  CHRYSOSTOMUS.  Missionary  labors  of  Fathers  Mar- 
quette,  Menard,  and  Allouez,  in  the  Lake  Superior  region  (Mil- 
waukee and  Chicago,  1886). 

WAKEFIELD,  JOHN  A.  History  of  the  war  between  the  United 
States  and  the  Sac  and  Fox  Nations  of  Indians  (Jacksonville,  111., 
1834;  Chicago,  1908,  Caxton  Club  reprint).  Illustrated. 

A  valuable  contemporary  account,  by  a  militia  officer  engaged  in  that 
war.  To  the  reprint  are  added  useful  notes  and  a  sketch  of  Wakefield's 
life  by  the  editor,  Frank  E.  Stevens. 

WALKER,  FRANCIS  A.     The  Indian  question  (Boston,  1874). 

The  author  was  commissioner  of  Indian  affairs,  and  discusses  the  Indian 
policy  of  the  United  States. 

WARREN,  WILLIAM  W.  History  of  the  Ojibways,  based  upon  tra- 
ditions and  oral  statements  (St.  Paul,  1885). 

This  account  is  contained  in  vol.  v  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society's 
Collections,  21-394. 

WEBB,  J.  WATSON,  editor.  Altowan,  or  life  and  adventure  in  the 
Rocky  Mountains  (New  York,  1846).  2  vols. 

Contains  accounts  of  the  mode  of  life,  character,  and  traditions  of  the 
Winnebago  and  Potawatomi  Indians. 

WEBSTER,  HUTTON.  Primitive  secret  societies:  a  study  in  early 
politics  and  religion  (New  York,  1908). 

Shows  painstaking  research  and  compilation,  and  is  "probably  the  best 
general  work  on  the  subject  that  has  yet  appeared,  at  least  in  English." 
It  treats  such  topics  as  "The  men's  house,"  "The  puberty  institution," 
"The  secret  rites,"  "Development  of  tribal  societies,"  "Clan  ceremonies," 
"Magical  fraternities,"  etc. 

WHITE,  E.  E.  Service  on  the  Indian  reservations  (Little  Rock, 
Ark.,  1893). 

"The  experiences  of  a  special  Indian  agent  while  inspecting  agencies 
and  serving  as  agent  for  various  tribes,  including  explanations  of  how  the 
government  service  is  conducted  on  the  reservations ;  descriptions  of  agencies ; 
anecdotes  illustrating  the  habits,  customs,  and  peculiarities  of  the  Indians." 

WILSON,  DANIEL.  Prehistoric  man:  researches  into  the  origin  of 
civilization  in  the  Old  and  the  New  World,  third  edition  (London, 
1876).  Illustrated. 

In  Proceedings  of  Royal  Society  of  Canada  are  the  following  papers  by 
this  author:  "The  Huron-Iroquois  of  Canada,  a  typical  race  of  American 
aborigines"  (vol.  ii,  sec.  2,  pp.  55-106)  ;  "Paleolithic  dexterity"  "(vol.  iii, 
sec.  2,  pp.  119-133)  ;  "Trade  and  commerce  in  the  stone  age"  (vol.  vii,  sec. 
2,  pp.  59-87)- 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  349 

WILSON,  FRAZER  E.     The  treaty  of  Greenville  (Piqua,  O.,  1894). 

An  official  account  of  the  treaty,  together  with  the  expeditions  of  St 
Clair  and  Wayne  against  the  northwestern  Indian  tribes. 

WILSON,  THOMAS.     Arrowpoints,  spearheads,  and  knives  of  prehis- 
toric times. 

In  Report  of  U.S.  National  Museum,  1897,  part  i,  pp.  811-988. 

Prehistoric  art. 

In  Report  of  U.S.  National  Museum,  1896,  pp.  325-664. 

Study  of  prehistoric  anthropology. 

In  Report  of  U.S.  National  Museum,  1888,  pp.  597-671. 
WINSOR,  JUSTIN.     Mississippi  basin:  the  struggle  in  America  be- 
tween England  and  France,  1697-1763   (Boston  and  New  York, 
1895).     Illustrated. 

Narrative  and  critical  history  of  America  (Boston  and  N.Y., 

1889).     8  vols.     Illustrated. 

Volume  I  is  devoted  largely  to  the  aborigines  of  North  America;  and  a 
bibliography  of  that  subject  is  given  in  pp.  413-444. 

The  westward  movement:  the  colonies  and  the  republic  west  of 

the  Alleghanies  (Boston,  1897).     Illustrated. 
WISCONSIN  fur-trade  accounts,  1792-1875.     Ms.     17  vols. 

These  papers  (in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  State  Historical  So- 
ciety) include  invoices,  claims,  and  other  business  documents,  written  in 
both  French  and  English,  and  refer  to  practically  all  the  territory  on  the 
map  published  with  this  book.  They  are  concerned  mainly  with  the  opera- 
tions of  the  Green  Bay  fur-traders,  and  to  some  extent  those  of  Mackinac; 
and  include,  besides,  many  military  and  government  accounts. 

WISCONSIN  STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.  Collections  of  the  State 
Historical  Society  of  Wisconsin.  Vols.  i-xix  (Madison,  Wis., 

This  series  constitutes  one  of  our  most  valuable  sources  for  the  history 
of  French  occupation  and  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  northwest.  It  was 
edited  by  Dr.  Lyman  C.  Draper  (1855-1888)  and  Dr.  Reuben  G.  Thwaites 
(since  1888),  successively  secretaries  of  the  Wisconsin  Historical  Society, 
and  both  widely  known  as  authorities  in  the  field  of  Wisconsin  history  and 
in  that  of  the  Indian  tribes  of  the  state.  It  contains  much  original  docu- 
mentary material,  often  its  first  publication;  papers  and  articles  by  many 
specialists  in  those  lines;  reminiscences  and  narratives  by  old  residents, 
traders,  missionaries,  and  others;  reports  of  interviews  with  Indian  chiefs, 
etc.  Many  references  have  been  made  to  the  Collections  in  the  annotations 
to  the  present  work.  The  following  list  of  articles  especially  bearing  on  the 
field  of  this  work  may  be  found  therein: 

Volume  I —  Lieut.  James  Gorrell's  journal,  1761-1763,  pp.  24-48  (account 


of  the  Indians,  their  commerce,  relations  with  English,  councils,  etc.)  ; 
Charles  Whittlesey's  "Recollections,"  1832,  pp.  64-85  (Black  Hawk  War, 
and  other  matter  about  Indians). 

Volume  ii  — James  H.  Lockwood's  "Early  Times  in  Wisconsin,"  (1812- 
1832,  pp.  130-195  (Indian  trade,  character,  customs,  relations  with  whites, 
etc.)  ;  John  Shaw's  "Narrative,"  (1812-1816),  pp.  204-229  (relations  of  In- 
dians with  whites)  ;  Papers  on  Winnebago  and  Black  Hawk  Wars  (1827- 
1832),  pp.  329-414;  "Advent  of  N.Y.  Indians  into  Wisconsin"  (1816-1838), 
pp.  415-449. 

Volume  m  — J.  G.  Shea's  "Indian  Tribes  in  Wisconsin,"  pp.  125-138. 
Cass  Mss.  (documents  from  French  archives,  1723-1727),  pp.  139-177  (cus- 
toms of  Indians,  relations  with  French)  ;  Alfred  Brunson's  "Ancient  Mounds 
in  Crawford  County,"  pp.  178-184  (followed  by  resume  of  Lapham's  An- 
tiquities of  Wisconsin)  ;  Augustin  Grignon's  "Recollections,"  1745-1832,  pp. 
197-295  (Langlade,  Indian  trade  and  traders,  sketches  of  Indian  chiefs, 
etc.)  ;  B.  P.  H.  Witherell's  "Reminiscences,"  pp.  297-337  (Tecumseh,  War 
of  1812,  etc.)  ;  R.  F.  Morse's  "Chippewas  of  Lake  Superior,"  pp.  338-369. 

Volume  iv  — John  Y.  Smith's  "Origin  of  the  American  Indians,"  pp.  117- 
152;  Ebenezer  Childs's  "Recollections,"  pp.  156-185  (1820-1832;  Indian 
trade,  Black  Hawk,  etc.)  ;  Alfred  Brunson's  "Early  History  of  Wisconsin, 
pp.  223-251  (Indian  tribes,  relations  with  whites)  ;  various  papers  relating 
to  New  York  Indians,  pp.  291-334. 

Volume  V  — "Canadian  Documents,"  1690-1730  (obtained  from  French 
archives),  pp.  64-122  (Fox  War,  etc.)  ;  Papers  on  the  Winnebago  War  of 
1827  (Lewis  Cass,  T.  L.  McKenney,  and  others),  pp.  123-158,  178-204; 
tV&,  on  the  Black  Hawk  War,  pp.  285-320;  Notices  of  Chippewa  chief  Hole- 
in-the-Day,  pp.  376-416. 

Volume  vi  — Forsyth's  journal  of  a  voyage  up  the  Mississippi,  1819,  pp. 
188-219  (followed  by  a  letter  from  him  to  Gen.  William  Clark) ;  Moses 
Meeker's  "Early  History  of  the  Lead  Region,"  pp.  271-296. 

Volume  vii  — J.  D.  Butler's  "Prehistoric  Wisconsin,"  pp.  80-101 ;  Joseph 
Tasse's  "Memoir  of  Charles  de  Langlade,"  pp.  123-187;  J.  T.  de  la  Ronde's 
"Narrative,"  (1828-1842),  pp.  346-365;  Henry  Merrell's  "Narrative," 
(1835-1840),  pp.  382-399- 

Volume  viii  — Papers  on  implements  and  early  mining  of  copper,  pp.  140- 
173;  "The  Pictured  Cave  of  La  Crosse  Valley,"  pp.  174-187;  Documents 
relating  to  the  French  in  the  Northwest,  1737-1800,  pp.  209-240;  M.  M. 
Strong's  "Indian  Wars  in  Wisconsin,"  pp.  241-286. 

Volume  x  — E.  Crespel's  account  of  De  Lignery's  expedition,  1728,  pp. 
47-53 ;  French  forts  in  Wisconsin  (by  E.  D.  Neill,  L.  C.  Draper,  and  others), 
pp.  54-63,  292-372;  Lawe  and  Grignon  papers,  1794-1821,  pp.  90-140; 
Papers  of  Thomas  G.  Anderson  (British  Indian  agent),  1814-1821,  pp.  142- 
149;  Papers  on  the  Black  Hawk  War,  pp.  150-229. 

Volume  xi  — "Western  State  Papers,"  (documents  relating  to  French, 
English,  and  American  domination),  1671-1787,  pp.  26-63;  Radisson's  "Voy- 
ages" in  Wisconsin,  pp.  64-96;  Papers  from  Canadian  archives,  1778-1783, 
pp.  97-212 ;  Documents  (by  Dickson,  Forsyth,  and  others)  relating  to  Wis- 
consin in  War  of  1812,  pp.  247-355. 

two]  BIBLIOGRAPHY  351 

Volume  xn  -  Documents  from  Canadian  archives,  1767-1814,  pp.  23-132; 
Two  papers  on  Indian  trade,  pp.  133-169;  R.  G.  Thwaites's  "Story  of  the 
Black  Hawk  War,"  pp.  217-265 ;  Papers  of  Indian  Agent  Boyd,  1832,  pp. 
266-298 ;  Moses  Paquette's  account  of  Wisconsin  Winnebagoes,  pp.  399-433. 

Volume  XIII  —  Documents  relating  to  British  occupation  of  Prairie  du 
Chien  in  War  of  1812,  pp.  1-162;  Early  mining  and  use  of  lead  (O.  G. 
Libby  and  R.  G.  Thwaites),  pp.  271-374;  History  of  Chequamegon  Bay 
(R.  G.  Thwaites  and  Rev.  C.  Verwyst),  pp.  397-440. 

Volume  xiv  -  Elizabeth  T.  Baird's  "Early  Days  on  Mackinac  Island," 
pp.  17-64;  A.  J.  Turner's  "History  of  Fort  Winnebago,"  etc.,  pp.  65-117; 
Catholic  missions  to  Indians,  in  nineteenth  century,  pp.  155-205. 

Volume  xv— "Some  Wisconsin  Indian  Conveyances,  1793-1836,"  pp.  1-24; 
Mission  to  the  Stockbridge  Indians,  1825-1848,  pp.  25-204. 

Volumes  xvi-xvn  —  Documents  from  the  French  archives,  relating  to  the 
French  regime  in  Wisconsin  (1634-1748)  ;  many  of  these  were  hitherto 
unpublished,  and  they  correct  many  errors  and  fill  many  gaps  in  north- 
western history  of  that  period. 

Volume  xvm  —  Documents  from  the  French,  Canadian,  and  Spanish 
archives,  relating  to  the  domination  of  France  (1743-1760)  and  England 
(1760-1800)  in  Wisconsin.  Register  of  marriages  in  the  parish  of  Michili- 
mackinac,  1725-1821. 

Volume  xix  — Register  of  Mackinac  baptisms,  etc.,  1695-1821,  pp.  1-162; 
Journal  of  the  fur-trader  Malhiot,  1804-1805,  pp.  163-233;  The  fur  trade 
on  the  upper  lakes,  and  in  Wisconsin,  1778-1815,  pp.  234-488  (from  original 
sources  in  the  Federal  archives  at  Washington,  the  libraries  of  C.  M.  Burton 
and  the  Wis.  Historical  Society,  etc.). 

WISCONSIN  STATE  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY.     Proceedings,  at  the  annual 
meetings  (Madison,  18 1910+). 

Notable  papers  in  recent  years:  "Indian  agriculture  in  Southern  Wis- 
consin," B.  H.  Hibbard  (1904)  ;  "Historic  sites  on  Green  Bay,"  A.  C. 
Neville,  and  "Printed  narratives  of  Wisconsin  travelers  prior  to  1800," 
Henry  E.  Legler  (1905)  ;  "The  habitat  of  the  Winnebago,  1632-1832,"  P.  V. 
Lawson,  and  "The  Mascoutin  Village  [in  central  Wisconsin],"  John  J. 
Wood  and  Rev.  Arthur  E.  Jones,  S.J.  (1906)  ;  "The  Fox  Indians  during  the 
French  regime,"  Louise  P.  Kellogg  (1907)  ;  "The  old  West,"  Frederick  J. 
Turner  (1908);  "Indian  Diplomacy  and  the  opening  of  the  Revolution  in 
the  West,"  James  Alton  James,  and  "Bibliography  of  Carver's  Travels" 
John  T.  Lee  (1909)  ;  "The  relation  of  archaeology  and  history,"  Carl  R. 
Fish,  and  "A  Menominee  Indian  payment  in  1838,"  Gustave  de  Neveu 

WOOD,  NORMAN  B.     Lives  of  famous  Indian  chiefs   (Aurora,  111. 
[1906]).     Illustrated. 

BIOGRAPHICAL  SKETCHES  of  nearly  a  score  of  renowned  Indian  chiefs,  from 
Powhatan  to  Geronimo;  also  numerous  anecdotes,  stories,  etc.,  designed  to 
show  the  traits  of  the  Indian  character.  The  illustrations  are  unusually 
good  — chiefly  portraits,  most  of  them  from  pictures  in  Field  and  National 


YARROW,   H.  C.     Introduction  to  the  study  of  mortuary  customs 
among  the  North  American  Indians  (Washington,  1880). 
A  Bulletin  of  Smithsonian  Institution. 

A  further  contribution  to  the  study  of  the  mortuary  customs 

of  the  North  American  Indians  (Washington,  1881). 

In  First  Report  of  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  pp.  87-203. 
YOUNG,    EGERTON    R.,   compiler.     Algonquin    Indian   tales    (New 
York,  [1903]).     Illustrated. 

Collected  among  the  Ojibwa  and  other  northern  peoples,  during  some 
thirty  years.  A  chief  figure  in  them  is  the  miraculous  being  Nanabozho. 

ZITKALA-SA.     Old  Indian  legends  retold  (Boston,  1901). 

A  delightful  collection  of  Dakota  stories  told  by  an  educated  young 
woman  of  that  people,  and  illustrated  by  Miss  Angel  de  Cora,  an  artist  be- 
longing to  the  Winneb.ago  tribe. 



Doctor  Paul  Radin,  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  has 
kindly  revised  the  proofs  for  the  second  half  of  volume  n  and  prepared 
the  following  additional  matter.  This  courtesy  was  extended  by 
Doctor  Radin  to  the  editor  on  account  of  the  latter's  serious  illness 
and  to  avoid  delay  in  publication. 

The  index  was  prepared  by  Gertrude  M.  Robertson. 

Location  of  tribes 

Amikwa:  on  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Huron  opposite  Manitoulin, 
Indiana  till  1672;  scattered  to  French  settlements  afterwards, 
some  of  them  going  to  Green  Bay. 

Chippewa:  formerly  along  both  shores  of  Lake  Huron  and  Lake 
Superior  across  Minnesota  to  Turtle  Mountains.  In  1640,  they 
were  at  the  Sault.  Since  1815  they  have  been  settled  in  Michigan, 
Wisconsin,  Minnesota,  and  North  Dakota.  Villages  -  Cheboy- 
gan  and  Thunder  Bay  in  lower  Michigan,  Pawating  and  Onton- 
agon  in  Wisconsin. 

Conestoga:  an  Iroquoian  tribe  on  the  Susquehanna  River. 

Delaware:  the  entire  basin  of  the  Delaware  River,  in  eastern  Penn- 
sylvania and  southeastern  New  York  with  most  of  Delaware  and 
New  Jersey. 

Fox:  Lake  Winnebago  and  Fox  River,  with  numerous  villages  along 
the  same. 

Huron :  Lake  Simcoe,  south  and  east  of  Georgian  Bay  and  afterwards 
along  the  St.  Lawrence  River.  Villages  -  Andiata  and  Sandusky. 

Illinois:  formerly  in  southern  Wisconsin  and  northern  Illinois  and 
sections  of  Iowa  and  Missouri,  along  western  banks  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi as  far  as  the  Des  Moines  River. 

Menominee:  first  at  the  Bay  de  Noque  and  Menominee  River.  In 
1671  to  1852  on  or  near  the  Menominee  and  Fox  Rivers.  Vil- 
lages —  St.  Francis  and  St.  Michael. 

Miami:  in  1658  at  St.  Michael  about  the  mouth  of  Green  Bay.  til- 
lages -  Little  Turtle  and  Piankaskaw. 

356  ADDENDA  [Vol. 

Mascoutin:  beyond  and  south  of  Lake  Huron  and  subsequently  on 

the  Fox  River. 

Mohawk:  in  the  upper  part  of  New  York  State. 
Montagnais:  on  the  St.  Maurice  River  and  eastward  almost  to  the 

Atlantic  Ocean. 
Neutrals:  north  of  Lake  Erie. 
Nippising:  on  Lake  Nippising  and  Lake  Nipigon. 
Oneida:  south  of  Lake  Oneida. 
Onondaga:  in  Onondaga  County,  New  York. 

Ottawa:  on  French  River,   Georgian  Bay.     Villages  -  Walpole  Is- 
land and  Michilimacinac. 
Peoria:  on  some  river  west  of  Mississippi  and  above  the  mouth  of  the 

Wisconsin  River,  probably  upper  Iowa  River. 
Potawatomi:  on  the  western  shore  of  Lake  Huron  and  south  along 

the  western  shore  of  Lake  Michigan.     Villages  -  Milwaukee  and 

Little  Rock. 
Sauk:  the  eastern  peninsula  of  Michigan  and  south  of  it.     Village  - 

De  pere  Rapids,  Wisconsin. 

Shawnee:  South  Carolina,  Pennsylvania,  Tennessee,  and  Ohio. 
Seneca:  western  New  York  between  Lake  Seneca  and  Genesee  River. 
Santee  Sioux:  near  Lake  Buadelower,  Minnesota. 
Teton  Sioux:  above  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony,  Minnesota. 
Winnebago:  Green  Bay  and  along  the  shores  of  the  Fox  River  and 

Lake  Winnebago.     Villages  —  Red  Banks  and  Doty  Island. 
Yankton  Sioux:  north  of  Mille  Lac,  Minnesota. 

Addition  to  annotations 

Volume  II,  page  192,  line  13,  "parties:"  Schoolcraft  in  Thirty 
years  with  the  Indian  tribes,  215-216,  gives  an  eloquent  description 
of  a  party  of  Fox  warriors.  He  says:  "But  no  tribe  attracted  so 
intense  a  degree  of  interest  as  the  lowas  and  the  Sacs  and  Foxes, 
tribes  of  radically  diverse  languages,  yet  united  in  a  league  against 
the  Sioux.  These  tribes  were  encamped  on  the  island  or  opposite 
coast.  They  came  to  the  treaty  ground  armed  and  dressed  as  a  war 
party.  They  were  all  armed  with  spears,  clubs,  guns,  and  knives. 
Many  of  the  warriors  had  a  long  tuft  of  red  horse  hair  tied  to  their 
elbows  and  bore  a  necklace  of  grizzly  bears  claws.  Their  head-dress 
consisted  of  red  dyed  horse-hair,  tied  in  such  a  manner  to  the  scalp- 
locks  to  present  the  shape  of  the  decoration  of  a  Roman  helmet.  The 
rest  of  the  head  was  completely  shaved  and  painted.  A  long  iron- 
shod  lance  was  carried  in  the  hand.  A  species  of  baldric  supported 

two]  ADDENDA  357 

part  of  their  arms.  The  azian,  moccasin,  and  leggings  constituted 
part  of  their  arms.  They  were  indeed  nearly  nude  and  painted. 
Often,  the  print  of  a  hand  in  white  clay,  marked  the  back  or  should- 
ers. They  bore  flags  of  feathers.  They  beat  drums.  They  ut- 
tered yells  at  definite  points.  They  landed  in  compact  ranks.  They 
looked  the  very  spirit  of  defiance.  Their  leader  stood  as  a  prince, 
majestic  and  frowning.  The  wild  native  pride  of  man,  in  the  savage 
state,  flushed  by  success  in  war  and  confident  in  the  strength  of  his 
arm  was  never  so  fully  depicted  to  my  eyes.  And  the  forest  tribes 
of  the  continent  may  be  challenged  to  have  ever  presented  a  spectacle 
of  bold  daring  and  martial  prowess  equal  to  their  landing." 

Additions  to  bibliography 

Volume  n,  page  302,  following  line  15: 

An  interesting  discovery  regarding  Perrot's  memoir  has  been  made 
by  Mr.  Wilberforce  Eames  of  Lenox  Library,  New  York  City.  This 
is,  that  the  book  had  two  issues  in  the  same  year,  pages  221  and  222 
being  cancelled  and  cut  out  and  replaced  by  another  leaf  which  was 
pasted  on  the  stub  of  the  former.  The  changes  in  the  two  pages 
mentioned,  were  made  in  the  second  issue  of  the  year.  The  differ- 
ences between  the  two  issues  are  for  the  most  part  in  minor  details. 
In  some  cases,  the  second  issue  omits  details  mentioned  in  the  first 
issue,  and  vice  versa.  All  these  details  relate  to  the  distribution  of 
the  Illinois  tribes. 

Mr.  Eames  has  courteously  placed  these  facts  and  a  transcript  of 
the  cancelled  pages  at  the  disposal  of  the  editor. 

Also  the  following  additions  to  the  alphabetical  arrangement  of 
the  bibliography,  volume  n,  pages  330-339: 

LETTRES  EDIFIANTES  et  curieuses  ecrites  des  missions  etrangeres;  col- 
lected by  C.  le  Gobien,  J.  B.  du  Halde,  N.  Marechal  and  L.  Pa- 
touillet  and  first  published  in  Paris,  1776.  Rearranged  and  edited 
by  Y.M.M.T.  de  Querbeuf  (Paris,  1780-1788),  14  vols. 

Only  vols.  iv  and  v  relate  to  America. 

LEWIS,  J.  O.     The  Aboriginal  Portfolio  (Philadelphia,  1835). 
RADIN,  PAUL.     Winnebago  tales;  printed  in  Journal  of  American 
Folklore -,  1909. 

Clan  organization  of  the  Winnebago;  printed  in  American  An- 
thropologist, 1910. 

The  ritual  and  significance  of  the  Winnebago  medicine  dance; 

printed  in  Journal  of  American  Folklore,  1911. 


ABEL,  ANNIE  HELOISE:  work  cited,  II, 


Abnaki  [Abenaki,  Abenaquis],  (tribe)  : 
I,  134,  185,  footnote,  224,  footnote, 
364,   footnote,   II,    54,   82,   259;    ac- 
count,  54-55,  footnote 
Acadia  [Accadia,  Cadie] :  I,  47,  foot- 
note, 197,  256,  footnote,  348 
Adams,  Charles  F:  work  cited,  II,  303 
Adams,  Henry:  work  cited,  II,  303 
Adams,    John    Quincy:   Memoirs,    II, 


Adario  [Kondiaronk,  Sastaretsi],  (Ti- 
onontate  chief) :  leads  expedition 
against  Iroquois,  I,  253,  footnote', 
cause  of  French  massacre,  253,  foot- 
note', converted,  253,  footnote 

Adoption:  see  Manners  and  customs', 

Adornment  (personal)  :  see  Manners 
and  customs 

Africa:  I,  27,  footnote 

Agariata  (an  Iroquois) :  I,  307 

Agniers:  see  Mohawk 

Agriculture:  see  Economic  conditions'. 
industries,  etc. 

Alaska:  I,  38,  footnote,  81,  footnote, 
122,  footnote',  Kodiak,  171,  footnote 

Algeria:  government,  I,  26  and  foot- 

Algonkins  [Algonquins] :  I,  15,  26,  36, 
footnote,  65,  footnote,  88,  footnote, 
147,  footnote,  281,  footnote,  288, 
footnote,  371,  footnote,  II,  252;  lo- 
cation, I,  43,  148,  149,  177;  driven 
to  Mackinaw,  4*3,  footnote;  name 
applied  to  tribe,  43,  footnote;  char- 
acteristics, 197;  courtship  and  mar- 

riage, 67-74 »  hunters,  43 ;  hunting 
expedition,  43-45;  regard  corn  as 
treat,  102;  esteem  flesh  of  dogs,  53, 
footnote;  government,  145,  footnote; 
refuse  to  render  justice,  46;  wor- 
ship Great  Panther,  59 ;  belief  re- 
garding souls,  II,  208,  footnote; 
compared  to  Dakotas,  I,  161,  foot- 
note; allies  of  French,  203;  offer 
services  to  Courcelles,  199.  Rela- 
tions with  Iroquois  —  neighbors,  I, 
43 ;  invite  to  winter  with  them,  43 ; 
hostile  to,  306;  attack,  151,  190-192; 
war  against,  190-203;  defeated  by, 
192-193 ;  unwilling  to  free,  201 

Alimibegon:  I,  173 

Allegheny  [Alleghany]  Mts:  I,  122, 
footnote,  336,  footnote 

Allegheny  River:  I,  240,  footnote,  336, 

Alliances:  I,  309,  311,  317,  II,  184,  189, 
201;  renewed,  33;  periodical  re- 
newals, 190;  significance  of  belts, 
185;  aids  allies,  I,  356-357.  Inter- 
race  —  of  English  and  various  tribes, 
II,  188;  Indians  and  French,  135, 
footnote,  254;  desirable  with  French, 
I,  347,  II,  42;  benefits  from,  with 
French,  I,  356-357;  renewed  be- 
tween French  and  Foxes,  II,  62-64; 
Foxes  oppose  French,  I,  185,  foot- 
note; between  French,  Miami,  and 
Mascoutens,  332;  between  French 
and  Potawatomi,  316;  of  all  na- 
tions to  avenge  massacre  of  Illinois, 
299-300.  Intertribal  —  desired,  II, 
44,  92,  118;  Miami  wish  to  renew, 
99 ;  Algonkins  form,  I,  197 ;  Assin- 




iboin,  108,  footnote]  Chippewa,  II, 
189,  footnote,  190;  Cree,  I,  108, 
footnote',  against  Dakota,  II,  64-65; 
with  Dakota,  I,  277;  Foxes,  II,  118; 
Foxes,  Sauk,  and  other  tribes,  145- 
184,  204-205,  232-233,  356;  Hurons, 
92-106;  Iowa,  145,  356;  Iroquois,  I, 
279-280,  footnote,  342-343,  II,  44, 
106;  Kickapoo,  118,  145;  Miami, 
99,  118;  Missisaugi,  I,  279-280, 
footnote',  against  Osage,  II,  204- 
205;  Ottawa,  44,  92,  106,  189,  foot- 
note, 190;  Potawatomi,  189,  foot- 
note, 190;  Wyandotts,  189,  footnote. 
See  Intertribal  relations;  Interracial 

Allouez  [Alloiiet,  Aloiiet],  Claude 
Jean  (Jesuit  missionary) :  I,  16,  48, 
footnote,  60,  footnote,  129,  footnote, 
132,  footnote,  149,  footnote,  156, 
footnote,  165,  182,  footnote,  270, 
footnote,  301,  footnote,  329,  footnote, 
II,  252 ;  Perrot  confers  with,  I,  343 ; 
witnesses  transfer  of  land  to  France, 
224;  mistreated  by  Miami,  II,  16; 
brief  account,  I,  224,  footnote',  work 
on,  cited,  II,  337,  348 

Allumettes  Island  [Le  Borgne  Island, 
Isle  du  Borgne]:  I,  176,  footnote, 

American  Anthropologist:  II,  305,  338, 

3*44,   345,   357 

American  Antiquarian:  II,  341 
American   Antiquarian   and   Oriental 

Journal:  II,  304 

American  Antiquarian  Society:  II, 
321;  Proceedings,  312;  Transac- 
tions, 304 

American  Archeologist:  II,  304 
American  Association  for  the  advance- 
ment   of    science:    Proceedings,    II, 


American  Baptist  Home  Missionary 
Society:  II,  304 

American  Bison  Society:  I,  123,  foot- 

American  Board  of  Commissioners 
for  Foreign  Missions:  II,  304 

American  Catholic  Historical  Re- 
searches: I,  323,  footnote 

American  Catholic  Quarterly:  II,  326 

American  Ethnological  Society  of 
New  York:  II,  328 

American  Folk-lore  Society:  Journal, 
II,  304,  357 

American  Historical  Association: 
Annual  report,  II,  303 ;  Papers,  305 

American  Law  Review.  II,  326 

American  Missionary  Association:  II, 


American  Nation:  II,  345,  347 
American  Naturalist:  II,  36,  footnote, 


American  Review  of  Reviews:  II,  338 
American    State    Papers:   Indian    af- 
fairs, II,  305 

Americans:  I,  288,  footnote,  301,  foot- 
note] Shawnee  prophet  warns 
against,  II,  274;  Indians  to  avoid, 
277 ;  destroy  Tippecanoe,  279,  foot- 

Amikwa  [Amicouas,  Amicoues,  Ami- 
kouas,  Amikouets,  Amiquois],    (Al- 
gonquian    tribe) :    I,    42,    footnote, 
173,    179;    location,    II,    355;    de- 
scribed,   I,    63,    footnote]    sun-wor- 
shiper, 60,  footnote]  creation  belief, 
62-63  >  help  gain  victory  over  Iro- 
quois, 154,  footnote]  Perrot  winters 
with,  221;  attend  council,  224;  Mo- 
hawks reveal  conspiracy,  254 
Amsterdam    (Netherlands) :    II,    301 
Amusements:  love  of,  I,  93;    Miami 
entertain  Perrot,  345-346.     Games  — 
II,     230-232;      following     funeral, 
I,  82;  planned  for  guests,  296;  ball 
games,    intertribal,    II,    269 ;    bowl, 
272;   cards,  230;    crosse,  I,   93-96; 
345 ;    dice,    101-102 ;    moccasin,    II, 
230;  platter,  230;  straws,  I,  96-101. 
Races —  I,    82,  II,   230.     Sham   bat- 
tles -II,    194,    231-232.     Story-tell- 
ing —  II,  222.     See  Dances 
Andastes:  see  Conestoga 
Anderson,  Thomas  G:  papers,  II,  350 
Andiata   (Huron  village) :  II,  355 




Andre,  Louis  (Jesuit  missionary)  :  I, 
150,  footnote,  290,  footnote ;  quoted, 
102-103 ;  witnesses  transfer  of  land 
to  France,  225,  footnote 

Animals:  game,  see  Game  animals ; 
domestic,  I,  282,  footnote ;  see  Dog, 

Annals  de  la  propagation  de  la  foi, 
etc:  cited,  I,  155,  footnote,  162, 
footnote,  226,  footnote,  II,  305; 
quoted,  I,  209,  footnote 

Aouenano   (Iroquois)  :  II,  136 

Apache  (group  of  Athapascan  fam- 
ily) :  II,  226,  footnote,  282 

Apichagan    [Miami   chief] :   II,    13 

Arapaho  (tribe  of  Algonquian  fam- 
ily):  I,  277,  footnote,  327,  II,  282 

Arctic  Ocean:  I,  171,  footnote 

Arikara  (tribe  of  Caddoan  linguistic 
family) :  I,  171,  footnote,  277,  foot- 

Arizona:  I,  81,  footnote,  323,  foot- 
note,  363,  footnote 

Arkansas:  II,  146,  footnote 

Arkansas  [Akancas,  Arkansa,  Arkan- 
saw]  River:  I,  224,  footnote,  277, 
footnote,  328,  footnote,  348  and 
footnote,  II,  184,  234 

Armstrong,  Benj.  G:  work  cited,  II, 

Armstrong,  Perry  A:  II,  306 

Arrows:  origin,  I,  38;  in  medicine 
pouch,  50,  footnote',  used  as  sacri- 
fice, 61,  footnote-,  given  to  boy,  78; 
see  Weapons;  Implements,  etc. 

Askin,  John:  II,  310 

Assiniboia    (Prov.)  :   I,    107,    footnote 

Assiniboin  [Assiniboiialas,  Assini- 
boiiles,  Assinipoualaks,  Chiripin- 
ons],  (Siouan  tribe) :  I,  278,  foot- 
note, 371,  footnote',  account,  364; 
economic  conditions,  103,  162,  foot- 
note', ally  with  Cree,  108,  footnote', 
Sioux  wage  war  against,  170 

Assiniboin  River:  I,  364  and  footnote 

Asuans:  II,  202,  footnote 

Ataentsic:  first  ancestor,  I,  40,  foot- 
note-, mother  earth,  II,  271 

Atchatchakangouen  [Tchiduakouing- 
oues],  (tribe) :  II,  67 

Athapascan  family:  method  of  mak- 
ing fire,  I,  38,  footnote;  mourning 
custom,  82,  footnote;  great  travel- 
ers, II,  199,  footnote 

Atlantic  Ocean:  I,  25,  103,  footnote^ 
308,  footnote,  II,  183,  199,  footnote, 

Attikamegue  [Poissons  Blancs],  (Mon- 

taignais  band) :  Algonkins  ask  aid 

from,  I,  197 
Aumanimek    (chief   of  Amikwa) :   I, 

Auraumut,  Hendrick:  work  cited,  II, 

Austria:    II,    293,    footnote;    Vienna, 


Awen<ha'i  (mother  earth) :  II,  271,  272 
Ayer,  Edward  E:  collection,  II,  306 

BAIRD,  ELIZABETH:  work  cited,  II,  351 
Bald  Eagle:  name  of  Sauk  clan,  II, 


Bald  [Pelee]  Island:  I,  163  and  foot- 
Bancroft,  George:  History  of  the  U.S., 

I,  156,  footnote,  267,  footnote 
Baraga,    Frederic    (bishop) :    II,    293 

and  footnote;  work  on,  cited,  347 
Barber,  Edwin  A:  work  cited,  II,  306 
Bark:  uses,  I,  80,  footnote 
Barre,  M.  de  la:  I,  148  and  footnote, 
240;  sent  to  replace  Frontenac,  231; 
consents  to  war  with  Iroquois,  231- 
232;  gives  Perrot  trade-permit,  233; 
letters  from,  242 ;   recalled,  243 
Barrows,  William:  work  cited,  II,  306 
Bay  de  Noque:  I,  291,  footnote,  II,  355 
Bay  of  the  Puants:  see  Green  Bay 
Beach,  W.  W:  work  cited,  II,  307,  335 
Beads  \rassade~\\  Perrot  gives,  I,  331; 
manufacture,  331,  footnote,  II,  185, 
footnote;     uses,     I,     331,     footnote, 
brought  from  Europe,  II,  185,  foot- 
note; see   Wampum 
Bear:  I,   102,   113   and  footnote,  114, 
283,  304,  317,  II,  168,  171,  footnote, 




220,  234;  tribal  name,  I,  319,  320, 
II,  163;  name  of  Fox  clan,  192;  of 
Sauk  clan,  191  and  footnote;  origin 
of  man,  I,  37;  honors  paid,  132, 
footnote;  represented  by  totems,  II, 
259;  used  as  sacrifice,  I,  61,  foot- 
note; Indians  pray  to,  49;  January, 
February,  July  named  for,  II,  116; 
mode  of  hunting,  I,  126-131;  meat 
served  at  feast,  53;  rutting  season, 
127 ;  produces  stripes  on  chipmunk's 
back,  II,  265;  comparison,  40 

Bear-Potato:  name  of  Sauk  clan,  II, 
191  and  footnote 

Beauchamp,   W.   M:  work  cited,   II, 


Beaver:  I,  102,  no,  113,  114,  168,  182, 
203,  278,  280,  283,  304,  310,  317, 
322,  365,  369-370,  372>  II,  92,  234; 
abundant,  I,  173,  II,  33;  scarce,  I, 
337;  method  of  hunting  or  trap- 
ping, I,  104-106;  in  creation  myth, 
32-35;  insignia  of  family,  347;  robes 
as  gift,  346 

Beckwith,  Hiram  W:  work  cited,  II, 


Beckwith,  Paul  E:  quoted,  II,  180-181, 

Begon,  Claude  Michel:  I,  28,  footnote, 
29;  Perrot  composes  Memoirs  for, 
262,  footnote 

Belgium:  Bruxelles,  I,  30,  footnote 

Beliefs  and  superstitions:  in  general- 
ly 31-66;  bad  omen  for  war,  237- 
238 ;  affected  by  omens,  237-238,  II, 
226,  footnote;  regarding  buffalo, 
I,  123,  footnote;  regarding  calumet, 
185,  186;  regarding  education,  II, 
155;  concerning  epidemic,  I,  354; 
regarding  hunting,  129;  invocation 
of  spirits,  54-55 ;  regarding  puberty 
of  boys,  II,  172,  footnote;  of  girls, 
172,  footnote;  tattooing,  I,  325;  foot- 
note; worship  of  Great  Panther,  59; 
belief  in  Nanabozho,  283,  283-287, 
footnote.  Creation  —  II,  220;  of 
man,  I,  37-40,  62-63,  II,  174;  of 

woman,  I,  39-40,  II,  174;  of  world, 
I,  31-36.  Death  and  immortality  — 
death,  II,  170,  footnote,  173,  174- 
*75,  293;  ghosts,  223;  immortality, 
I,  89-92,  295 ;  soul,  II,  208-209,  2°8» 
footnote,  266;  afterworld,  208,  foot- 
note; country  of  dead  visited  by 
mortals,  I,  92.  Dreams  —  I,  47,  foot- 
note, 49,  51,  footnote,  299,  328,  foot- 
note, 332,  356,  II,  194-195,  210,  226, 
footnote,  237,  footnote,  260,  274;  in 
general,  I,  51,  footnote;  importance 
and  significance,  51-52  and  footnote; 
to  obtain  favorable,  69,  footnote; 
to  induce,  at  puberty,  52,  footnote; 
of  supernatural  origin,  51,  footnote; 
before  war,  II,  158,  161.  Elements  — 
eclipse  of  moon,  II,  121,  221 ;  flood, 

I,  40,  footnote;  storm,  361;  weather 
signs,  60  and  footnote,  II,  221 ;  win- 
ter   journeys,    I,    61.     Witchcraft  — 

II,  268,   273,   footnote;    in  wizards 
and  witches,  225 ;  in  magic  power, 
264-269 ;  external  magic  influences, 
II,  266.     See  Religion 

Bell,  Andrew:  II,  322 
Bellacoola  (Salish  tribe)  :  II,  270 
Bellinzani,  M:  Perrot  receives  permit 

through,  I,  228,  footnote,  229 
Beschefer,  —   (Jesuit  father)  :  I,  154, 

footnote;  quoted,  48,  footnote 
Bescherelle,  — :  I,  308,  footnote 
Biard's  Relation:  I,   66,  footnote,   83, 
footnote,    89,    footnote;    quoted,    54, 

Biggs,  W:  work  cited,  II,  307 
Big  Rock  Creek  (111.) :  II,  344 
Biloxi  (Siouan  tribe)  :  I,  277,  footnote, 

278,  footnote 

Birds:  I,  113,  II,  220;  depicted  on 
skins,  I,  53,  footnote;  as  sacrifice, 
61,  footnote;  as  game,  78,  89;  crane, 
II,  n6;  eagle,  I,  61,  footnote;  geese, 
II,  116;  magpie,  I,  51;  paroquet 
[perroquets],  51  and  footnote;  swan, 

Bison:  II,  171,  footnote;  History,  304 




Black  Bass:  name  of  Sauk  clan,  II,  191, 
footnote',  name  of  Fox  clan,  192 

Blackbird,  Andrew  J:  work  cited,  II, 

Black  Carp  (family) :  I,  319 

Blackfeet  [Siksika],  (Siouan  tribe): 
I,  277,  footnote,  II,  258-259 ;  blanket, 
standard  of  value,  149,  footnote', 
hostile  relations,  I,  108,  footnote 

Black  Hawk  [Muc-it-tay  Mish-she- 
ka-kake,  Ma'katawimesheka'kaa], 
(subordinate  chief  of  Sauk  and  Fox 
Indians)  :  I,  301,  footnote,  II,  142, 
footnote,  193,  footnote,  211,  303, 
304,  307;  account,  211,  footnote',  de- 
livered up  to  U.S.,  I,  292,  footnote; 
work  on  cited,  II,  307 

Black  Hawk  War:  II,  142,  footnote, 
191,  footnote,  211,  footnote,  245,  303, 
3i8,  334,  344,  350,  35i;  causes,  I, 
292,  footnote,  II,  18 1,  footnote,  211, 
footnote,  294,  footnote 

Black  River:  I,  165  and  footnote,  171, 
footnote,  172,  268  and  footnote 

Blair,  E.  H:  II,  202,  footnote,  328 

Blanchard,  Rufus:  work  cited,  II,  307 

Blandin,  Miss  —  [Mrs.  Graham] :  II, 

Blanket:  I,  70,  78,  315,  334,  II,  173, 
176,  221,  285;  Indians  cling  to,  294; 
mode  of  manufacture,  149,  footnote; 
uses,  149,  footnote;  as  sacrifice,  I, 
61,  footnote;  as  wager,  97 

Blondeau,  Maurice:  II,  153,  footnote, 
154,  198,  footnote 

Blondeau,  Nicholas:  II,  153,  footnote 

Bloomfield,  Julia  K:  work  cited,  II, 

Blue  Chief  (celebrated  Sauk) :  II,  184 

Boas,  Franz  [Francis,  Frank] :  quoted, 
I,  54-55,  footnote,  II,  208,  footnote, 

Bobe,  Father:  commends  La  Potherie's 
Ms.,  II,  134 

Boisguillot,  — :  I,  244,  footnote 

Bow  and  arrows:  see  Implements; 

Boyd,  George:  work  cited,  II,  308,  351 
Brackenridge,  H.  M:  Journal,  II,  346 
Bradbury,  John:  Travels,  II,  346 
Brebeuf,  — :  I,  81,  footnote 
Brinton,  Daniel  G:  II,  152,  footnote; 

work  cited,  170,  footnote,  308 
British:  II,  50,  59,  254,  and  in  foot- 
notes on  the  following  pages,  I,  205, 
226,  261,  273,  288,  II,  54,  136,  240, 
241 ;  Indian  names  for,  II,  240-241, 
footnote;  colonies,  I,  25;  regarded 
as  friends,  352,  II,  277;  head  of 
confederacy,  188;  bribe  with  gifts, 

I,  267;  try  to  win  savages,  250-251, 
250,    footnote;    intrigues,    II,     135, 
footnote;     secret    connections,     79; 
gaining  ascendancy,  I,  261 ;  dealings 
desirable,  259,  footnote;  desire  peace, 

II,  42;  defeated,  81,  82;  cause  trou- 
ble between  French  and  Indians,  I, 
261,  footnote;  French  try  to  prevent, 
from   intruding,   256,    footnote;   In- 
dians   oppose,    156,    footnote;    con- 
quest   of    Canada,    257,    footnote; 
trade,  259,   footnote,  261    and  foot- 
note, II,  22,  80,  81,  85,  95;  trading- 
post,  I,  246,  footnote;  sell  Indians, 
267    and   footnote;     arrested,    250; 
Cree    friendly,    108,    footnote;    Hu- 
rons  join,  II,  22;  relations  with  Iro- 
quois,   I,   267,   II,   35,   95-96;    rela- 
tions with  Ottawa,   I,  267,   II,  90, 
106 ;  with  Potawatomi,  I,  302 ;  foot- 
note; with  Tecumseh,  II,  279  and 

British  Columbia:  I,  122,  footnote,  324, 
footnote,  II,  265,  270 

British  Folk-lore  Society:  I,  294,  foot- 

Brochet  (chief) :  II,  81 

Brookes,  Samuel  M:  II,  157,  footnote 

Brower,  J.  V:  work  cited,  II,  308,  334 

Brown,  Adam  (captive) :  II,  189,  foot- 

Brown,  Charles  E:  I,  21,  II,  152,  foot- 

Brule   [Bois-Brules] :  I,   109,   footnote 




Brunet,   Ovide:  I,   116,  footnote,  117, 

footnote,  1 1 8,  footnote 
Brunson,  Rev.  Alfred:  work  cited,  II, 

308,  350 

Buck,  Daniel:  work  cited,  II,  308 
Buffalo:  I,  109,  113,  114,  154,  159,  249, 
278,  footnote,  322  and  footnote,  366- 
367,  footnote,  II,  64,  68,  165,  168, 
185,  footnote,  191,  footnote,  220,  234, 
261,  287;  rutting  season,  I,  119; 
mode  of  hunting,  120-126 ;  used  as 
sacrifice,  61,  footnote]  economic  uses, 
123,  footnote',  census  of  American, 
123,  footnote 

Buffalo  Society:  II,  224,  footnote 
Bureau  of  American  Ethnology:  I,  18, 
II,    316;    Annual   reports,    308-309, 
315,  317,  320,  323,  324,  332,  335,  338, 
340,  342,  345,  352;  Bulletins,  II,  309, 
31^,   3^3 
Bureau  of  Catholic  Indian  Missions: 

Reports,  II,  309;  Annals,  309 
Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs:  II,  341 
Burgundy  [Bourgogne],  Duke  of:  II, 


Burial  and  mourning  customs:  treat- 
ment of  sick  as  death  approaches, 
I»  78-79;  mode  of  burial,  80-81,  81, 
footnote,  II,  172-173,  292;  crema- 
tion, 170,  footnote',  interment  cere- 
mony, 206,  209 ;  mourning,  in  gener- 
al, I,  83-84;  for  brother,  79-80;  for 
chief,  84;  for  relative,  II,  173,  285; 
for  son,  I,  79 ;  of  widows,  70-72,  II, 
173,  208;  of  widower,  I,  73-74;  sac- 
rifices for  dead,  62,  footnote',  grave 
described,  II,  206;  articles  placed 
near,  209;  findings  in  graves,  199, 
footnote ;  marking,  212 ;  property  of 
deceased,  206-207;  games  following 
burial,  I,  82;  feast  of  dead,  83 ;  cus- 
toms among  Sioux,  II,  285;  among 
Potawatomi,  292;  see  Gifts:  of  con- 

Burton,  C.  M:  work  cited,  II,  309 

Burton,  Frederick  R:  work  cited,  II, 

Bushnell,  D.  I :  work  cited,  II,  306 

Butler,  J.  D:  work  cited,  II,  350 

169,  footnote 

Cache  [storing  of  supplies] :  I,  104, 
and  footnote 

Caddoan  family:  I,  125,  footnote 

Cadillac,  La  Mothe  (founder  of  De- 
troit) :  I,  351,  footnote,  II,  119,  foot- 
note, 310;  quoted,  I,  349,  II,  51,  foot- 

Cahokia  [Cahokians,  Kaokia],  (tribe 
of  Illinois  confederacy) :  I,  155,  foot- 
note, 295,  footnote,  II,  200 

Calhoun,  John  C:  II,  140,  327,  336 

California:  II,  170,  footnote,  227,  foot- 

Calkins,  Franklin  W:  II,  284;  article, 
286-287;  work  cited,  310 

Callieres,  M.  —  de:  I,  148,  footnote, 
II,  136,  254;  quoted,  I,  269,  footnote 

Calumet:  I,  139,  345,  350,  II,  31,  76, 
96;  described,  I,  182,  footnote',  uses, 
185,  footnote',  significance,  185-186; 
of  peace,  II,  34;  war,  101 ;  favorite 
material  for  making,  96 ;  depicted 
on  skins,  I,  53,  footnote',  song  (illus- 
tration}, 183;  sung  to  Sinagos,  182; 
honors  of,  conferred  on  Perrot,  I,  27, 
325-330,  by  lowas,  368,  369;  by  Me- 
nominee,  311,  313;  by  Potawatomi, 
309;  Perrot  offers,  II,  34;  to  Foxes, 

I,  359;  for  Miami,  II,  98,  99;  Per- 
rot wins  purpose  by  means  of,  72 ; 
Perrot  lights,  77 ;  Dakota  with,  shot, 
131;  Hurons  carry  to  Iroquois,  106; 
Miami  offers  to  French,  126;  to  Da- 
kota, 114;  Ottawa  present  to  Chip- 
pewa,  91 ;  presented  to  Ottawa,  78 ; 
Sauk  offers  to  Dakota,  114;  presents 
Perrot's  to  Dakota,  114;  worshiped 
by  Sioux,  I,  161,  footnote 

Campbell,  Henry  C:  I,  172,  footnote', 

work  cited,  II,  310,  337 
Canada:  I,  28,  29,  207,  228,  306,  308, 

II,  42,  45,  50,  69,  80,  136,  188,  215, 
240,   301,   and   in   footnotes   on   the 
following  pages,  I,  31,  39,  74,  76,  83, 




93,  107,  no,  114,  171,  174,  198,  205, 

217,  222,  224,  243,  253,  257,  262,  269, 
273,  275,  277,  28l,  282,  303,  308,  316, 

324,  331,  35i»  364,  II,  28,  42,  55,  in, 
135,  189,  199,  252,  273,  330;  early 
settlements,  I,  148 ;  French  coloniza- 
tion, 25;  buffalo  in,  123,  footnote ; 
early  conditions,  228,  footnote;  fur 
trade,  27  and  footnote ;  slavery,  190, 
footnote ;  see  Montreal;  Quebec,  etc. 

Canadians:  I,  117,  footnote,  203;  vio- 
late trade  laws,  230 

Canfield,  W.  W:  work  cited,  II,  310 

Cannibalism:  I,  189,  225,  349,  II,  48, 
footnote,  101,  202  and  footnote ;  prac- 
ticed occasionally,  I,  169,  footnote ; 
by  various  tribes,  371,  footnote ; 
cause,  371,  footnote ;  compelled  by 
hunger,  103  ;  to  inspire  courage,  143, 
footnote,  II,  226 ;  among  Foxes,  225 ; 
among  Ottawa,  I,  188;  among 
Pauns,  293 ;  among  Sauk,  II,  225 ; 
Seneca  slow  to  suppress,  I,  240,  foot- 
note; Sioux  do  not  indulge  in,  169; 
among  Winnebago,  296 

Canoes:  described,  I,  171,  footnote,  228, 
footnote;  Iroquois  steal,  175 

Cape  Diggs  [Digue] :  I,  307,  308,  foot- 

Cape  Massacre:  I,  175 

Capital  punishment:  see  Punishment 

Cap  Rouge:  I,  192 

Captives:  in  general  —  taken,  I,  200; 
desert  liberator,  187;  satisfaction  de- 
manded for  retention,  354;  religious 
duty  to  eat,  371,  footnote;  Jesuits 
aid,  II,  36-37;  Foxes,  I,  227;  take, 
II,  28 ;  deliver  to  French,  29 ;  French 
make  example  of  Iroquois  chief,  93- 
94;  Huron,  I,  168,  187,  193;  spare 
Iroquois,  II,  92;  mutual  agreement 
between  Huron  and  Iroquois,  92-93 ; 
Iroquois  take  many,  43 ;  Louvigni 
takes  Iroquois,  45  ;  Adario  takes  Iro- 
quois, I,  253,  footnote;  Iroquois,  II, 
134;  Ottawa  secure,  36;  Sauk,  no; 
Skidi,  85.  Adoption  — II,  48,  foot- 
note, 49,  footnote,  162,  196,  197;  of 

bands,  49,  footnote;  Iroquois  gain 
strength  by,  I,  227 ;  to  replenish  gen- 
tes,  II,  37-38,  footnote;  of  Adam 
Brown,  II,  189,  footnote.  Freed  — 

I,  187-188,  193,  201,  253,  footnote, 

II,  54,  78,  253;  redeemed,  90,  104; 
redemption    encouraged   by   Jesuits, 
38,  footnote;  ransomed,  49,  footnote , 
109;    granted   life,  40;    French  try 
to  release,  104;  Perrot  returns,  113; 
restored  to  Chippewa,   30;   Hurons 
spare  Iroquois  slave,  47-49 ;  Iroquois 
spare,   14;   Shawnee,  I,  336;    Sioux 
liberate,    163.     Treatment  —  I,    300, 
II,  37,  47-48,  footnote,  196-197;  kind, 
I,  182;  among  Huma,  169,  footnote; 
among  Illinois,  169,  footnote;  of  Mi- 
ami woman,  II,  58 ;  among  Natchez, 
I,  169,  footnote;  among  Ottawa,  II, 
39;  of  Sauk  by  Hurons,  in;  among 
Sioux,  I,  170.     Torture  — I,  142-143, 
footnote,  II,   37,  footnote,  38,  foot- 
note, 48,  footnote;  of  Father  Lalle- 
mand,  I,   177;   of  Hurons,  158;   of 
Iroquois    chief,    II,    93-94;    among 
Sioux,  I,  169;  Tecumseh  persuades 
tribe   to   discontinue,   II,   279,   foot- 
note.    Condemned  —  I,  170,  193,  198, 
253,  footnote,  343;  II,  39,  40,  162; 
Iroquois,  49;  Shawnee,  I,  336;  Sin- 
agos,     190.         Individuals  —  Adam 
Brown,    II,    189,    footnote;    Abbie 
Gardner,    342 ;    Charles   le    Moyne, 
I,    197-198;    M.    de    Noirolle,    200; 
John  Tanner,  II,  37,  footnote,  344 

Cap    Tourmente     (on    St.    Laurence 

Riv.) :  I,  25 
Caribou:   I,    102,    109,   no,   footnote; 

hunting,    106-107;    form   yards,   44, 


Carp:  March  named  for,  II,  116 
Carr,  Lucien:  work  cited,  II,  310-311 
Cartier,  Jacques:  I,  26,  89,  footnote 
Carver,   Jonathan:   II,   116,   footnote; 

work  cited,  311;  work  on,  cited,  337 
Casey,  M.  P:  work  cited,  II,  311 
Cass,  Lewis:  II,  325,  331;  work  cited, 





Catawba  (Siouan  tribe)  :  I,  277,  foot- 
note, 335,  footnote 

Catholics:  II,  in,  footnote',  compar- 
ison to  novice,  I,  134;  Dakotas 
enemies  of,  161,  footnote',  among 
Iroquois,  240,  footnote;  ecclesiastics 
induce  war  on  Iroquois,  231;  mon- 
stance  presented  by  Perrot  to  mis- 
sion, II,  57,  footnote ;  native  ordain- 
ed priest,  294;  missionary  society, 
305 ;  work  on  missions,  cited,  342 ; 
St.  Anne's  Parish  Church,  334;  gov- 
ernors permit  trade  in  brandy,  I, 
209 ;  two  Christian  villages  estab- 
lished, 157,  footnote.  Converts  — I, 
364,  footnote;  number,  165,  footnote; 
faithful,  II,  293 ;  do  not  join  dances, 
292;  Adario  converted,  I,  253,  foot- 
note; Huron  converts,  257,  footnote; 
Illinois  converted,  156,  footnote; 
Montaignais  converted,  131-132, 
footnote;  Nepissing  readily  convert- 
ed, I,  339,  footnote.  See  Jesuits; 
Jesuit  Relations;  Recollects;  the  va- 
rious missionaries  by  name 

Catholic  Presbyterian'.  II,  326 

Catholic  World:  II,  311,  326 

Catlin,  George:  II,  96,  footnote;  work 
cited,  311;  paintings,  312 

Catlinite  (red  stone  used  for  making 
the  calumet) :  II,  96,  footnote,  199, 

Caton,  J.  D:  Antelope  and  deer  of 
America,  I,  44,  footnote,  no,  foot- 
note, II,  312 

Caughnawaga:  I,  241,  footnote 

Cayuga  [Goyogouans,  Goyogouins], 
(tribe  of  Iroquoian  confederacy) :  I, 
47,  footnote,  199,  350,  footnote 

Central  America:  I,  51,  footnote,  305, 
footnote,  323,  footnote,  II,  116,  foot- 

Chagouamigon  [Mamekagan]:  I,  269 
and  footnote 

Chakekenapok  (Potawatomi  mythical 
being) :  I,  284-285,  footnote,  II,  272 

Chamberlain,  A.  F:  I,  275,  footnote; 

quoted,  II,  241,  footnote;  work  cit- 
ed, 304,  305,  312 
Champigny,  M.  —  de:  II,  253 
Champlain,    Samuel    de    (founder    of 
Quebec) :  I,  26,  in  footnotes  on  the 
following  pages,  31,  40,  42,  51,  74, 
76,  83,  88,  89,  200,  302,  364;  quoted, 
47,  footnote 
Chaoiianonk:  I,  227 
Chaoiianons:  see  Shaivnees 
Characteristics,  Indian:  in  general,  I, 
144  and  footnote,  272,  291,  II,  67, 
135,     footnote,     284-286,     288-297; 
fickleness,  255;    fortitude,   209;   not 
dependable,    I,    260;    insubordinate, 
260-261;     moral     traits,      132-145; 
physical,     II,     236,     237,     footnote. 
Mental  —  II,    262-264;    traits,    262; 
power    of    recollection,    227 ;    time, 
220 ;  surprise  at  writing,  221 ;  arith- 
metic, 220;  incapable  of  chronologi- 
cal   calculations,    I,    40,    footnote; 
knowledge  slight,  II,  222 ;  of  camps, 
228.     See    Manners    and    customs; 
Burial  and  mourning  customs;  also 
names  of  principal  tribes 
Charlevoix,    Pierre    Frangois    Xavier 
de     (Jesuit     missionary     and     his- 
torian) :  I,  17,  29,  and  footnote,  II, 
249,  250,  252,  256,  302,  311,  and  in 
footnotes  on  the  following  pages,  I, 
31,  36,  40,  48,  63,  66,  74,  76,  83,  89, 
92,  95,  99,  101,  107,  124,  127,  153, 
155,    163,    164,    168,    176,   208,   223, 
233,  237,  242,  246,  257,  258,  262,  282, 
II,  66;  work  cited,  312 
Chase,  Levi  B:  work  cited,  II,  312 
Chasy,  M.  —  de   (nephew  of  M.  de 
Tracy) :     I,     200 ;     M.     de    Tracy 
grieves  at  death,  202 
Chauvignerie,  — :  II,  120,  footnote 
Cheboygan  (Chippewa  village) :  11,355 
Chequamegon    [Chagouamigon,    Cha- 
gouamikon]:  I,   224,   footnote,    165, 
footnote,  1 66,  168,  footnote,  170,  173, 
181,  187,  190,  footnote,  191,  footnote, 
307,  3»7 




Chequamegon  Bay:  I,  257,  footnote, 
293,  footnote,  302,  footnote 

Cherokee  (detached  tribe  of  Iroquian 
family) :  I,  118,  footnote,  331,  foot- 
note, II,  152,  footnote,  II,  201,  211, 
footnote;  relations  with  Shawnee,  I, 
335,  footnote 

Chesapeake  Bay:  I,  174,  footnote 

Chesneau,  M.  —  du:  I,  230;  opposes 
M.  de  Frontenac,  231;  recalled  to 
France,  231 

Chestnuts:  I,  116  and  footnote,  117 

Chevalet  (instrument  of  torture)  :  I, 
218,  footnote 

Cheveux-Releves  [Ondataouaouat], 
(tribe) :  I,  37,  footnote 

Cheyenne  (tribe  of  Algonquian  fam- 
ily) :  I,  185,  footnote,  277,  footnote, 
327,  II,  224,  footnote,  257,  282 

Chicago  (Illinois  chief) :  I,  349,  foot- 

Chicago  [Chekagou,  Chicagou,  Chi- 
gagon,  Chikagon],  (111.) :  I,  316, 
footnote,  365,  370,  II,  13,  16,  58,  64, 
84,  104,  121,  127,  128,  177,  200,  244, 
footnote,  281,  302,  304,  306,  307,  323, 

Chicago   Historical    Society:  II,    340; 

Collections,  312 
Chicago    Record    Herald:    quoted,    I, 

123,  footnote,  200,  footnote 
Chicago    [Chigagon]    River:    I,    349, 


Chichikatalo  (Miami):  II,  136 

Chickasaw  [Chickashaws],  (Muskho- 
gean  tribe) :  I,  336,  footnote,  II,  201 

Children:  naming,  I,  76-77,  II,  167- 
168,  210;  puberty,  II,  171,  footnote, 
172,  footnote,  237,  footnote,  267; 
training,  I,  78,  II,  164-165,  212; 
adoption,  213,  293;  orphans,  213- 
214;  illegitimate  uncommon,  216; 
announce  arrival  of  hunters,  I,  131; 
excused  from  mourning,  84;  protect- 
ed on  march,  I,  125 ;  Iroquois  spare, 

Childs,  Ebenezer:  work  cited,  II,  350 

Chile:  II,  152,  footnote 

China:  II,  218 

Chingouabe  (chief  of  Sauteurs) :  I, 
269  and  footnote 

Chingouessi  (Ottawa) :  II,  136 

Chipiapoos  (Potawatomi  mythical  be- 
ing) :  I,  284-287,  footnote 

Chipmunk:  bear  produces  stripes,  II, 

Chippewa  [Chipeways,  Chippewais, 
Odgiboweke,  Odjibewais,  Ojibwa, 
Otjibwek,  Pahouitingonach,  Saul- 
teurs,  Sauteurs] :  I,  109  and  footnote, 
157,  159,  179,  260,  269,  271,  304,  354, 
355,  II,  28,  30,  32,  54,  96,  113,  128, 
129,  131,  154,  184,  188,  190,  201,  203, 
204,  205,  219,  259,  287,  and  in  foot- 
notes on  the  following  pages,  I,  48, 
104,  108,  114,  1 1 6,  185,  244,  277,  279, 
281,  288,  291,  294,  301,  302,  325,  371, 
II,  17,  69,  116,  156,  189,  197,  224, 
226,  227,  228,  241,  278  ;  deriviation  of 
name,  I,  109,  footnote',  characteris- 
tics, 280;  burial  customs,  81,  foot- 
note; mourning  customs,  82,  foot- 
note; purchase  of  wife,  II,  167;  at 
Chequamegon,  I,  173 ;  Sauk  and 
Foxes  descend  from,  II,  183.  Eco- 
nomic conditions —  location,  I,  153, 
footnote,  II,  355;  industries  and  oc- 
cupations, I,  109,  275-276;  property 
rights,  II,  207,  footnote;  receive  an- 
nuity, 181,  footnote.  Wars -man- 
ner of  raising  war  party,  II,  161- 
162;  chief  advises  against  alliance 
with  English,  I,  352;  abandon  enter- 
prise, 211 ;  tomahawk  sent  to,  233; 
reported  destroyed,  357;  chief's 
daughter  held  as  slave,  358;  kill 
French,  259 ;  trouble  with  Foxes,  II, 
27;  against  Foxes  and  Mascoutens, 
112;  Miami  plan  attack,  120.  Re- 
lations with  Iroquois  —  defeat  Iro- 
quois, I,  153,  154,  footnote,  180-181, 
280-281;  capture  Iroquois,  335; 
wish  to  discontinue  war,  II,  90-91; 
receive  gifts,  90,  91 




Chiripinons:  see  Assiniboin 

Chittenden,  H.  M:  American  fur 
trade,  II,  151,  footnote 

Chiwere  (Siouan  group)  :  I,  277,  foot- 
note, 278,  footnote,  367,  footnote 

Choctaw  [Chactaw],  (tribe  of  Musk- 
hogean  stock)  :  I,  185,  footnote,  323, 
footnote,  II,  1 66,  footnote,  201 

Chouteau,  Auguste:  work  cited,  II, 

Christian  Journal:  II,  313 

Christians:  wrong  attitude  toward  In- 
dians, I,  19 

Cincinnati  Zoological  Gardens:  I,  305, 

Civilization:  progress,  I,  19;  to  in- 
crease, II,  179-180;  more  rapid 
among  Christianized,  294 

Civil  War:  II,  310 

Clans:  see  Gentes 

Clapin,  — :  I,  102,  footnote 

Clark,  George  Rogers:  Letters,  journal, 
etc.,  II,  313 ;  work  on,  cited,  337 

Clark,  W.  P:  work  cited,  II,  313 

Clark,  Gen.  Wm.  (U.S.  supt.  of  Indian 
affairs)  :  I,  14,  II,  137,  146  and  foot- 
note, 211,  footnote,  240,  245,  278, 
footnote,  II,  303,  320,  335,  350;  ig- 
norant of  council  fire,  189,  footnote', 
Papers,  313 

Clarke,  Peter  Dooyentate:  II,  189, 
footnote',  work  cited,  313 

Coates,  Dr.  B.  H:  II,  306 

Cockburn  Island:  I,  282,  footnote 

Coiracoentanon  [Kouivakouintanouas], 
(tribe)  :  I,  155,  footnote 

Colbert,  M.  de:  I,  228,  footnote,  229 

Colden,  Cadwallader:  II,  302;  History 
of  the  five  Indian  nations,  etc.,  313 

Coleson,  A:  work  cited,  II,  314 

Colton,  C:  work  cited,  II,  314 

Columbia  County  (Wis.) :  I,  323,  foot- 

Columbia  River:  I,  174,  footnote,  II, 
48,  footnote,  273 

Comanche  (tribe  of  Shoshonean 
group) :  I,  277,  footnote,  II,  282 

Commerce  and  trade:  see  ECONOMIC 

Company  of  the  West  Indies:  I,  230, 

Comstock,  C.  B:  I,  150,  footnote 

Conestogo  [Andastes],  (Iroquian 
tribe)  :  I,  336,  footnote;  location,  II, 
355;  Iroquois  wage  war  with,  I, 

Congres  International  des  American- 
istes:  work  cited,  II,  314 

Connecticut:  I,  267,  footnote;  New 
Haven,  II,  140,  footnote,  182 

Conspiracy:  against  coureurs  de  bois, 
I,  258,  footnote,  259  ;  against  French, 
351-352,  II,  17-18,  54,  65;  among 
Foxes,  Mascoutens,  and  Kickapoos, 
I,  245-249 ;  of  Hurons,  257  and  foot- 
note; of  Ottawa,  II,  44-53,  54,  60, 
61 ;  against  Ottawas,  I,  252-254;  be- 
tween Ottawas  and  Hurons,  164; 
against  Perrot,  II,  103 ;  of  Miami, 
I>  257,  footnote;  Miami  woman  dis- 
closes, 257,  footnote;  to  attack  Mi- 
ami, II,  54;  Jesuits  prevent,  I,  254 

Contemporary  Review:  II,  343 

Copway,  George:  II,  328;  work  cited, 


Cora,  Angelde:  II,  352 
Corlaer    [Corlar,    Corlard,    Corlart], 
Arendt  van:  I,  200;  use  of  name, 
200,  footnote 

Cornplanter  (Seneca  chief):  II,  310 
Coronado,  — :  II,  152,  footnote 
Coteau  des  Prairies:  II,  96,  footnote 
Coues,  Elliott:  work  cited,  II,  315 
Councils:  II,  179,  186,  187,  226,  237, 
238,    257,    258;   tribal,   259;    of   all 
tribes,  136;   league,  259;   called  by 
Jesuits,  49-50;  to  deliberate  on  cap- 
tives, 78;  peace,  41,  44;  ends  war, 
184;  Cree  attend,  I,  224;  of  Ottawa, 
Sauk,  Potawatomi,  II,  122;  regard- 
ing Iroquois  captive,  II,  49 ;  at  Sault 
Ste.  Marie,  I,  222-225 
Council  fires:  II,  145  ;  origin,  188  ;  loca- 
tion secret,  233;  members,  188 ;  ne- 




cessity  of  attending,  190;  belt,  188; 
Seneca,  I,  240,  footnote;  of  Dakota, 
II,  258 ;  at  Brownstown,  233 

Coureurs  de  bois:  I,  13,  15,  25,  259, 
footnote;  meaning  of  name,  25,  foot- 
note; account,  228-229,  footnote; 
Perrot,  26;  conspiracy  against,  258, 
footnote,  259;  profits,  228,  footnote; 
greed,  264,  footnote;  to  maintain 
peace,  244,  footnote;  trouble  with 
La  Salle's  men,  243,  footnote;  illegal 
traffic,  27,  footnote;  trade  in  brandy, 
208,  footnote;  see  Perrot,  Nicolas; 
Economic  Conditions:  trade 

Courcelles,  M.  —  de  (gov.-gen.) :  I, 
147  and  footnote,  198,  210,  307,  II, 
252;  marches  against  enemies,  I, 
199;  plans  fort,  226-227;  negotiates 
peace  between  Iroquois  and  Ottawa, 

Coursel,  M  — :  I,  341 

Courtemanche,  M.  —  de:  I,  256,  foot- 
note, 269,  footnote,  II,  254;  Journal, 
I,  259,  footnote 

Courtship:  I,  65,  footnote,  II,  214; 
among  Algonkins,  I,  67-68;  among 
Sauk  and  Foxes,  II,  165 

Cows:  II,  179 

Cradle:  I,  77 

Crane:  I,  114;  origin  of  man,  37; 
April  named  for,  II,  116 

Cree  [Kilistinons,  Kiristinons,  Kristi- 
naux],  (Algonquian  tribe) :  I,  47, 
footnote,  107-108,  footnote,  233,  foot- 
note, 281,  footnote,  364,  footnote, 
371,  footnote,  II,  33,  241,  footnote, 
257;  sun-worshipers,  I,  60,  footnote; 
mission  to,  224,  footnote ;  method  of 
hunting  moose,  107-108 ;  attend 
council,  224;  abandon  enterprise, 
211 ;  believe  Nipissing,  340-341; 
friendly  relations  with  Assiniboin, 
108,  footnote;  Sioux  war  against, 

Creeks  (tribe  of  Muskhogean  family) : 
I,  65,  footnote;  II,  291 

Cremation:  I,  81,  footnote 

Crespel,  E:  work  cited,  II,  350 
Creuse  River:  I,  176,  footnote,  177,  203 
Crimes:  avoided,  II,  280;  confession, 
292;  investigation,  I,  205-206;  il- 
legal traffic,  27,  footnote.  Adul- 
tery—II,  214;  permitted,  I,  144; 
concubinage,  II,  197;  punished,  I, 
65,  footnote,  II,  167;  caused  by  in- 
temperance, I,  208,  footnote;  by 
coureurs  de  bois,  229,  footnote. 
Stealing -I,  138-139,  204-208,  II,  33, 
187;  unknown,  II,  286;  plot,  65; 
causes  trouble  in  Montreal,  I,  214; 
from  French,  II,  119-120.  Murder  — 

I,  137,  139,  144,  145,  footnote,  146, 
*57>  270,  271,  354,  II,  209;  atone- 
ment,    186-187;     uncommon,     286; 
caused    by    intemperance,    I,    209, 
footnote;  for  plunder,  204-206,  207- 
210;  of  Algonkins  by  Iroquois,  46; 
of  French,  307,  II,  26,  58;  of  Iro- 
quois by  Algonkins,  I,  45  ;  by  French, 
204-206,   207-210;   of  Pontiac,   296, 
footnote;  Seneca  slow  to  abolish,  I, 
240,  footnote;  of  Sioux  by  Hurons, 
163.    See  Punishment;  Vices 

Croghan,  George :  Letters,  etc.,  II,  346 
Crow  (Siouan  tribe)  :  I,  278,  footnote 
Culin,  Stewart:  II,  309,  315 
Culture  Hero:  II,  208,  footnote 
Cumberland  River:  I,  336,  footnote 
Cumberland  Valley:  I,  336,  footnote 
Curlew:  I,  114  and  footnote 
Curtis,  Edward  S:  work  cited,  II,  315 
Curtis,  Natalie:  work  cited,  II,  315 
Curtis,  Wm.  E:  I,   123,  footnote 
Gushing,  Frank  H:  I,  325,  footnote 
Cusick,   David    (Tuscarora   Indian): 

II,  307 

Cutler,  Jervis:  work  cited,  II,  315 

DABEAU,  — -  (Frenchman):  kills  and 
captures  Iroquois,  II,  92 

Dablon,  Claude  (Jesuit  missionary) : 
I,  16,  223,  footnote,  304,  footnote, 
367,  footnote,  II,  252;  signs  paper, 
I,  224 ;  brief  account,  224,  footnote 




Dakota  [Nadouaichs,  Nadouaissioux, 
Nadouechiouek,  Nadoiiessis,  Nadou- 
essioux,  Poualaks,  Scioux,  Sioux], 
(largest  division  of  Siouan  family)  : 

I,  1 8,  27,  159-160,  269,  292-293,  327, 
344,  356,  358,  365,  37°,  372,  II,  27, 
54,  55,  61,  64,  73,  74,  109,  113,  126, 
184,  201,  205,  247,  284,  and  in  foot- 
notes on  following  pages,  I,  66,  104, 
124,  144,  155,  244,  269,  278,  292,  296, 
302,  306,  364,  371,  II,  17,  76,  77,  96, 

116,  191,   193,   216,   226,   228,   229; 
location,  I,  160,  footnote,  277,  foot- 
note,   278,    footnote',    personal    ap- 
pearance, II,  32;  characteristics,  I, 
160-161,    footnote,    169,   II,    31    and 
footnote,  32,  284-287;  early  religious 
belief,  284;  lodges,  I,  161,  footnote; 
canoes,  171,  footnote;  dressing  skins, 

II,  166,  footnote;  burial  customs,  I, 
81,  footnote;  alliance,  277;  alliance 
against,  II,  356;  Ferrot  sets  out  to, 
I,  243,  footnote;  entertain  Perrot,  II, 
31;    return   calumet,    73;    refuse   to 
make  peace,  71-72 ;  council  fire,  258 ; 
have  priest's  breviary  and  cossack, 
I,  173;  chief  liberates  captives,  187; 
hostile  relations,  108,  footnote.    Re- 
lations with  —  Chippewa,  I,  109  and 
footnote;  Foxes,  II,  34-35,  56,  63-64, 
68-69,  IOI»  II3t>  I12»  XI4,  I2<5;  HU' 
rons,  I,  163,  167-168,  187,  II,  32-33 ; 
Mascoutens,   97,    112;    Miami,    100, 

117,  131;   Ottawa,  I,  164-165,   188, 
189;  Sauk,  II,  in 

Dances:  II,  87,  158-161,  footnote,  282, 
footnote;  enumerated,  161,  footnote; 
at  feast,  I,  338 ;  planned  for  guests, 
296,  II,  292 ;  in  country  of  dead,  I, 
91;  give  possessions  away  at,  II, 
285  ;  to  celebrate  winning  of  wager, 
i,  102 ;  at  adoption,  84.  Enumer- 
ated—buffalo,  II,  230;  calumet,  I, 
182,  footnote,  311;  ghost,  278,  foot- 
note, II,  270,  273,  335;  at  feast  of 
dead,  I,  86-87;  green  bean,  II,  291; 
green  corn,  291;  medicine,  230-231, 

277 ;  otter,  230 ;  pipe  and  tomahawk 
(illustration),  I,  235;  powou,  II, 
291 ;  religious,  278,  291 ;  scalp,  26, 
footnote,  158-161;  sun,  269;  of 
thanksgiving,  291;  war,  I,  233,  II, 

Davenport,  George:  II,  153 

Davidson,  Alexander:  work  cited,  II, 

Davidson,  J.  N:  work  cited,  II,  316 

Davis,  Andrew  M:  work  cited,  II,  316 

Davis,  E.  H:  see  Squter,  E.  G.,  II,  344 

Dearborn,  Henry:  II,  312 

Deer    (name  of  Sauk  clan)  :  II,   191, 


Deer:  I,  109  and  footnote,  123,  127, 
278,  283,  304,  317,  II,  29,  165,  168, 
213,  220,  234;  December  named  for, 
116;  used  as  sacrifice,  I,  61,  foot- 
note; insignia,  347,  II,  120,  footnote 

Delaware  [Delewars],  (confederacy 
of  Algonquian  stock)  :  I,  364,  II,  54, 
footnote,  145,  156,  footnote,  188,  259; 
location,  I,  336,  footnote,  II,  355; 
marriage  customs,  I,  65,  footnote; 
tradition,  335,  footnote 

Delaware    (state) :   II,   224,    footnote, 


Delaware  River:  I,  335,  footnote,  336, 
footnote,  II,  355 

Dellenbaugh,  Frederick  S :  work  cited, 
II,  3i6 

Denonville,  Marquis  de  (gov.  of 
Canada)  :  I,  26,  147-148  and  foot- 
note, 255,  259,  footnote,  261,  foot- 
note, 262,  footnote,  II,  16,  22,  27, 
35,  44,  58,  152,  footnote,  253;  suc- 
ceeds M.  de  la  Barre,  I,  243  ;  arrives 
at  Quebec,  243,  footnote;  orders 
Perrot  to  return,  244;  orders  from, 
251;  campaign  against  Iroquois, 
243-252;  offers  peace  to  Iroquois, 
252 ;  captives  sent  to,  II,  41 ;  re- 
called to  France,  45 ;  quoted,  I,  244, 
footnote,  250,  footnote,  259,  footnote, 

II,  255 
Densmore,  Frances:  work  cited,  II,  316 




De  pere  Rapids    (Sauk  village) :  II, 

Des  Moines  River:  II,  142,  footnote, 

147,  148,  200,  201,  211,  footnote,  233, 


Detroit  (Mich.) :  I,  149,  250,  258,  261, 
270,  271,  II,  29,  146,  201,  278,  309, 
346,  and  in  footnotes  on  following 
pages,  I,  153,  189,  256,  280,  316,  329, 
351,  II,  108,  140,  150,  184,  189,  244; 
plot  against,  I,  257,  footnote 
Detroit  River:  I,  237  and  footnote 
Devils:  recognized  as  divinities,  I,  48 
Dhegiha  (Siouan  group) :  I,  278,  foot- 
note, II,  36,  footnote 
Dillon,  John  B:  work  cited,  II,  316 
Dionne,  C.  E:  I,  308,  footnote 
Disease:   II,   218-219;    common,   294; 
epidemic,  I,  354;  sacrifice  to  avoid, 
62,  footnote ;  ceremony  in  connection 
with,  II,  218-219,  footnote,  219;  pro- 
tection  sought   from,  268;   cure,   I, 
133,  footnote,  II,  234;  causes  great 
mortality,  I,  242,  293,  340,  341,  II, 
37,   footnote,   314;   causes  death  of 
chief,  I,  269   and  footnote;   among 
Mascoutens,    II,    58;    smallpox,    I, 
108,  footnote,  364,  footnote,  367,  foot- 
note, II,  280 

District  of  Columbia :  Georgetown,  II, 
150,    footnote,    182,    footnote;    see 
Divorce:  I,   303,  II,  215;   infrequent, 

167,  288 ;  for  just  cause,  I,  64-65 
Documentary  History   of  New   York: 

I,  200,  footnote 

Dodge,  Charles  R:  work  cited,  II,  316 
Dodge,  Richard  Irving:  II,  316 
Dog :  II,  129,  275 ;  used  as  comparison, 
I,  333,  II,  17,  40,  72,  80,  215,  226; 
feasts,  I,  53,  87,  II,  125,  292;  Sioux 
do  not  eat,  I,  169 ;  peaceable,  II, 
280;  scent  enemy,  I,  180;  dislike 
Indians,  II,  103 ;  symbol  in  dream, 
I,  356;  sacrificed,  60  and  footnote, 
61,  footnote,  II,  272.  Uses  —  draw- 
ing sleds,  etc.,  I,  278,  footnote;  hunt- 

ing, 108 ;  pack-beast,  173,  footnote; 
to  watch  near  grave,  II,  293 

Donaldson,  Thomas:  work  cited,  II, 

Dongan,  —  (Dutch  governor)  :  I,  200, 

Doolittle,  J.  R:  II,  314 

Dorman,  Rushton  M:  work  cited,  II, 

Dorsey,  George  A:  quoted,  II,  86 

Dorsey,  J.  Owen:  I,  185,  footnote,  289, 
footnote;  quoted,  I,  367-368,  foot- 
note; work  cited,  II,  309,  317 

Doty  Island  (Winnebago  village) :  II, 

Douglas  County  (Wis.) :  I,  279,  foot- 

Dousman,  Hercules  L:  work  cited,  II, 

Drake,  Benjamin:  work  cited,  II,  317 

Drake,  Francis  S:  work  cited,  II,  317 

Drake,  Samuel  G:  work  cited,  II,  317 

Draper,  Lyman  C:  II,  151,  footnote, 
313,  345,  349,  35o;  quoted,  153,  foot- 

Dreams:  see  Beliefs  and  superstitions 

Dreuillette,  Gabriel  (Jesuit) :  I,  157, 
footnote,  165,  footnote,  224;  brief  ac- 
count, 224,  footnote 

Dubuque,  Julien:  II,  59,  footnote 

Ducks:  I,  114,  304,  II,  165 

Du  Lhut  [Du  Lhude],  M.  — :  I,  244, 

Dunn,  Jacob  P:  Indiana,  II,  38,  foot- 
note, 318 

Dutch:  I,  226,  footnote 

Du  Tisne,  — :  II,  108,  footnote 

EAGLE  (name  of  Sauk  clan) :  II,  163, 
191,  footnote,  211 ;  marking  of 
graves,  212 

Eames,  Wilberforce:  II,  357;  quoted, 

Eastman,  Charles  A:  work  cited,  II, 


Eastman,  Mary  H:  work  cited,  II,  318 
Eastman,  Capt.  S.,  U.S.A:  II,  318,  342 




ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS:  in  general  — I, 
282-283 ;  to  improve,  II,  179 ;  chosen 
localities,  261;  of  Foxes,  I,  318-319; 
of  Hurons,  283 ;  of  Potawatomi,  II, 
294;  of  Winnebago,  I,  289,  footnote, 
II,  297,  298;  factory  system,  I,  17, 
II,  150-151,  176-178 

CLOTHING-!,  114,  126,  II,  166, 
footnote,  172-173,  206,  footnote,  217, 
footnote,  223,  261;  skins,  I,  38,  264; 
of  civilized  Potawatomi,  II,  294; 
Indian  to  discard  whiteman's,  277; 
of  widows  in  mourning,  I,  70 ;  mak- 
ing>  77>  footnote}  embroidered,  328, 
footnote,  II,  235,  footnote',  first 
snow-shoe,  I,  39,  footnote',  gift,  134, 
footnote,  194;  as  sacrifice,  61,  foot- 

FOOD  — I,  115-119,  179,  182,  229, 
footnote,  237,  246,  309,  316,  326,  368- 
369,  372,  II,  33,  67,  130,  196,  206, 
213,  227,  228-229,  footnote,  261; 
preparation,  I,  113,  115-118,  115, 
footnote,  116,  footnote,  123,  II,  29; 
various  kinds,  I,  102-103,  I27>  fign 
abundant,  367,  footnote',  fruits,  279, 
footnote,  282;  meat,  283;  wild  rice 
[wild  oats],  103  and  footnote', 
capacity,  II,  237,  footnote',  greed,  I, 
280 ;  restrictions,  II,  277 ;  favorite,  I, 
102;  Indians  first,  38;  distribution 
of  game,  124;  at  feast,  53;  as  gift, 
68,  71;  as  sacrifice,  61,  footnote',  for 
captives,  II,  83;  for  strangers,  I, 
*33-*34»  H»  29;  on  trading  expedi- 
tions, I,  229,  footnote;  in  country  of 
dead,  91;  French  supply,  II,  19; 
near  grave,  209;  of  bears,  I,  127; 
see  Feasts;  Fish;  Game 

FUEL  — I,  124-125,  162,  footnote 

general'.  I,  76,  footnote,  102;  out- 
lined, 39-40;  duties  of  men,  I,  74-75, 
II,  216-217,  217,  footnote;  of  women, 
I,  75-76;  of  Ottawa,  282,  footnote; 
of  Siouan  tribes,  278,  footnote;  of 
Winnebago,  289,  footnote,  II,  298. 

Agriculture -I,  41,  43,  75,  109,  no, 
113,  119,  161,  footnote,  173,  257, 
footnote,  278,  footnote,  279-280,  foot- 
note, 282,  footnote,  289,  footnote,  304, 
319,  322,  367,  II,  148,  151  and  foot- 
note, 190,  footnote,  217  and  footnote, 
261;  products,  I,  102,  113;  fruits, 
279,  footnote,  282;  among  Hurons, 
192-193,  II,  206-207,  footnote.  Fish- 
ing-I,  69,  70,  72,  74,  106-113,  173, 
179,  280,  286,  287,  289,  footnote,  304, 
305,  339,  footnote,  343~344»  II,  191* 
footnote;  women  ignorant  of,  I,  237; 
method  among  Chippewa,  275-276, 
276,  footnote;  products,  282.  Hunt- 
ing-I,  41,  43,  69,  70,  72,  74,  106- 
"3,  "5,  179,  194,  203,  211,  221,  249, 
278,  footnote,  280,  289,  footnote,  304, 
322,  337,  339,  368,  footnote,  372,  II, 
14,  67,  68,  109,  no,  113,  114,  122, 

130,  148-149,  152,  191,  footnote,  212, 
260,  261;   method,  I,   106-113,   119- 

131,  304  and  footnote,  366-367,  II, 
262;  bears,  I,  126-131;  beaver,  104- 
106,  365,  368-369;  buffalo,  119-126; 
caribou,    106-107 ;    moose,    107-108 ; 
products,  109;  martial  law,  II,  163- 
164,  258;  weapons  and  tools,  I,  331; 
return,  II,  227;  soldiers  accompany 
Iroquois,    I,    204;    origin,    38;    boys 
learn,  78,  II,  165;  ceremony  attend- 
ing hunts,  262 ;  expedition,  I,  43-45 ; 
traders  dependant  on,  227,  footnote;